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Legion of Mary

The Legion of Mary is an international association of members of the Roman Catholic Church who serve it on a voluntary basis. It was founded in Dublin, as a Roman Catholic Marian Movement by the layman and civil servant Frank Duff. Today and auxiliary members make up a total of over 10 million members worldwide, making it the largest apostolic organisation of lay people in the Catholic Church. Membership is highest in South Korea, Brazil and the Democratic Republic of Congo, which each have between 250,000 and 500,000 members. Membership is open to those who believe in its teaching, its stated mission is for active members to serve God under the banner of Mary by the corporal and spiritual works of Mercy, as mentioned in Chapter 33 of the Legion of Mary Handbook. The main apostolate of the Legion is activities directed towards Catholics and non-Catholics encouraging them in their faith or inviting them to become Catholic; this is done by encouraging them in prayer, attending Mass and learning more about the Catholic faith.

The members of the Legion are engaged in the performance of spiritual works of mercy, rather than works of material aid. The Legion of Mary was founded by Frank Duff on 7 September 1921 at Myra House, Francis Street, in Dublin, his idea was to help Catholic lay people fulfil their baptismal promises to be able to live their dedication to the Church in an organised structure, which would be supported by fraternity and prayer. The Legion draws its inspiration from Louis de Montfort's book True Devotion to Mary; the Legion first started out by visiting women with cancer in hospitals, but it soon became active among the most destitute, notably among Dublin prostitutes. Duff subsequently laid down the system of the Legion in the Handbook of the Legion of Mary in 1928; the Legion soon spread around the world. At first, it was met with mistrust because of its then-unusual dedication to lay apostolate. After Pope Pius XI praised it in 1931, the Legion had its mistrust quelled. Most prominent for spreading the legion was Edel Quinn for her activities in Africa in the 1930s and the 1940s.

Her dedication to the mission of the legion in the face of her ill health brought her great admiration inside and outside the legion. A canonisation process is under way for the legendary Quinn, a beatification process is underway for Duff, for Alfie Lambe, Legion Envoy to South America. Membership in Ireland had been declining, but the Concilium's efforts to attract younger by the Deus et Patria movement has caused a substantial increase in membership. On 27 March 2014, the Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, Bishop Josef Clemens, delivered the decree in which the Legion is recognised by the Holy See as International Association of the Faithful; the basic unit of the Legion is called a Praesidium, based in a parish. The Praesidium a group of 3–20 members, meets weekly in its parish; the Curia is each supervising several Praesidia. The next level is the Comitium, in charge of several Curiae over an area like a medium city or a part of a province; the next level is the Regia, in charge of larger territories like a province or state.

The Senatus is the next level, it has control over the Regiae in a large area a country or a large territory. T The Concilium has its seat in Dublin, it has control over the whole Legion. Each level of the Legion has the same officers: the President, the Vice-President, the Secretary, the Treasurer, the Spiritual Director; the last is always in the clergy. All positions regardless of responsibility are voluntary and the Legion as no paid workers. Membership is open to all baptised Catholics. After visiting a Praesidium a few times, one can join the legion as a probationary member for three months. A decision is made on whether to join the legion as an active member permanently. During the probationary period, probationary members learn about the legion system by reading the Handbook of the Legion of Mary and its active works by listening to reports of active works undertaken by fellow legionaries. At the end of probationary period, members say an oath of "Legion promise", a pledge of allegiance to the Holy Spirit and to Mary, become apermanent active members.

Membership in the Legion of Mary is based on discipline and commitment. Members devote their prayer for the intentions of Mary, Mother of God. Members can withdraw from the Legion by informing the president of her praesidium; the Legion of Mary consists of two totally-different memberships and the auxiliary members. Both are essential to the Legion: "Just as a bird cannot fly without one wing, so the Legion cannot exist without any of the other members," said Ráinel Lobo of Mumbai, India. Active members attend the weekly sessions of their Praesidium and pray daily the prayer of the Legion, the Catena Legionis, which consists of the Magnificat and some shorter prayers, their main role lies in active apostolate for the church. Active members under 18 are not allowed to give the "Legion promise" until that age, they may hold any office except President in their Praesidium. Above the level of the Praesidium, no Junior may serve as an officer. Auxiliary members support the legion through their prayer.

They pray the whole booklet of the Tessera, every day. The Tessera consists of the Invocation, prayers to the Holy Spirit, the Rosary, the Catena, the concluding prayers of the Tessera. Praetorian

Jan Gruter

Jan Gruter or Gruytère, Latinized as Janus Gruterus, was a Flemish-born philologist and librarian. Jan Gruter was born in Antwerp, his father was Wouter Gruter, a merchant and city administrator of Antwerp, his mother was Catharina Tishem from Norwich in England. To avoid religious persecution in the early stages of the Eighty Years' War, his parents emigrated to England while he was a child. For some years he studied at Caius College, after which he went to Leiden. In 1584 he obtained the degree of doctor iuris, he left the Netherlands and commenced a period of travel that brought him to France, Italy and to North and East Germany. His neo-Latin poems are published in Heidelberg at this time. In 1590, Gruter was appointed professor of history at the University of Wittenberg; as a Calvinist, he refused to subscribe to the formula concordiae, the authoritative Lutheran statement of faith, lost his position as a result in 1592. From 1589 to 1592, he taught at Rostock, after which he went to Heidelberg, where in 1602 he was appointed librarian to the university.

He died at Heidelberg. Gruter's chief works were: Inscriptiones antiquae totius orbis Romani Lampas, sive fax artium liberalium. Bibliography Baynes, T. S.. R. eds.. "Gruter, Jan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. P. 226. "Gruter, Janus". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. Fuchs, Peter. "Gruter, Jan". Neue Deutsche Biographie. 7. Pp. 238–240. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gruter, Jan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 641

History of Johannesburg

Johannesburg is a large city in Gauteng Province of South Africa. It was established as a small village controlled by a Health Committee in 1886 with the discovery of an outcrop of a gold reef on the farm Langlaagte; the population of the city grew becoming a municipality in 1897. In 1928 it became a city making Johannesburg the largest city in South Africa. In 2002 it joined ten other municipalities to form the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality. Today, it is a centre for entertainment for all of Africa, it is the capital city of Gauteng. The region surrounding Johannesburg was inhabited by San people, they were hunter-gatherers. There is evidence. By the 13th century, groups of Bantu-speaking people started moving southwards from central Africa and encroached on the indigenous San population. Stone-walled ruins of Sotho–Tswana towns and villages are scattered around the parts of the former Transvaal in which Johannesburg is situated. Many of these sites contain the ruins of Sotho–Tswana mines and iron smelting furnaces, suggesting that the area was being exploited for its mineral wealth before the arrival of Europeans or the discovery of gold.

The most prominent site within Johannesburg is Melville Koppies, which contains an iron smelting furnace. After the Great Trek European pastoralists started settling in the Transvaal; some of them chose to farm. Each burgher was entitled to at least one farm, measuring about 3100 acres; the first recorded discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand was made by Jan Gerrit Bantjes in June 1884, on the farm Vogelstruisfontein. Other farms to become famous included Langlaagte, Turffontein and Braamfontein. George Harrison is today credited as the man who discovered an outcrop of the Main Reef of gold on the farm Langlaagte in February 1886. On 12 May 1886 Harrison and his partner, George Walker, entered into a prospecting agreement with the owner of Langlaagte, one G. C. Oosthuizen. Two days Colonel Ignatius Ferreira staked out his camp on Turffontein to serve as a centre for diggers. Louwrens Geldenhuys found the Main Reef on Henry Nourse located it on Doornfontein. On 8 September 1886 nine farms, extending from Driefontein in the east to Roodepoort in the west, were declared public diggings Carl von Brandis was appointed as the mining commissioner for the area.

On 8 November 1886 a diggers' committee was elected to assist the mining commissioner in the execution of his duties. The earliest mining activities were concentrated along and adjacent to the outcrops of the main reef; the diggers could perform the work themselves, using little equipment. As the pits grew deeper, they needed machinery. Black Africans were recruited to perform the unskilled work. Machinery had to be imported from Europe and fuel had to be found to power the machinery; the discovery of coal on the far east Rand at Springs and Boksburg, as well as the construction of the Rand Steam Tram from the colliery to the gold fields and into Johannesburg facilitated the growth of the industry in its early years. Soon, the railway arrived from the coast: in September 1892 the Cape railway reached the Rand. Two years the line from Lourenço Marques arrived in the Republic and a third route was opened from Durban the next year. In 1890 the MacArthur-Forrest cyanidation process overcame the problems of treating the refractory ore from deeper levels.

It soon became apparent that individual diggers were not equal to the task of mining gold in Johannesburg. Wealth could only be recovered by means of deep-shaft working and by capital-intensive companies having the necessary technical skills. Individual claims were soon joined into small mining groups; the amalgamation of smaller mining groups became a common occurrence and by 1895 the scene was dominated by a limited number of large monopolistic companies. These companies were: the Wernher-Beit-Eckstein group, Consolidated Goldfields, the J B Robinson group, the S. Neumann group, the Albu group, the A Goerz group, the Anglo-French group and the Lewis-Marks group. Of these, Cecil John Rhodes's Consolidated Goldfields was the most important. In 1893 Johannesburg's first stock exchange was opened. From until today Johannesburg has been the seat of the South African stock exchange and the country's financial heartland; the Johannesburg Stock Exchange is presently in Johannesburg. The Zuid-Afrikaansche Republic became the single biggest gold producer in the world, with a contribution of 27,5 percent in 1898.

The fledgling town of Johannesburg was laid out on a triangular wedge of "uitvalgrond" named Randjeslaagte, situated between the farms Doornfontein to the east, Braamfontein to the west and Turffontein to the south. The property belonged to the government; the Surveyor-General of the ZAR issued an instruction that the farm be surveyed as a township, consisting of 600 stands measuring fifty feet by fifty feet. The first auction of stands took place on 8 December 1886; the settlement was named after two officials of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, Christiaan Johannes Joubert and Johannes Rissik, who both worked in land surveying and mapping. The two men combined the name they shared, adding'burg', the archaic Afrikaans word for'fortified city'. Early in 1887 the inhabitants started petitioning the government to proclaim a town council for the area. In November 1887 a proclamation was issued instituting a health committee, its area was defined as "the place Johannesburg, including the stands known as Marshall Town and Ferreira's Town".

The committee's authority extended fo

Posani Krishna Murali

Posani Krishna Murali is an Indian screenwriter, actor and producer who works in Telugu cinema. He directed a number of films. In 2009, he contested in Andhra Pradesh state legislative assembly elections from Chilakaluripet constituency but lost the elections. Posani Krishna Murali was born on 22 January 1958 in Pedakakani, Andhra Pradesh, his father Posani Subba Rao worked as a small-time employee in Pedakakani and his mother was a housewife. He has a younger sister Prameela, he has a younger brother Posani Amar Bhosale. Growing up, Murali's family struggled financially and his father was not educated and wanted Murali to study well so that he could have a better life. Murali did his schooling in a small village in Guntur district and went on to do his B. Com, he joined Acharya Nagarjuna University in Guntur and graduated with an M. A degree. During his time in Nagarjuna University, he was elected as the general secretary for the student body. After completing his Masters, he worked in a small chit fund company in Hyderabad.

He was offered a job in Margadarsi Chit Fund. After a year of working there, he went back to Guntur. Murali and distressed after his father's untimely death, went to Chennai to find work. With no friends in Chennai, Murali asked him for work. Gopal Krishna gave him an opportunity to work as an assistant under him. Murali joined Presidency College and graduated with a M. Phil degree, his second master's degree, he wanted to obtain a PhD degree. Although he joined a college to do so, he discontinued his studies because of his work, he joined as an assistant writer under the writing duo Paruchuri Brothers. While he was still working under them and pursuing his M. Phil degree in Madras, Ram Gopal Varma asked him to write dialogues for one of his films. Murali declined the offer and told Ram Gopal Varma that he still had a lot to learn from the Paruchuri Brothers and he wasn't ready to take up a film on his own. Murali worked for five years under the Paruchuri Brothers assisting them in over 100 films. In 1992, he quit as assistant writer to further his career.

He played a small cameo role in the 1992 Telugu film Dharma Kshetram. He landed a job of writing story and dialogues for the film Police Brothers under the direction of Mohan Gandhi. Ram Gopal Varma gave him an opportunity to write dialogues for his 1993 film Gaayam. Varma recommended Murali to Akkineni Nagarjuna, which led him to write for the film Rakshana, he was given a breakthrough opportunity to write for Chiranjeevi's Alluda Majaka directed by E. V. V. Satyanarayana, he wrote the story and screenplay for the film. He continued working in successful films such as Pavithra Bandham, Preminchukundam Raa, Gokulamlo Seetha, Sivayya and Master. In 1999, he worked as a writer for the highest by any Telugu writer in that year. In 2000, he worked as a writer for nine films. In 2001, while still busy as a writer, he began his acting career with Srihari's Evadra Rowdy for which he wrote the story and screenplay. In 2002, his second film as an actor Gemini starring Venkatesh was released; the same year saw Murali in Mahesh Babu's Bobby, directed by Sobhan.

Although the film was a failure at the boxoffice, Murali's performance in the film was praised. He continued to appear in films such as Bhadradi Ramudu, he continued writing for films such as Orey Thammudu, Simhachalam, Bhadradi Ramudu, Palanati Brahmanaidu, Tiger Harish Chandra Prasad and Gemini. After writing for about one hundred and fifty Telugu films, Posani Krishna Murali decided to direct a film, he established. In 2005, he wrote and produced Sraavanamasam starring Krishna, Suman, Vijaya Nirmala, Keerthi Chawla and Gajala. Although the film had a big star cast and more than sixty character artists which included comedians and artists of Telugu cinema like Brahmanandam, Kota Srinivasa Rao, Krishna Bhagavaan, Tanikella Bharani, Giri Babu, Dharmavarapu Subramanyam, Venu Madhav, L. B. Sriram, M. S. Narayana, Mallikarjuna Rao, AVS, Ali and Babu Mohan, the film was a failure at the box office and Murali's direction was criticised. Murali incurred heavy losses financially due to the failure of this film.

Post Sravaanamasam, he acted in films such as Athadu and Munna. In 2006, he began working on his next directorial venture, he approached Telugu actor Srikanth to play a lead role in the film. Impressed by the script, Srikanth agreed to do the film and Murali secured a producer for the project; the film was a political satire and was titled Operation Duryodhana and was released in 2007. The film was successful at the box office earning nearly ten times its budget. Murali's direction was praised by the critics, he continued to direct films such as Apadamokkulavadu, Mental Krishna, Rajavari Chepala Cheruvu, Posani Gentleman and Dushasana. He began acting in lead roles in films such as Mental Krishna, Rajavari Chepala Cheruvu and Posani Gentleman, he has been playing supporting roles in prominent Telugu films, with his latest being the 2018 film MLA. Bathuku jataka bandi Zee Telugu Gangstars Amazon Video Posani Krishna Murali on IMDb

Dimitris Tziotis

Dimitris Tziotis was a Panhellenic Socialist Movement mayoral candidate for Vouliagmeni in Athens and an entrepreneur. Dimitris is a Political Science and Business Administration degree holder, majoring in International Relations and Marketing Management respectively, his post-graduate degree specializes in Olympic Studies. At the age of 25 he was awarded a mid career Masters of Arts from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, 1995, he is the President and CEO of Cleverbank, a strategy consultancy in Greece, awarded by the European Union as the best new enterprise for the year 2000. He is the CEO of three tourism and development groups: Design Resorts, Riviera Greece and My Island. Furthermore, he established the future energy organization Green Tank. Dimitris managed the successful Campaign of the Greek candidacy for bringing the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. After that, he created the concept "Celebrate Humanity" for the International Olympic Committee, which ran for 8 years in 180 countries.

He developed the strategy for the Cultural Olympiad Organization and Olympic Truce, an institution aiming at ceasefire during the Olympic Games, a resolution voted for, by the record number of 202 member states of the United Nations Organization. He was the first to introduce the need for branding Greece for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, while he designed the global national tourism campaign, he has provided strategic advisory to the Ministries of Culture, Public Administration, Education, Health and the Cities of Athens and Ancient Olympia. In the International political arena, Dimitris advised for the election campaign of Romano Prodi that led to his triumph against Silvio Berlusconi in the 2006 Elections in Italy. Furthermore, as an associate of Demos Think Tank, he contributed to the introduction of Third Way into Politics. Moreover, he created the strategy for the 35th Reign Anniversary of HM Sultan Qaboos in Oman, he is the author of Macedonia-the Greek Foreign Policy 1994, International Olympic Academy 1997, Hellas Trademark 2003, New Greece 2008 and Green Change 2009,ISBN 978-960-8386-82-2.

His work has been awarded by the European Union, the Archbishop of Athens and Greece, the Greek Social Responsibility Organization, the Greek Advertising Association, Athens College, the American College of Greece and the Athens 2004 Olympic Games Organizing Committee. For his overall contribution to the successful organization of the Olympic Games, he has been awarded with the Medal of the City of Athens. Cleverbank.com

Grammy Award for Best Rock Album

The Grammy Award for Best Rock Album is an award presented at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony, established in 1958 and called the Gramophone Awards, to recording artists for quality albums in the rock music genre. Honors in several categories are presented at the ceremony annually by The Recording Academy of the United States to "honor artistic achievement, technical proficiency and overall excellence in the recording industry, without regard to album sales or chart position"; the award for Best Rock Album was first presented to the band The Rolling Stones in 1995, the name of the category has remained unchanged since then. According to the category description guide for the 52nd Grammy Awards, the award is presented to "vocal or instrumental rock, hard rock or metal albums containing at least 51% playing time of newly recorded material". Since 1996, award recipients have included the producers, and/or mixers associated with the nominated work in addition to the recording artists; the band Foo Fighters holds the record for the most wins in this category, with four.

Two-time winners include Sheryl Crow, Green Day, U2, Cage the Elephant, Muse. Foo Fighters and Neil Young hold the record for the most nominations, with six. Young holds the record for the most nominations without a win. ^ Each year is linked to the article about the Grammy Awards held that year. General Specific Official site of the Grammy Awards