SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Legislation

Legislation is law, promulgated by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it. Before an item of legislation becomes law it may be known as a bill, may be broadly referred to as "legislation", while it remains under consideration to distinguish it from other business. Legislation can have many purposes: to regulate, to authorize, to outlaw, to provide, to sanction, to grant, to declare or to restrict, it may be contrasted with a non-legislative act, adopted by an executive or administrative body under the authority of a legislative act or for implementing a legislative act. Under the Westminster system, an item of primary legislation is known as an Act of Parliament after enactment. Legislation is proposed by a member of the legislature, or by the executive, where upon it is debated by members of the legislature and is amended before passage. Most large legislatures enact only a small fraction of the bills proposed in a given session. Whether a given bill will be proposed is a matter of the legislative priorities of government.

Legislation is regarded as one of the three main functions of government, which are distinguished under the doctrine of the separation of powers. Those who have the formal power to create legislation are known as legislators; the function and procedures are the responsibility of the legislature. However, there are situations where legislation is made by other bodies or means, such as when constitutional law or secondary legislation is enacted; such other forms of law-making include orders in council or regulations. The term legislation is sometimes used to include these situations, or the term primary legislation may be used to exclude these other forms. All modern constitutions and fundamental laws contain and declare the concept and principle of popular sovereignty, which means that the people are the ultimate source of public power or government authority; the concept of popular sovereignty holds that in a society organized for political action, the will of the people as a whole is the only right standard of political action.

It can be regarded as an important element in the system of the checks and balances, representative democracy. Therefore, the people are implicitly entitled to directly participate in the process of law making; this role of linking citizens and their government and legislators is related to the concept of legitimacy. The exercise of democratic control over the legislative system and the policy-making process can occur when the public has only an elementary understanding of the national legislative institution and its membership. Civic education is a vital strategy for strengthening public participation and confidence in the legislative process; the phrase "dead letter" refers to legislation that has not been revoked, but that has become inapplicable, obsolete, or is no longer enforced. "Legislation". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Most-Viewed Bills on Congress.gov

Boleslaus III, Duke of Bohemia

Boleslaus III, called the Red or the Blind, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was duke of Bohemia from 999 until 1002 and again during the year 1003. He was the "worst of all men who sat on the Bohemian throne." During his chaotic reign, Bohemia became a pawn in the long German–Polish War between King Henry II and Duke Bolesław I the Brave. The eldest son of Duke Boleslaus II "the Pious" with his first wife Adiva, he succeeded to the Bohemian throne upon the death of his father in 999. Boleslaus III turned out to be a weak ruler and soon entered into a fierce inheritance conflict with his younger brothers Jaromír and Oldřich, he had both expelled to the Bavarian court of Henry II in Regensburg, together with their mother Dowager Duchess Emma. By 1002, a revolt organized by nobles of the rivalling Vršovci clan forced himself to flee to Germany, where he was received by Margrave Henry I of Austria. At first, Henry I ordered the arrest of his guest because of an old offence, but soon forgave him and promised support.

Meanwhile, the Polish duke Bolesław I installed Boleslaus' kinsman Vladivoj on the Bohemian throne, however, he was an alcoholic and died within a year. After the death of Vladivoj in 1003, the Bohemian nobles invited Jaromír and Oldřich back from exile. In turn, they each assumed the throne at Prague. On 9 February 1003, Boleslaus the Red was restored to authority with armed support from Duke Bolesław of Poland. Boleslaus's brothers Jaromír and Oldřich again fled to Germany and placed themselves under the protection of Henry II. Boleslaus soon undermined his own position by ordering a massacre of his leading nobles, the Vršovci, at Vyšehrad. According to the chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg, Boleslav slashed his son-in-law to death with his own sword. Nobles who survived the massacre secretly sent messengers to Bolesław the Brave of Poland and entreated him to save them; the Polish duke willingly invited his Czech namesake to visit him at his castle. There, Boleslaus the Red was trapped and imprisoned.

He never returned to Bohemia dying in captivity some thirty years later. Bolesław the Brave claimed the ducal throne for himself, invaded Bohemia in 1003 and took Prague without any serious opposition, he gave up his claim to the duchy of Bohemia and was replaced by Jaromír, backed by Henry II, entered through the Prague gates and in 1004 received the Bohemian duchy as a fief from the hands of the German king. Thietmar of Merseburg. Chronik. Neu übertragen und erläutet von W. Trillmich, B. 1957. Cosmas of Prague. Chronicle of Bohemians

IBM 4768

The IBM 4768 PCIe Cryptographic Coprocessor is a hardware security module that includes a secure cryptoprocessor implemented on a high-security, tamper resistant, programmable PCIe board. Specialized cryptographic electronics, microprocessor and random number generator housed within a tamper-responding environment provide a secure subsystem in which data processing and cryptography can be performed. Sensitive key material is never exposed outside the physical secure boundary in a clear format; the IBM 4768 is validated to FIPS PUB 140-2 Level 4, the highest level of certification achievable for commercial cryptographic devices. It has achieved PCI-HSM certification; the IBM 4768 data sheet describes the coprocessor in detail. IBM supplies two cryptographic-system implementations: The PKCS#11 implementation creates a high-security solution for application programs developed for this industry-standard API; the IBM Common Cryptographic Architecture implementation provides many functions of special interest in the finance industry, extensive support for distributed key management, a base on which custom processing and cryptographic functions can be added.

Applications may include financial PIN transactions, bank-to-clearing-house transactions, EMV transactions for integrated circuit based credit cards, general-purpose cryptographic applications using symmetric key algorithms, hashing algorithms, public key algorithms. The operational keys are generated in the coprocessor and are saved either in a keystore file or in application memory, encrypted under the master key of that coprocessor. Any coprocessor with an identical master key can use those keys. Performance benefits include the incorporation of elliptic curve cryptography and format preserving encryption in the hardware. IBM supports the 4768 on certain IBM Z mainframes as Crypto Express6S - feature code 0893; the 4768 / CEX6S is part of IBM's support for pervasive encryption and drive to encrypt all data. These links point to various relevant cryptographic standards. ISO 13491 - Secure Cryptographic Devices: https://www.iso.org/standard/61137.html ISO 9564 - PIN security: https://www.iso.org/standard/68669.html ANSI X9.24 Part 1: Key Management using Symmetric Techniques: https://webstore.ansi.org/RecordDetail.aspx?sku=ANSI+X9.24-1-2017 ANSI X9.24 Part 2: Key Management using Asymmetric Techniques: https://webstore.ansi.org/RecordDetail.aspx?sku=ANSI+X9.24-2-2016 FIPS 140-2: https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/FIPS/NIST.

FIPS.140-2.pdf Payment Card Industry PIN Transaction Security: Hardware Security Module Modular Security Requirements: search this site: https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org/document_library