A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power; the lower house is the larger of the two chambers, i.e. its members are more numerous. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral. In comparison with the upper house, lower houses display certain characteristics. Powers In a parliamentary system, the lower house: In the modern era, has much more power based on restrictions against the upper house. Able to override the upper house in some ways. Can vote a motion of no confidence against the government, as well as vote for or against any proposed candidate for head of government at the beginning of the parliamentary term. Exceptions are Australia, where the Senate has considerable power approximate to that of the House of Representatives, Italy, where the Senate has the same powers as the Chamber of Deputies.
In a presidential system, the lower house: Debatably somewhat less, the lower house has exclusive powers in some areas. Has the sole power to impeach the executive. Initiates appropriation/supply-related legislation. Status of lower house Always elected directly, while the upper house may be elected directly, indirectly, or not elected at all, its members may be elected with a different voting system to the upper house. Most populated administrative divisions are better represented than in the upper house. Elected more frequently. Elected all at once, not by staggered terms. In a parliamentary system, can be dissolved by the executive. More members. Has total or initial control over budget and monetary laws. Lower age of candidacy than the upper house. Many lower houses are named in the following manner: House/Chamber of Representatives/the People/Commons/Deputies. Chamber of Deputies Chamber of Representatives House of Assembly House of Representatives House of Commons House of Delegates Legislative Assembly National Assembly Representative democracy
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses; as of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures. The members of the two chambers are elected or selected by different methods, which vary from country to country; this can lead to the two chambers having different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature; when this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism. However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house and may be regarded as an example of imperfect bicameralism; some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances.
The Founding Fathers of the United States favoured a bicameral legislature. The idea was to have the Senate be wiser. Benjamin Rush saw this though, noted that "this type of dominion is always connected with opulence"; the Senate was created to be a stabilising force, elected not by mass electors, but selected by the State legislators. Senators would be more knowledgeable and more deliberate—a sort of republican nobility—and a counter to what Madison saw as the "fickleness and passion" that could absorb the House, he noted further that "The use of the Senate is to consist in its proceeding with more coolness, with more system and with more wisdom, than the popular branch." Madison's argument led the Framers to grant the Senate prerogatives in foreign policy, an area where steadiness and caution were deemed important. State legislators chose the Senate, senators had to possess significant property to be deemed worthy and sensible enough for the position. In 1913, the 17th Amendment passed, which mandated choosing Senators by popular vote rather than State legislatures.
As part of the Great Compromise, the Founding Fathers invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate had states represented and the House had them represented by population. The British Parliament is referred to as the Mother of Parliaments because the British Parliament has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British "three-tier" model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have organised parliaments with a ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house, a smaller upper house. A formidable sinister interest may always obtain the complete command of a dominant assembly by some chance and for a moment, it is therefore of great use to have a second chamber of an opposite sort, differently composed, in which that interest in all likelihood will not rule. There have been a number of rationales put forward in favour of bicameralism, federal states have adopted it, the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states.
The older justification for second chambers—providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation—has survived. Growing awareness of the complexity of the notion of representation and the multifunctional nature of modern legislatures may be affording incipient new rationales for second chambers, though these do remain contested institutions in ways that first chambers are not. An example of political controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Senate of Canada or the election of the Senate of France; the relationship between the two chambers varies. The first tends to be those with presidential governments; the latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. There are two streams of thought: Critics believe bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of gridlock—particularly in cases where both chambers have similar powers—while proponents argue the merits of the "checks and balances" provided by the bicameral model, which they believe help prevent the passage into law of ill-considered legislation.
Formal communication between houses is by various methods, including: Sending messages Formal notices, such as of resolutions or the passing of bills done in writing, via the clerk and speaker of each house Transmission of bills or amendment to bills requiring agreement from the other house Joint session a plenary session of both houses at the same time and place. Joint committees which may be formed by committees of each house agreeing to join, or by joint resolution of each house Conferences Conferences of the Houses of the English Parliament met in the Painted Chamber of the Palace of Westminster. There were a distinction between an "ordinary conference" and a "free conference". A "free conference" meets in private to resolve a dispute; the last fr
James Aylward (politician)
James Aylward is a Canadian politician, elected to the Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island in the 2011 provincial election. He represents the district of Stratford-Kinlock as a member of the Prince Edward Island Progressive Conservative Party, he served as the Leader of the Opposition and leader of the Progressive Conservative party from October 2017 to February 2019. In December 2014, Aylward announced his candidacy in the Progressive Conservative Party of Prince Edward Island leadership election, 2015, he lost to Rob Lantz on the second ballot, at the PC leadership convention on February 28, 2015. Aylward won the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party in 2017, defeating fellow MLA Brad Trivers. On September 17, 2018 Aylward announced his pending resignation as party leader, effective upon the selection of his successor at the 2019 party leadership convention. James Aylward
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the Atlantic island of the same name along with several much smaller islands nearby. PEI is one of the three Maritime Provinces, it is the smallest province of Canada in both land area and population, but it is the most densely populated. Part of the traditional lands of the Mi'kmaq, it became a British colony in the 1700s and was federated into Canada as a province in 1873, its capital is Charlottetown. According to the 2016 census, the province of PEI has 142,907 residents; the backbone of the economy is farming. The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf", referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province. PEI is one of Canada's older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Scottish, Irish and French surnames being dominant to this day. PEI is located about 200 kilometres north of Halifax, Nova Scotia, 600 kilometres east of Quebec City.
It consists of 231 minor islands. Altogether, the entire province has a land area of 5,686.03 km2. The main island is 5,620 km2 in size larger than the U. S. state of Delaware. It is the 104th-largest island in Canada's 23rd-largest island. In 1798, the British named the island colony for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. Prince Edward has been called "Father of the Canadian Crown"; the following island landmarks are named after the Duke of Kent: Prince Edward Battery, Victoria Park, Charlottetown Kent College, Charlottetown Kent Street, Charlottetown West Kent Elementary School Kent Street, GeorgetownIn French, the island is today called Île-du-Prince-Édouard, but its former French name, as part of Acadia, was Île Saint-Jean. The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as Eilean a' Phrionnsa or Eilean Eòin for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not on PEI; the island is known in the Mi'kmaq language as Abegweit or Epekwitk translated as "land cradled in the waves".
Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, east of New Brunswick, its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait. The island has two urban areas; the larger surrounds Charlottetown Harbour, situated centrally on the island's southern shore, consists of the capital city Charlottetown, suburban towns Cornwall and Stratford and a developing urban fringe. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km west of Charlottetown Harbour, consists of the city of Summerside; as with all natural harbours on the island and Summerside harbours are created by rias. The island's landscape is pastoral. Rolling hills, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as a province of outstanding natural beauty; the provincial government has enacted laws to preserve the landscape through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent enforcement, an absence of province-wide zoning and land-use planning.
Under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning. In areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control; the island's lush landscape has a strong bearing on its culture. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables. Today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round, they enjoy a variety of leisure activities, including beaches, various golf courses, eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside, enjoying cultural events in local communities around the island. The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, old-world flavour.
Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture. Industrial farming has increased as businesses consolidate older farm properties; the coastline has a combination of long beaches, red sandstone cliffs, salt water marshes, numerous bays and harbours. The beaches and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration, which oxidises upon exposure to the air; the geological properties of a white silica sand found at Basin Head are unique in the province. Large dune fields on the north shore can be found on barrier islands at the entrances to various bays and harbours
Province House (Prince Edward Island)
Province House is where the Prince Edward Island Legislature, known as the Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island, has met since 1847. The building is located at Great George Streets in Charlottetown; the cornerstone was laid in May 1843 and it commenced operation for the first time in January 1847. The entire structure was designed by Isaac Smith. Smith was a self-trained architect from Yorkshire, who designed the residence of the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island, it was built by Island craftsmen during a time of prosperity for the colony. Its architectural lines include Greek and Roman influences, common to public buildings in North America built during this era. From September 1–7, 1864, Province House had an important role in helping Prince Edward Island host the Charlottetown Conference which resulted in Canadian Confederation. In 1973, Parks Canada approached the government of Prince Edward Island with a proposal for joint management and restoration of the structure in recognition of its important role in Canadian history.
Under the ensuing agreement, both parties agreed to a 99-year period of joint management. Parks Canada paid for a $3.5 million restoration from 1979–1983 which involved part of the building being restored to the 1864 period. The provincial legislature occupies one end of the building, whereas the restored Confederation Chamber displays the room where the Charlottetown Conference meetings occurred. On April 20, 1995, a powerful pipe bomb exploded beneath a wooden wheelchair ramp on the north side of Province House, destroying glass in windows and causing some minor structural damage. Several passersby were injured and the explosion occurred only five minutes after an entire class of school children on a tour of the building had passed through the area; the bombing occurred only one day after the Oklahoma City bombing and is considered to be a copycat action. Responsibility was claimed by a group calling itself Loki 7. In 2015, Province House was closed for repairs and conservation work; the legislature moved to the adjacent Hon. George Coles Building, where it is expected to remain for several years.
Province House was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1973. It is one of only three provincial legislative buildings, along with Province House in Halifax and the Saskatchewan Legislative Building in Regina, to be so designated. Province House is designated under the provincial Heritage Places Protection Act. Visitors can tour the 1860s period rooms, which include displays about the Charlottetown Conference, the building and the Provincial Legislative Assembly. An audio-visual presentation about the Conference is available, titled "A Great Dream". In front of the Legislature on Grafton Street is the Charlottetown Veterans Memorial consisting of three soldiers; the bronze memorial by G. W. Hill commemorates the dead from the Korean War. A Boer War Memorial by Hamilton MacCarthy was erected to honour the members of the Royal Canadian Regiment on the side of legislature. A series of plaques commemorating the province's Fathers of Confederation are found along the side of the building: Edward Whelan Thomas Heath Haviland Edward Palmer John Hamilton Gray Andrew Archibald Macdonald William Henry Pope George ColesA small statue of Eckhart the Mouse from David Weale's children's story The True Meaning of Crumbfest is found on the grounds of legislature.
Province House National Historic Site of Canada - official website
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. The house formally designated as the upper house is smaller and has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the Australian Senate, Brazil's Senado Federal, the Canadian Senate, France's Sénat, Germany's Bundesrat, India's Rajya Sabha, Ireland's Seanad, Malaysia's Dewan Negara, the Netherlands' Eerste Kamer, Pakistan's Senate of Pakistan, Russia's Federation Council, Switzerland's Council of States, United Kingdom's House of Lords and the United States Senate. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral. An upper house is different from the lower house in at least one of the following respects: Powers: In a parliamentary system, it has much less power than the lower house. Therefore, in certain countries the Upper House votes on only limited legislative matters, such as constitutional amendments, cannot initiate most kinds of legislation those pertaining to supply/money, cannot vote a motion of no confidence against the government, while the lower house always can.
In a presidential system: It may have nearly equal power with the lower house. It may have specific powers not granted to the lower house. For example: It may give consent to some executive decisions, it may have the sole power to try impeachment cases against officials of the executive or judicial branch, following enabling resolutions passed by the lower house. It may have the sole power to ratify treaties. In a semi-presidential system, like France It may have less power than the lower house: in France, the Government can decide to legislate a normal law without the Sénat's agreement, but It may have equal power to the lower house regarding the constitution or the territorial collectivities, it may not vote a motion of no confidence against the government, but it may investigate State cases. It may make proposals of laws to the lower house. Status: In some countries, its members are not popularly elected, its members may be elected with a different voting system than that used to elect the lower house.
Less populated states, provinces, or administrative divisions may be better represented in the upper house than in the lower house. Members' terms may be for life. Members may be elected in portions, for staggered terms, rather than all at one time. In some countries, the upper house cannot be dissolved at all, or can be dissolved only in more limited circumstances than the lower house, it has fewer members or seats than the lower house. It has a higher age of candidacy than the lower house. In parliamentary systems the upper house is seen as an advisory or "revising" chamber; some or all of the following restrictions are placed on upper houses: Lack of control over the executive branch. No absolute veto of proposed legislation, though suspensive vetoes are permitted in some states. In countries where it can veto legislation, it may not be able to amend the proposals. A reduced or absent role in initiating legislation. No power to block supply, or budget measures In parliamentary democracies and among European upper houses the Italian Senate is a notable exception to these general rules, in that it has the same powers as its lower counterpart: any law can be initiated in either house and must be approved in the same form by both houses.
Additionally, a Government must have the consent of both to remain in office, a position, known as "perfect bicameralism" or "equal bicameralism". The role of a revising chamber is to scrutinise legislation that may have been drafted over-hastily in the lower house and to suggest amendments that the lower house may reject if it wishes to. An example is the British House of Lords. Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, the House of Lords can no longer prevent the passage of most bills, but it must be given an opportunity to debate them and propose amendments, can thereby delay the passage of a bill with which it disagrees. Bills can only be delayed for up to one year before the Commons can use the Parliament Act, although economic bills can only be delayed for one month, it is sometimes seen as having a special role of safeguarding the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom and important civil liberties against ill-considered change. The British House of Lords has a number of ways to block legislation and to reject it, the House of Commons can use the Parliament Act to force something through.
The Commons will bargain and negotiate with the Lords such as wh
Monarchy in Prince Edward Island
By the arrangements of the Canadian federation, the Canadian monarchy operates in Prince Edward Island as the core of the province's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. As such, the Crown within Prince Edward Island's jurisdiction is referred to as the Crown in Right of Prince Edward Island, Her Majesty in Right of Prince Edward Island, or the Queen in Right of Prince Edward Island; the Constitution Act, 1867, leaves many royal duties in Prince Edward Island assigned to the sovereign's viceroy, the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island, whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy. The role of the Crown is both practical, it is thus the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the province's government. The Canadian monarch—since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II—is represented and her duties carried out by the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island, whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, with most related powers entrusted for exercise by the elected parliamentarians, the ministers of the Crown drawn from amongst them, the judges and justices of the peace.
The Crown today functions as a guarantor of continuous and stable governance and a nonpartisan safeguard against the abuse of power. This arrangement began with an 1873 Order in Council by Queen Victoria and continued an unbroken line of monarchical government extending back to the early 16th century. However, though Prince Edward Island has a separate government headed by the Queen, as a province, Prince Edward Island is not itself a kingdom. Government House in Charlottetown is owned by the sovereign in her capacity as Queen in Right of Prince Edward Island, is used as an official residence by the lieutenant governor and the sovereign and other members of the Canadian Royal Family will reside there when in Prince Edward Island; those in the Royal Family perform ceremonial duties when on a tour of the province. Monuments around Prince Edward Island mark some of those visits, while others honour a royal personage or event. Further, Prince Edward Island's monarchical status is illustrated by royal names applied regions, communities and buildings, many of which may have a specific history with a member or members of the Royal Family.
Associations exist between the Crown and many private organizations within the province. Examples include the Central Agricultural Society, under the patronage of Albert, Prince Consort after 1843; the main symbol of the monarchy is the sovereign herself, her image thus being used to signify government authority. A royal cypher or crown may illustrate the monarchy as the locus of authority, without referring to any specific monarch. Further, though the monarch does not form a part of the constitutions of Prince Edward Island's honours, they do stem from the Crown as the fount of honour, so bear on the insignia symbols of the sovereign. What is today Prince Edward Island was discovered and claimed by John Cabot for King Henry VII, though it was in 1523 claimed by Giovanni da Verrazzano for King Francis I, putting Île Saint-Jean, as Verrazzno called it, under the sovereignty of the French Crown until 1758. In that year, the French settlement of Louisbourg fell to the British Royal Navy and, with the 1762 Treaty of Fontainbleau, sovereignty over the island was transferred by King Louis XV to King George III.
In 1763, the Earl of Egmont presented an elaborate memorial to the King, asking that the Island of Saint John, while under the sovereignty of the Crown indefinitely, be granted to him and divided into baronies. George denied Egmont's request, after Egmont again presented his petition in 1767, the King this time approved. On 19 July 1769, Saint John Island was separated from the jurisdiction of Nova Scotia and became its own colony of the British Crown. Prince Edward, George III's fourth son, arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1794 and, while he never visited Saint John Island, he, as Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in North America, ordered that new barracks be built in Charlottetown and defences constructed to protect the harbour. Recognising the Prince's interest in the island, its legislature passed a bill on 1 February 1799 that changed the colony's name in honour of Edward. By 1843 construction of Province House was begun, the laying of the cornerstone was followed by a Royal Salute and three cheers for Queen Victoria.
Not four years the Legislative Assembly adopted an address to the Queen, asking for the establishment of responsible government in the colony, the request was soon thereafter granted. Queen Elizabeth II attended the 100th anniversary of Prince Edward Island'