The Legislative Assembly of Queensland is the sole chamber of the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. Elections are done by full preferential voting; the Assembly has 93 members, who have used the letters MP after their names since 2000. There is the same population in each electorate; the Assembly first sat in May 1860 and produced Australia's first Hansard in April 1864. Following the outcome of the 2015 election, successful amendments to the electoral act in early 2016 include: adding an additional four parliamentary seats from 89 to 93, changing from optional preferential voting to full-preferential voting, moving from unfixed three-year terms to fixed four-year terms; the Legislative Assembly was the lower house of a typical Westminster-style bicameral parliament. The upper house was the Legislative Council, its members appointed for life by the government of the day; the first sitting, in May 1860, was held in the old converted convict barracks in Queen Street. It consisted of 26 members from 16 electorates, nearly half of whom were squatters.
Early sessions dealt with issues of land, railways, public works, immigration and gold discoveries. In April 1864, Australia's first Hansard was produced, it was the second Hansard to be made in the Commonwealth, after Nova Scotia in 1855. That year saw member numbers increased to 32, by 1868—as more redistributions occurred—the number grew to 42. Members were not paid until 1886 excluding the working class from state politics; the Assembly was elected under the'first-past-the-post' system 1860 to 1892. From until 1942 an unusual form of preferential voting called the'contingent vote' was used; this was introduced by a conservative government to hinder the emerging Labor Party from gaining seats with minority support. In 1942 the plurality system was reintroduced; the Labor government in power had seen its vote decline in the 1940s and sought to divide the opposition. In 1962, it was replaced with full preferential voting, as the governing conservatives wanted to take advantage of a split in Labor.
In 1992, this was changed to the optional preferential system used. After 1912, electorates elected only a single member to the Assembly. In 1922, the Legislative Council was abolished, with the help of members known as the "suicide squad", who were specially appointed to vote the chamber out of existence; this left Queensland with a unicameral parliament—currently the only Australian state with this arrangement. From 1948 until the reforms following the end of the Bjelke-Petersen era, Queensland used an electoral zoning system, tweaked by the government of the day to maximise its own voter support at the expense of the opposition, it has been called a form of gerrymander, however it is more referred to as an electoral malapportionment. In a classic gerrymander, electoral boundaries are drawn to take advantage of known pockets of supporters and to isolate areas of opposition voters so as to maximise the number of seats for the government for a given number of votes and to cause opposition support to be "wasted" by concentrating their supporters in fewer electorates.
The Queensland "gerrymander", first introduced by the Labor Party government of Ned Hanlon in 1949 used a series of electoral zones based on their distance from Brisbane. Queensland was divided into three zones—the metropolitan zone, the provincial cities zone and the rural zone. While the number of electors in each seat in a zone was equal, there was considerable variation in the number of electors between zones, thus an electorate in the remote zone might have as few as 5,000 electors, while a seat in the metropolitan zone might have as many as 25,000. Using this system the Labor government was able to maximise its vote in its power base of the provincial city zone. With the split in the party in the late 1950s the ALP lost office and a conservative Coalition government led by the Country Party under Frank Nicklin came to power, which, as discussed above modified the voting system to introduce preferential voting, to take advantage of Labor's split, it separated the provincial cities from their hinterlands.
The hinterlands were added to the rural zone. As the divisions in the ALP abated in the early 1970s, tensions in the conservative coalition grew, the conservative government, now led by Joh Bjelke-Petersen, modified the zoning system to add a fourth zone—a remote zone, comprising seats with fewer electors, thus the conservative government was able to isolate Labor support in provincial cities and maximise its own rural power base. On average, the Country Party needed only 7,000 votes to win a seat, compared with 12,800 for a typical Labor seat; the entrenchment of a Coalition government was caused by socio-economic and demographic changes associated with mechanisation of farms and urbanisation which led to a drift of working class population from rural and remote electorates to the cities. By the late 1980s the decline in the political fortunes of the National Party, together with rapid growth in south east Queensland meant that the zonal system was no longer able to guarantee a conservative victory.
In addition, in 1988 the Federal Labor Government held four constitutional referendums—one of whic
The Navy Medal is the highest peacetime military award issued by Spain's navy. The regulation for the issue of this medal is modified by the Royal Decree 1 August. Is made of oxidized iron, oval, 42 millimetres on its vertical axis and 28 millimetres on its horizontal axis. On the obverse, surrounded by a silver edge, is a rising sun behind the sea and a matron stands, representing Spain, with the right hand, a laurel wreath and holding a sword with the left. At the top of the oval are the words: "Al mérito distinguido". On the reverse is the emblem of the Navy; the ribbon is 30 millimetres wide and divided in three parts: the central with the national colours and at the sides dark blue. Each medal has a clasp attached to the ribbon with the legend of the action done in black. "BOE núm. 213 Viernes 5". BOLETÍN OFICIAL DEL ESTADO. September 2003. Retrieved 25 October 2012
Stephen Bowen is an American biologist and educational administrator. From August 2005 until his retirement in May 2016 he served as the Dean and CEO of Oxford College of Emory University, located in Oxford, Georgia. Bowen received his bachelor's degree in 1971 from Depauw University, he earned an M. A. from Indiana University in 1973 and his Ph. D. from Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa in 1976. Bowen's biological research has focused on the ecology of fishes, he has published on diet and digestion in a number of aquatic species, the nutritional value of organic detritus and biofilm, fish population dynamics. His work has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the Michigan Sea Grant Program, the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, among other agencies, he has been designated a certified fisheries biologist by the American Fisheries Society. Bowen served as a senior fellow at the American Association of Colleges and Universities.
Beginning in 1978, he joined the faculty of Michigan Technological University as an assistant professor. He became head of the Department of Biological Sciences an associate dean, vice provost, interim provost, in 2000 vice provost for instruction and distance learning. In 2001, he became vice president for academic affairs at Bucknell University. Bowen has been married to his wife Nancy since 1973, they have three children: Gabriel and April. After retiring from Emory University in 2016, he and his wife now reside in Grand Haven, MI. Oxford College of Emory University Dean's Office, includes photo of Bowen Letter from the Dean, includes photo of Bowen Emory University