Tobyhanna Creek is a 29.9-mile-long tributary of the Lehigh River in the Pocono Mountains of eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. The upper reaches of the creek pass through or near Tobyhanna Township, Tobyhanna Army Depot and Tobyhanna State Park. Tunkhannock Creek joins Tobyhanna Creek near Blakeslee in Monroe County. Tobyhanna Creek joins the Lehigh River at the community of Stoddartsville, 6.1 miles upstream of the Francis E. Walter Dam. List of rivers of Pennsylvania Tobyhanna Army Depot Tobyhanna State Park Tobyhanna Township U. S. Geological Survey: PA stream gaging stations
Monocacy Creek (Lehigh River tributary)
Monocacy Creek is a tributary of the Lehigh River in Northampton County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. One of only 56 limestone streams in the state of Pennsylvania, the creek's headwaters lie in the slate belt, near the borough of Chapman. From Chapman, the Monocacy follows a 20.3-mile course through the limestone Lehigh Valley, to its confluence with the Lehigh River in the city of Bethlehem. Monocacy Creek is not connected to the Monocacy River in Maryland. List of rivers of Pennsylvania U. S. Geological Survey: PA stream gaging stations
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro
Monroe County, Pennsylvania
Monroe County is a county in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 169,842, its county seat is Stroudsburg. The county was formed from sections of Pike counties. Named in honor of James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States, the county is located in northeastern Pennsylvania, along its border with New Jersey. Monroe County is coterminous with the East Stroudsburg, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, within the Greater New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA Combined Statistical Area, it borders the Lehigh Valley and has connections to the Delaware Valley, being a part of Philadelphia's Designated Media Market. The county is home to East Stroudsburg University. Monroe County is one of the fastest-growing counties in the state of Pennsylvania. Not only has the population increased by over 70% since 1990, but the commercial and retail sectors have expanded as well. There are many new shopping centers, more are being constructed and are being planned at this time. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 617 square miles, of which 608 square miles is land and 9.0 square miles is water. It has the hardiness zone ranges from 5a to 6b; the area code is 570 except in the southwest where the Kunkletown exchange uses 610. Cherry Valley National Wildlife Refuge Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Middle Delaware National Scenic River As of the census of 2010, there were 169,842 people, 49,454 households, 36,447 families residing in the county; the population density was 228 people per square mile. There were 67,581 housing units at an average density of 111 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.5% White Non-Hispanic, 13.2% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.3% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. 13.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.9% were of German, 16.8% Irish, 14.5% Italian, 8.8% Pennsylvania German, 5.4% Polish, 5.1% American and 5.1% English ancestry.
There were 49,454 households out of which 36.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.70% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.30% were non-families. 20.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.16. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.80% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 97.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.40 males. The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Monroe County of Pennsylvania as the East Stroudsburg, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census the Metro area had a population of 169,842. The area ranks 12th most populous in the state of Pennsylvania and ranks 244th most populous in the United States.
The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Monroe County as part of the larger New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA Combined Statistical Area. The larger combined area consists of the Lehigh Valley counties of Carbon and Northampton as well as Pike County in Pennsylvania, several other Metro areas from the States of New Jersey and New York; as of the 2010 US Census, the population of the CSA was 23,076,664, making it the most populous Combined Statistical Area in the United States. For much of the second half of the 20th century, Monroe County was a Republican stronghold. However, in recent years, party registration has leaned toward the Democratic Party, a result of continued migration to the county by former New York City residents, many of whom are Democrats. While in the 2004 U. S. presidential election the county was carried by Republican George W. Bush by a margin of four votes, beginning with the first campaign of Barack Obama Democratic candidates carried Monroe County.
In that election Obama carried the county by a 17-point margin, 58% to 41%–the first Democrat to win the county since 1964, only the second since 1940. The other three 2008 statewide Democratic candidates carried the county handily. Additionally, the Democratic presidential candidates carried the county in 2012 and in 2016; as of November 2008, there are 113,960 registered voters in Monroe County. Democratic: 53,801 Republican: 38,905 Other Parties: 21,254 John Christy, Commissioner John Moyer, Chairman Charles Garris, Vice Chairman Controller, Marlo Merhige, Republican Coroner, Thomas Yanac, Democratic District Attorney, E. David Christine, Jr. Republican Prothonotary, George Warden, Republican Recorder of Deeds and Register of Wills, Josephine Ferro, Republican Sheriff, Todd Martin, Republican Treasurer, Theresa Johnson, Republican Maureen Madden, Democratic, 115th district Jack Rader, Jr. Republican, 176th district Rosemary Brown, Republican, 189th district John P. Blake, Democratic, 22nd District Mario Scavello, Republican, 40th district Susan Wild, Pennsylvania's 7th congressional district Matthew Cartwright, Pennsylvania's 8th congressional district Robert P. Casey, Jr.
Democratic Pat Toomey, Republican Tom Wolf, Democratic Public transportation throughout the county is provided by the Monroe County Transit Authority, known as the "Pocono Pony". MCTA operates a fixed route bus system and a paratransit curb to curb service for eligible populations. New Jersey Transi
Allentown is a city located in Lehigh County, United States. It is the 231st largest city in the United States; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 118,032 and is the fastest growing city in all of Pennsylvania. It is the largest city in the metropolitan area known as the Lehigh Valley, which had a population of 821,623 residents as of 2010. Allentown constitutes a portion of the New York City Combined Statistical Area and is the county seat of Lehigh County. In 2012, the city celebrated the 250th anniversary of its founding in 1762. Located on the Lehigh River, Allentown is the largest of three adjacent cities, in Northampton and Lehigh counties, that make up a region of eastern Pennsylvania known as the Lehigh Valley, the other two cities being Bethlehem and Easton, Pennsylvania. Allentown is 50 miles north-northwest of Philadelphia, the sixth most populous city in the United States, 90 miles east-northeast of Harrisburg, the state capital, 90 miles west of New York City, the nation's largest city.
The Norfolk Southern Railway's Lehigh Line, runs through Allentown heading east across the Delaware River. The Norfolk Southern Railway's Reading Line runs through Allentown heading west to Reading, Pennsylvania. Allentown was cited as a "national success story" in April 2016 by the Urban Land Institute for its downtown redevelopment and transformation, one of only six communities in the country to have been named as such. In the early 1700s, the land now occupied by the city of Allentown and Lehigh County was a wilderness of scrub oak where neighboring tribes of Native Americans fished for trout and hunted for deer and other game. In 1736, a large area to the north of Philadelphia, embracing the present site of Allentown and what is now Lehigh County, was deeded by 23 chiefs of the five great Native American nations to John and Richard Penn, sons of William Penn; the price for this tract included shoes and buckles, shirts, scissors, needles, looking glasses and pipes. The land, to become Allentown was part of a 5,000-acre plot William Allen purchased on September 10, 1735 from his business partner Joseph Turner, assigned the warrant to the land by Thomas Penn, son of William Penn, on May 18, 1732.
The land was surveyed on November 23, 1736. A subsequent survey done in 1753 by David Schultz for a road from Easton to Reading, of which present-day Union and Jackson streets were links, shows the location of a log house owned by Allen, situated near the western bank of Jordan Creek, believed to have been built around 1740. Used as a hunting and fishing lodge, here Allen entertained prominent guests including his brother-in-law, James Hamilton, colonial Pennsylvania governor John Penn; the area, today the center of Allentown was laid out as Northampton Town in 1762 by William Allen, a wealthy shipping merchant, former mayor of the city of Philadelphia and then-Chief Justice of the Province of Pennsylvania. It is that a certain amount of rivalry with the Penns prompted Judge Allen to decide to start a town of his own in 1762. Ten years before, in 1752, Northampton and Berks counties had been formed, each with a county seat and Reading, respectively, it is recorded that, in 1763, the year after the founding of Allentown, an effort was made to have the county seat moved from Easton to the new town.
To this effort William Allen lent all his influence as Chief Justice and as the son-in-law of Andrew Hamilton. The influence of the Penns, however and Easton was retained as the county seat of all that vast area which the notorious "Walking Purchase" had opened up; the original plan for the town, now in the archives of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, comprised forty-two city blocks and consisted of 756 lots 60 feet in width and 230 feet in depth. The town was located between present-day Fourth and Tenth Streets, Union and Liberty Streets. Many streets on the original plan were named for Allen's children: Margaret, James and John. Allen Street was named for Allen himself, was the main thoroughfare. Hamilton Street was named for James Hamilton. Gordon Street was named for Sir Patrick Gordon, Deputy Governor of Colonial Pennsylvania from 1726–1736. Chew Street was named for Benjamin Chew, Turner Street was named for Allen's business partner, Joseph Turner. Allen hoped that Northampton Town would displace Easton as the seat of Northampton County and become a commercial center due to its location along the Lehigh River and its proximity to Philadelphia.
Allen gave the property to his son James in 1767. Three years in 1770, James built a summer residence, Trout Hall, in the new town, near the site of his father's former hunting lodge. On March 18, 1811, the town was formally incorporated as the borough of Northampton Town. On March 6, 1812, Lehigh County was formed from the western half of Northampton County, Northampton Town was selected as the county seat; the town was renamed "Allentown" on April 16, 1838, after years of popular usage. Allentown was formally incorporated as a city on March 12, 1867; the beginnings of the American Revolutionary War began in Northampton County on December 21, 1774 when a Committee of Observation for Northampton County was formed by American patriots. At the time, there were 54 homes in Northampton, the number of inhabitants was around 330. With the Decla
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Saucon Creek is a 17.0-mile-long tributary of the Lehigh River in Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania in the United States. Saucon Creek starts in Lower Milford Township, flows to the northeast passing through the communities of Limeport and Hellertown, joins the Lehigh River in Bethlehem; the Meadows Banquet Center in Hellertown and Saucon Park in Bethlehem are located along the Saucon. The Ehrhart's Mill Historic District is located along Saucon Creek. Nancy Run, next tributary of the Lehigh River going downriver Monocacy Creek, next tributary of the Lehigh River going upriver List of rivers of Pennsylvania