Metrosideros polymorpha, the ʻōhiʻa lehua, is a species of flowering evergreen tree in the myrtle family, endemic to the six largest islands of Hawaiʻi. It is a variable tree, being 20–25 m tall in favorable situations, a much smaller prostrate shrub when growing in boggy soils or directly on basalt, it produces a brilliant display of flowers, made up of a mass of stamens, which can range from fiery red to yellow. Many native Hawaiian traditions refer to the tree and the forests it forms as sacred to Pele, the volcano goddess, to Laka, the goddess of hula. ʻŌhiʻa trees grow on lava, are the first plants to grow on new lava flows. It is a common misconception that the word ʻōhiʻa is used to refer to the tree and that the word lehua refers only to its flowers; the Hawaiian Dictionary defines lehua with these words: "The flower of the ʻōhiʻa tree... the tree itself." Thus the Metrosideros polymorpha may be referred to as a lehua tree, or as an ʻōhiʻa lehua, or an ʻōhiʻa. Metrosideros polymorpha is the most common native tree in the Hawaiian Islands, tolerating a wide range of soil conditions and rainfall.
It grows from sea level right up to the tree line at elevations of 2,500 m and is found in moist and dry forests, high shrublands, is a colonizer of recent lava flows. It is slow growing. Dominant in cloud forests above 400 m, the tree is common in seasonally wet forests, where it may be dominant or form mixtures with the native Acacia koa. Metrosideros polymorpha may occur as a tall tree or a prostrate shrub, everything in between. Preferred soils are acidic to neutral and either a Histosol, Podsol, Ultisol, or Alfisol. Rainfall of 1,000–3,000 mm per year is favored, but ʻōhiʻa can grow in dry forests that receive as little as 400 mm or bogs that get more than 10,000 mm of rain. On moist, deep soils, ʻōhiʻa grows to 20–25 m high. Specimens reaching 30 m high are on record; the trunk varies in form. In some trees, it is smooth. Trees growing in forests have stilt roots, having germinated on logs or the stems of fallen hāpuʻu, which have long decayed away when the tree has reached maturity; some trees have fibrous aerial roots to gather moisture.
At high elevations, in areas with poor soils or little rainfall, shrub forms are the norm. Flowers are bright to medium red but orange-red, pink, yellow, or orange forms are found; the flowers appear in clusters on the terminal ends of the branches. Masses of stamens give the blossoms their characteristic pom-pom shape; the reddish brown heartwood of M. polymorpha is hard, fine textured, has a specific gravity of 0.7. In native Hawaiian society, it was used in house and heiau construction, as well as to make papa kuʻi ʻai, tool handles, kiʻi. Although the trunk of ʻōhiʻa was not used to make the kaʻele of waʻa, it was used for their nohona waʻa, pola. Wae were made from the curved stilt roots of ʻōhiʻa. Pā was made from the wood due to its availability; as the wood burned hot and cleanly, it was excellent wahie. The lehua and liko lehua were used in making lei; the flowers were used medicinally to treat pain experienced during childbirth.ʻŌhiʻa lehua is one of the few honey plants, native to the Hawaiian Islands.
There are about 50 species in the genus Metrosideros in Southeast Asia and the Pacific and as well one species in South Africa. The Hawaiian Islands are home to five species of Metrosideros that are endemic to the islands, meaning they are found nowhere else in the world; these are: Metrosideros polymorpha,M. Macropus, M. rugosa, M. tremuloides, M. waialealae. The species are distinguished from one another by the characteristics of their leaves. Metrosideros kermadecensis, from the Kermadec Islands north of New Zealand, has become naturalized on Maui and may become a pest species. Several cultivars of M. excelsa, the Pōhutukawa tree of New Zealand, have been sometimes planted as ornamentals in Hawaiʻi but are not reported to have naturalized. Metrosideros polymorpha was classified as a variety of M. collina, native to Rarotonga and other islands of Polynesia, but now is accepted as a distinct Hawaiian endemic species. Metrosideros polymorpha forests in Hawaiʻi have been invaded by myriad alien species.
In the wet forests these include the strawberry guava, "purple plague". In drier areas, problematic invaders include Christmasberry. Alien grasses such as meadow ricegrass may form an understory that prevents or inhibits natural regeneration of the forests. In drier areas, M. polymorpha has to compete with silk fountain grass. More a strain of fungus identified as Ceratocystis fimbriata has attacked the ʻōhiʻa forests of the Big Island, causing Rapid'Ōhi'a Death; the disease gets this name. While ʻōhiʻa itself remains abundant, some species that depend on it such as the ʻakekeʻe and longhorn beetles in the genus Plagithm
Halehomaha is an unincorporated community on the island of Kauai in Kauai County, United States. The community is located on the Pacific Ocean on the north shore of the island and is directly north of Ha'ena State Park. Halehomaha is served by Hawaii Route 560
Hanalei is a census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 450 at the 2010 census. Hanalei means "lei making" in Hawaiian. Alternatively, the name Hanalei means "crescent bay" and may be indicative of the shape of Hanalei Bay. Hanalei is located at 22°12′24″N 159°30′3″W, near the mouth of the Hanalei River on the north shore of the island of Kauai, it is bordered to the east by Princeville. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.71 square miles, of which 0.65 square miles are land and 0.058 square miles are water. The total area is 8.17% water. In the early 19th century Russians were present here. In 1815 the German physician and agent of the Russian-American Company, Georg Anton Schäffer, came to the Hawaiian islands to retrieve goods seized by Kaumualiʻi, chief of Kauai island. On arrival he became involved with internal Hawaiian politics, Kaumualiʻi planning and manipulating to reclaim his own kingdom of Kauai from Kamehameha I with the help of the Russian Empire.
Kaumualiʻi signed a "treaty" granting Tsar Alexander. In 1817, Fort Elizabeth, near the Waimea River, two other Russian forts near Hanalei were part of the tsarist Russian America. At the 2000 census, there were 478 people, 193 households and 115 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 736.7 per square mile. There were 303 housing units at an average density of 467.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 57% White, 18% Asian, 3% Pacific Islander, <1% from other races, 21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.81% of the population. There were 193 households of which 25% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40% were married couples living together, 10% had a female householder with no husband present, 40% were non-families. 31% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size is 3.10. 24% of the population were under the age of 18, 7% from 18 to 24, 27% from 25 to 44, 30% from 45 to 64, 12% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.8 males. The median household income was $34,375, the median family income was $55,750. Males had a median income of $31,500 versus $28,500 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $21,241. About 22% of families and 25% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 and older. Hanalei was the backdrop such as the 1958 musical film South Pacific. Scenes were filmed at Lumahai Beach to the west of Hanalei. A spurious interpretation of the Peter Paul & Mary song "Puff, the Magic Dragon" as a marijuana metaphor claims that Puff's homeland "Hanah Lee" is the town of Hanalei, according to the interpretation, is renowned for its marijuana; the cliffs on the side of the beach are said to look like a dragon. This interpretation was rejected by the song's authors; the beach at Hanalei Bay was selected No. 1 on "Dr. Beach" Stephen Leatherman's 2009 list of top 10 beaches.
Hanalei was mentioned in the TV series Twin Peaks as a place of residence for the town psychiatrist and his wife. Scenes for the movie The Descendants starring George Clooney were filmed in and around Hanalei, on the beach at Hanalei Bay and in nearby Princeville. A song titled "Hanalei" was a part of the I'm with You Sessions by the Red Hot Chili Peppers in 2013. Hanalei is served by the Hawaiʻi Department of Education. Hanalei Elementary School is located in the community
Lihue or Līhuʻe is an unincorporated community, census-designated place and the county seat of Kauai County, United States. Lihue is the second largest town on the Hawaiian island of Kauaʻi after Kapaʻa; as of the 2010 census, the CDP had a population of 6,455, up from 5,694 at the 2000 census. In ancient times, Lihue was a minor village. Līhuʻe means "cold chill" in the Hawaiian language. Lihue is in the ancient district of Puna, the southeastern coast of the island, the land division of Kalapaki. Royal Governor Kaikioʻewa made it his governing seat in 1837, moving it from Waimea. With the emergence of the sugar industry in the 1800s, Lihue became the central city of the island with the construction of a large sugar mill. Early investors were Charles Reed Bishop and William Little Lee; the plantation struggled until William Harrison Rice built the first irrigation system in 1856. Subsequent plantation owner Paul Isenberg helped German people emigrate to Lihue starting in 1881, with the first Lutheran church in Hawaii founded in 1883.
Services were held in German well into the 1960s. By the 1930s, George Norton Wilcox became one of the largest sugarcane plantation owners, buying Grove Farm from Hermann A. Widemann; the Wilcox family home, has been converted into a restaurant and gift shop. The surrounding plantation now grows crops and livestock. A narrow-gauge tourist railroad with vintage diesel locomotives from Whitworth and General Electric offers tours of the plantation; the grounds are the site of luaus, many of which are offshore excursions booked through NCL America. Lihue houses the Kauai Museum, which details the history of Kauai. Lihue sits on the eastern side of the island of Kauai and is bordered by Hanamaulu to the north and Puhi to the west, its shorefront on the Kauai Channel of the Pacific Ocean extends from Hanamaulu Bay in the north to the larger Nawiliwili Bay to the south. Hawaii Route 50 leads west from Lihue 12 miles to Kalaheo and beyond to the western side of the island, while Hawaii Route 56 leads north 7 miles to Kapaa and onwards to the northern side of the island.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the Lihue CDP has a total area of 50 square kilometres, of which 6.7 square miles are land and 0.77 square miles, or 10.42%, are water. Lihue has a tropical wet and dry climate zone with a dry summer season; the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 71.6 °F in February to 79.7 °F in August. On average, there are 7.7 nights annually with a low below 60 °F, readings of 90 °F or higher are quite rare, occurring on average once every eight years. Temperature records range from 46 °F on January 14, 1930 up to only 91 °F as as October 9, 2012; the record cool daily maximum is 67 °F as as December 19, 1981, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 80 °F as as September 13, 2015. Normal annual rainfall is 37.05 inches spread over an average 195 days, but observed annual rainfall has ranged from 16.40 to 74.40 inches in 1983 and 1982, respectively. The wettest month on record is March 2006 with 36.13 inches, while the most rain to occur in a single calendar day is 15.81 inches on May 13, 1940.
The record driest month is February 1983 with trace amounts. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,694 people, 2,178 households, 1,420 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 898.3 people per square mile. There were 2,399 housing units at an average density of 379.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 22.8% White, 49.2% Asian, 0.2% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 6.4% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 20.5% from two or more races. 6.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,178 households out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.16. In the CDP the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, 22.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $44,906, the median income for a family was $56,875 in 2000. Males had a median income of $38,713 versus $28,032 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $22,619. 4.6% of the population and 1.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 1.4% of those under the age of 18 and 7.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Lihue is served in the eastern part of the community; the main seaport for Kauai is at Nawiliwili Bay, directly southeast of town. Lihue is served by The Kauai Bus, a public bus system serving the entire island of Kauai; the town is home to the county administration building. There are several car dealerships, movie theaters and restaurants. Lihue is home to Kauai Commu
Hanapepe is a historic, unincorporated community in Kauai County, United States. The name means "crushed bay" in Hawaiian. Hanapepe is a census-designated place for statistical purposes, with a population of 2,638 at the 2010 census, up from 2,153 at the 2000 census. Hanapepe was one of the locations visited by the United States Exploring Expedition under Charles Wilkes, it is one of the few towns on the island, not created by the sugarcane plantations. In the 1920s, a deadly, labor battle occurred dubbed the Hanapepe massacre. On August 27, 1980, Douglas Kenney, a co-writer of the film National Lampoon's Animal House, fell 30 feet to his death from the Hanapepe Lookout; the town was the inspiration for Kokaua Town, the fictional hometown of the main characters in the Disney animated film Lilo & Stitch and its related franchise. Hanapepe is the headquarters location for the ice cream company Lappert's Hawaii, as well as home to the westernmost bookstore in the United States, The Bookstore - Talk Story.
Hanapepe is located on the southern side of the island of Kauai at 21°54′59″N 159°35′25″W. It is bordered across the Hanapepe River and Hanapepe Bay, by the community of Eleele. Hawaii Route 50 passes through the southern part of Hanapepe, leading east 17 miles to Lihue and northwest 6 miles to Waimea. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Hanapepe CDP has a total area of 1.0 square mile, of which 0.93 square miles are land, 0.1 square miles, or 9.43%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,153 people, 706 households, 533 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,469.8 people per square mile. There were 757 housing units at an average density of 868.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 16.0% White, 0.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 48.6% Asian, 8.5% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 26.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.6% of the population. There were 706 households out of which 41.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.4% were non-families.
19.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.05 and the average family size was 3.54. In the CDP the population was spread out with 32.0% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $44,112, the median income for a family was $50,750. Males had a median income of $30,039 versus $24,224 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,043. About 5.8% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.7% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Kōloa is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 2,144 at the 2010 census, up from 1,942 at the 2000 census; the first successful sugarcane plantation in the Hawaiian Islands was started here in 1835. It became a part of Grove Farm in 1948; the name Kōloa is incorrectly translated as "native duck", the correct translation for the similar-looking koloa. Kōloa has no known translation. According to one account, the district of Kōloa was named for a steep rock called Pali-o-kō-loa, found in Waikomo Stream. Kōloa is located on the southern side of the island of Kauai at 21°54′26″N 159°27′57″W, it is bordered to the south by Poipu. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.2 square miles, all of it recorded as land. Waikomo Stream passes through the center of the community; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,942 people, 693 households, 507 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,629.5 people per square mile.
There were 748 housing units at an average density of 627.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 20.2% White, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 43.8% Asian, 7.8% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, 26.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.4% of the population. There were 693 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 18.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.8% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.25. In the CDP the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $34,786, the median income for a family was $43,393. Males had a median income of $31,125 versus $25,938 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,224. About 16.7% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. The Old Sugar Mill of Koloa was the first major sugarcane plantation in Hawaii in 1835. Missionary Daniel Dole and his family opened a boarding school for English-speaking children, sometimes called the Koloa Academy, in 1855. Old Sugar Mill – A National Historic Landmark. Founded in 1835, the Koloa sugar plantation and mill was the first successful large-scale sugar operation in the Hawaiian Islands. Poipu Bay Golf Course – Home of the PGA Grand Slam of Golf from 1994 to 2006 Saint Raphael Catholic Church - The oldest Catholic church in Kauai Spouting Horn Hoʻai heiau Kaneiolouma Heiau Makauwahi Cave Raymond Kāne, slack-key guitarist Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaʻole Piʻikoi, born at Hoʻai, Kualu in Koloa.
S. Congress in 1903. Alexander, Arthur. Koloa Plantation 1835 - 1935. Honolulu, HI: Star-Bulletin. Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Sugar in Hawaii. Honolulu, HI: Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association