Leicester Corn Exchange
Leicester's Corn Exchange stands in the City centre of Leicester, England. The exchange is a Grade II * listed building; the exchange operates as a Lloyds No. 1 bar. There have been buildings on the site since the 16th century; the present building was built in the 1850s by William Flint as a market place. In 1856 an upper floor and external stone staircase were added by F. W. Ordish to house the Corn Exchange. A corn exchange was a building where farmers and merchants traded cereal grains, common up until the 19th century in towns and cities of Great Britain and Ireland. For the history of corn exchanges, see Commodity market and Commodities exchange
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a souk, bazaar, a fixed mercado, or itinerant tianguis, or palengke; some markets operate daily and are said to be permanent markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be periodic markets. The form that a market adopts depends on its locality's population, culture and geographic conditions; the term market covers many types of trading, as market squares, market halls and food halls, their different varieties. Due to this, marketplaces can be situated both indoors. Markets have existed for as long; the earliest bazaars are believed to have originated in Persia, from where they spread to the rest of the Middle East and Europe. Documentary sources suggest that zoning policies confined trading to particular parts of cities from around 3,000 BCE, creating the conditions necessary for the emergence of a bazaar.
Middle Eastern bazaars were long strips with stalls on either side and a covered roof designed to protect traders and purchasers from the fierce sun. In Europe, unregulated markets made way for a system of formal, chartered markets from the 12th century. Throughout the Medieval period, increased regulation of marketplace practices weights and measures, gave consumers confidence in the quality of market goods and the fairness of prices. Around the globe, markets have evolved in different ways depending on local ambient conditions weather and culture. In the Middle East, markets tend to be covered, to protect shoppers from the sun. In milder climates, markets are open air. In Asia, a system of morning markets trading in fresh produce and night markets trading in non-perishables is common. In many countries, shopping at a local market is a standard feature of daily life. Given the market's role in ensuring food supply for a population, markets are highly regulated by a central authority. In many places, designated market places have become listed sites of historic and architectural significance and represent part of a town or nation's cultural assets.
For these reasons, they are popular tourist destinations. The term market comes from the Latin mercatus; the earliest recorded use of the term market in English is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 963, a work, created during the reign of Alfred the Great and subsequently distributed, copied throughout English monasteries. The exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun,” which translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town.” Markets have existed since ancient times. Some historians have argued that a type of market has existed since humans first began to engage in trade. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, Phoenecia, Egypt and on the Arabian peninsula. However, not all societies developed a system of markets; the Greek historian, Herodotus noted. Across the Mediterranean and Aegean, a network of markets emerged from the early Bronze Age. A vast array of goods were traded including: salt, lapiz-lazuli, cloth, pots, statues and other implements. Archaeological evidence suggests that Bronze Age traders segmented trade routes according to geographical circuits.
Both produce and ideas travelled along these trade routes. In the Middle-East, documentary sources suggest that a form of bazaar first developed around 3,000 BCE. Early bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city; the bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world. Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised; the Greek historian, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth. He described a The Babylonian Marriage Market. In antiquity, markets were situated in the town's centre; the market was surrounded by alleyways inhabited by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers, leather workers and carpenters. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days.
Across ancient Greece market places were to be found in most city states, where they operated within the agora. Between 550 and 350 BCE, Greek stallholders clustered together according to the type of goods carried - fish-sellers were in one place, clothing in another and sellers of more expensive goods such as perfumes and jars were located in a separate building; the Greeks organised trade into all located near the city centre and known as stoa. A freestanding colonnade with a covered walkway, the stoa was both a place of commerce and a public promenade, situated within or adjacent to the agora. At the market-place in Athens, officials were employed by the government to oversee weights and coinage to ensure that the people were not cheated in market place transactions; the rocky and mountainous terrain in Greece made it difficult for producers to transport goods or surpluses to local markets, giving rise to a specialised type of retailer who operated as an intermediary purchasing produce from farmers
A statue is a free-standing sculpture in which the realistic, full-length figures of persons or animals or non-representational forms are carved in a durable material like wood, metal, or stone. Typical statues are close to life-size. Statues have been produced in many cultures from prehistory to the present. Statues represent many different people and animals and mythical. Many statues are placed in a public places as public art; the world's tallest statue, Statue of Unity, is 182 metres tall and is located near the Narmada dam in Gujarat, India. Ancient statues survive showing the bare surface of the material of which they are made. For example, many people associate Greek classical art with white marble sculpture, but there is evidence that many statues were painted in bright colors. Most of the color has weathered off over time. A travelling exhibition of 20 coloured replicas of Greek and Roman works, alongside 35 original statues and reliefs, was held in Europe and the United States in 2008: Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity.
Details such as whether the paint was applied in one or two coats, how finely the pigments were ground, or which binding medium would have been used in each case—all elements that would affect the appearance of a finished piece—are not known. Richter goes so far as to say of classical Greek sculpture, "All stone sculpture, whether limestone or marble, was painted, either wholly or in part." Medieval statues were usually painted, with some still retaining their original pigments. The coloring of statues ceased during the Renaissance, as excavated classical sculptures, which had lost their coloring, became regarded as the best models; the Löwenmensch figurine from the Swabian Alps in Germany is the oldest known statue in the world, dates to 30,000-40,000 years ago. The Venus of Hohle Fels, from the same area, is somewhat later. Throughout history, statues have been associated with cult images in many religious traditions, from Ancient Egypt, Ancient India, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome to the present.
Egyptian statues showing kings as sphinxes have existed since the Old Kingdom, the oldest being for Djedefre. The oldest statue of a striding pharaoh dates from the reign of Senwosret I and is the Egyptian Museum, Cairo; the Middle Kingdom of Egypt witnessed the growth of block statues which became the most popular form until the Ptolemaic period. The oldest statue of a deity in Rome was the bronze statue of Ceres in 485 BC; the oldest statue in Rome is now the statue of Diana on the Aventine. The wonders of the world include several statues from antiquity, with the Colossus of Rhodes and the Statue of Zeus at Olympia among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. While Byzantine art flourished in various forms and statue making witnessed a general decline. An example was the statue of Justinian which stood in the square across from the Hagia Sophia until the fall of Constantinople in the 15th century. Part of the decline in statue making in the Byzantine period can be attributed to the mistrust the Church placed in the art form, given that it viewed sculpture in general as a method for making and worshiping idols.
While making statues was not subject to a general ban, it was hardly encouraged in this period. Justinian was one of the last Emperors to have a full-size statue made, secular statues of any size became non-existent after iconoclasm. Starting with the work of Maillol around 1900, the human figures embodied in statues began to move away from the various schools of realism that been followed for thousands of years; the Futurist and Cubist schools took this metamorphism further until statues still nominally representing humans, had lost all but the most rudimentary relationship to the human form. By the 1920s and 1930s statues began to appear that were abstract in design and execution; the notion that the position of the hooves of horses in equestrian statues indicated the rider's cause of death has been disproved. UK Public Monument and Sculpture Association
Leicester City Centre
Leicester City Centre is Leicester's historical commercial and transport hub and is home to its central business district. Its inner core is delineated by the A594, Leicester's inner ring road, although the various central campuses of the University of Leicester, De Monfort University and Leicester College are adjacent to the inner ring road and could be considered to be a continuation of the City centre. In a similar way, the Leicester Royal Infirmary precinct, the New Walk business district, the Welford Road Stadium of Leicester Tigers' RUFC and the King Power Stadium of Premier League Leicester City to the south, the Golden Mile to the north could be deemed to be extensions to the central core; the city centre incorporates most of Leicester's shopping, with the Highcross and the Haymarket Shopping Centre as well as the'Old Town' around Leicester Cathedral, Leicester Market and the Magazine Gateway. Politically, the city centre is split between the Leicester City Council wards of Castle.
A£19 million regeneration project transformed Leicester's city centre. The work won three awards: The Urbis Urban Regeneration Award in 2007 for Gallowtree Gate, The BCSC Town Centre "Gold" Best in Britain award in June 2009 and the Transport Times Walking & Public Realm award in July 2009; the historic city of Leicester was founded by the Romans as Ratae Corieltauvorum - after the Corieltauvi, the local tribe of Britons whose tribal lands these were - at the crossing of the River Soar by the Fosse Way, between the current path of the river and the modern Gallowtree Gate. It is thought that the medieval walls and gates were in the same positions as the Roman ones, with the forum being where the modern inner ring road meets St Nicholas Circle; the Roman baths are preserved at Jewry Wall. The east gate was at the eastern end of High Street, the north gate was at the northern end of Highcross Street, the west gate was on the town side of West Bridge, the south gate was in the modern Friar Lane area – the city walls ran along the current Millstone Lane, Horsefair Street, Gallowtree Gate, Church Gate, Sanvey Gate and Soar Lane, with the western wall running along the river Soar.
The city centre was the High Cross, at the junction of the current High Highcross Street. Leicester Cathedral and the Guildhall occupy this old area of town. Leicester Castle lay on the south-western corner of the walls, the Newarke was a separate walled area nearby; the Newarke Gateway is the only medieval gateway remaining. A small section of the town wall can be seen in the churchyard of St Mary de Castro; the town's main gates were sold and demolished in the late 18th century, being an impediment to the flow of traffic. With increasing development in the 19th century, the focal point moved eastwards, with the Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower roundabout seeing the five-way junction of the London to Manchester, Birmingham to Yarmouth and Fosse Way roads; this was influenced by the replacement of the Welford Road by the Market Harborough road, as the main route to London, because the Welford Road terminated in the tiny streets of the old town, was therefore a hindrance for vehicles, while the London Road went past the East Gates of the city.
Meanwhile, the civic centre moved southwards, with the Corporation of Leicester moving to a new town hall building in 1876 in the Market Street area, facing onto a new Town Hall Square, just outside the walled town. Between these areas is the modern market, based to the south-west of the Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower area, which features the permanent outdoor covered Leicester Market, alongside an indoor market building selling fish, dairy produce, etc. and the old Cornmarket building. Much of this old area of town is now in various conservation areas. Outside of the ringroad, but close by, are the main campus of De Montfort University, Leicester Royal Infirmary, the Leicester City Football Club's King Power Stadium, the Leicester Tigers' Welford Road stadium and the prison. Leicester railway station is just on the outer side of the ringroad, on the A6; the University of Leicester is further away to the south-east, linked by the pedestrian-only path New Walk. When this was laid out in 1785, on the route of an ancient footpath, it passed through open land, becoming the route to the Leicester Racecourse which became Victoria Park but it soon saw development of large private houses on both sides of it.
It is now offices, although the New Walk Museum makes a strong impact. The area inside the ringroad has two large shopping malls – Highcross Leicester, the Haymarket Shopping Centre, both facing onto the Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower area. On the opposite side of Humberstone Gate to the Haymarket is a new building, with no communal space, occupied by a variety of retailers, that incorporates the famous Lewis's tower from the previous department store on the site. Major chain stores can be found on the pedestrianised Gallowtree Gate, running south-east from the clock tower, which continues to the railway station as Granby Street
Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower
The Haymarket Memorial Clock Tower is a major landmark and popular meeting point in Leicester, United Kingdom. It is located in the middle of the area inside the ring-road, is at the point where five popular streets meet. Before the construction of the Clock Tower the site had been used for an Assembly Room building, built in 1750, re-used and divided as shops in 1805; the building came to be considered "the Haymarket Obstruction" and after a campaign by local property-owners it was demolished in 1862. The hay market on the site remained, until it was relocated to Humberstone Gate; the removal of the Assembly Rooms and the hay market left a wide area which pedestrians struggled to cross due to the busy traffic there, with rumours of an illuminated clock planned for the junction of London Road and Belvoir Street, local businesses began a petition to erect "a clock with a cluster of lamps and a fine colossal statue of that unparalleled benefactor Sir Thomas White" in the area. An organisation was formed in 1867 to raise funds for the project, led by John Burton, who ran a photography business from a shop adjacent to the site of the tower.
Subscriptions were gathered, with further money raised from a concert, architects were invited to produce designs for "an ornamental structure...in height from 35–40 feet to contain four illuminated dials, four statuettes or medallion busts of ancient benefactors to the town, with a platform around 18 feet square, lamps as a safeguard to passing pedestrians." 105 designs were received, with a shortlist of three submitted to the town council for consideration, with Joseph Goddard's design being chosen. 472 subscribers contributed a total of 872 pounds, 2 shillings, 9 pence, with the balance of the GB£1,200 required provided by the Corporation of Leicester. The Clock Tower was constructed in 1868; the tower was built in Ketton stone with a base of Mountsorrel granite, incorporates column shafts made of polished Peterhead granite and serpentine. The statues were made from Portland stone; the site was directly above the junction of two of the city's main sewers which were modified prior to the tower's construction.
A memorial, the Clock Tower has four statues of two persons of particular significance to Leicester and of two notable sons of Leicester, one at each corner, being named on the plinth of each as: Simon de Montfort, Thomas White, William Wyggeston and Gabriel Newton. At the time of its construction the traffic in the areas was horse-drawn. Tram lines were installed in the area between 1903 and 1904. A traffic island at a 5-way junction, the Clock Tower was converted to be the centre-piece of a roundabout, in 1926, one of the first in the UK. There were calls for the tower to be demolished in the 1930s, with increasing traffic in the area, in the 1960s there were suggestions that it should be relocated to Victoria Park, but despite the major changes that have taken place in the area, including the construction of the Haymarket Shopping Centre and the resulting demolition of many nearby buildings it has remained. Pedestrianisation has now led to Humberstone Gate and Gallowtree Gate being closed to traffic, the Clock Tower is now bounded by a road on the northern side.
Restoration of the tower was undertaken in 1992 by architects and engineers Pick Everard to mark the Leicester-based company's 125th anniversary. In the first decade of the 21st century, Leicester City Council unveiled plans to enhance the Clock Tower through extensive de-cluttering to achieve a restored landmark public space at the heart of the city. Construction on the new site was completed in late 2008. On Monday 5 November 2007 both the Leicester Mercury and The Sun printed articles on a hoax petition, set up by local man Luke Anthony Williams. Over 3000 people joined a Facebook group to save the Clock Tower though plans to demolish the monument were fictitious: the only evidence that he could provide was a Wikipedia edit made by himself; the tower is a Grade II listed building. In 2010, with the clock losing time, the mechanism was repaired. Clock Tower according to the City Council Image of the Clock Tower from 1963, from the BBC
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
John Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland
John Henry Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland KG, styled Lord Roos from 1778 until 1779 and Marquess of Granby from 1779 until 1787, was a British landowner as well as an owner and breeder of Thoroughbred racehorses. Styled Lord Roos from birth, he was born at Knightsbridge, the eldest son of Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland, by Lady Mary Isabella Somerset, daughter of Charles Somerset, 4th Duke of Beaufort, he was the grandson of John Manners, Marquess of Granby, the brother of Lord Charles Manners and Lord Robert Manners. He became known as the Marquess of Granby when his father succeeded to the dukedom in 1779. In 1787 he himself succeeded to the dukedom on the death of his father. Rutland was Lord Lieutenant of Leicestershire between 1799 and 1857, he was a prominent owner and breeder of Thoroughbred racehorses. His most successful horse was Cadland, which won The Derby in 1828. Rutland was fictionalized as "the duke" in Benjamin Disraeli's novel Coningsby, his two sons figured as "the marquis of Beaumanoir" and "Lord Henry Sidney".
There is a bronze statue of him in the Market Place, Leicester, erected on this site in 1852 after having been exhibited at the Great Exhibition at Crystal Palace, London in 1851. It was the first public statue to be erected in Leicester, was unveiled by Sir Frederick Gustavus Fowke, Provincial Grand Master of Freemasons for the Province of Leicestershire, on 28 April 1852, it was sculpted by Edward Davis. It is marked " EDW DAVIS Simonet & Fils / Fondeurs Paris 1851", it stands on a high stone plinth on, carved an inscription as follows: JOHN HENRY DUKE OF RUTLAND, KG LORD LIEUTENANT OF LEICESTERSHIRE. THE INHABITANTS OF THE COUNTY & TOWN OF LEICESTER DURING THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS HIGH OFFICE WITH UNIVERSAL CONSENT CAUSED THIS STATUE TO BE ERECTED M. DCCC. Lii. PRAESENTI TIBI MATUROS LARCIMUR HONORES. Rutland married Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Frederick Howard, 5th Earl of Carlisle, on 22 April 1799, they had ten children: Lady Caroline Isabella Manners Lady Elizabeth Frederica Manners, married Andrew Robert Drummond on 7 March 1821.
They had seven children. Lady Emmeline Charlotte Elizabeth Manners, married Charles Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie on 17 February 1831, they had three children. George John Henry Manners, Marquess of Granby Lady Katherine Isabella Manners, married Frederick Hervey, 2nd Marquess of Bristol on 1 December 1830, they had seven children. Lady Adeliza Elizabeth Gertrude Manners, married Reverend F. J. Norman on 22 February 1848, they had one daughter. George John Frederick Manners, Marquess of Granby Charles Cecil John Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland John James Robert Manners, 7th Duke of Rutland, married Catherine Marley on 10 June 1851, they had one son. He remarried Janetta Hughan on 15 May 1862, they had four children. Lord George John Manners, married Adeliza Fitzalan-Howard on 4 Oct 1855, they had five children. The Duchess oversaw landscaping works at Belvoir Castle grounds and took an active interest in managing the estate, including designing a model farm, she made improvements to Cheveley Park and oversaw the building works at York House on the Mall for the Duke of York.
She was credited with designing a new palace for George IV. The Duchess of Rutland died in November 1825, aged 45. Rutland remained a widower until his death at Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire, in January 1857, aged 79. Media related to John Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland at Wikimedia Commons