Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Kent Fire and Rescue Service
Kent Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the administrative county of Kent and the unitary authority area of Medway, covering a geographical area south of London, to the coast and including major shipping routes via the Thames and Medway rivers. The total coastline covered is 225 km; the FRS provides emergency cover to a population of nearly 2 million. The area meets the boundaries of the London Fire Brigade to the north of the county, Surrey to the north west and East Sussex to the south west of Kent; the first fire brigade appeared in Kent in 1802 when the Kent Fire Office formed an insurance brigade in Deptford. In the same year, separately from insurance companies, Hythe became the first town in Kent to set up its own fire brigade, followed by Ashford in 1826. By the 20th century, it was quite fashionable for local authorities to have their own fire brigades. Maidstone had seen the formation of its borough fire brigade in 1901 when the Royal Insurance Company provided a new Shand Mason horse-drawn steam fire engine, named The Queen.
This company had taken over the Kent Fire Office in the same year disbanding their own brigade. Things became competitive between individual town and village brigades, in many instances, each one trying to outdo its neighbour. In 1910, Bromley became the first town in Kent to house motorised fire engines, with two new Merryweather vehicles being stationed there; until 1938, the provision of a fire brigade was a discretionary power, there were a few local authorities that regarded it as an unnecessary expense. However, due to the threat of war, Parliament enacted the Fire Brigades Act 1938 and made it a duty and so created over 1,600 individual fire authorities across the nation, it was these local brigades and the Auxiliary Fire Service – formed in 1938 – that valiantly coped with the consequences of the Battle of Britain and much of The Blitz. In August 1941, local brigades and the AFS were absorbed into one organisation called The National Fire Service, it was in 1941 that the current Headquarters house The Godlands was requisitioned for war-time use by the National Fire Service and it has remained with the fire service since.
World War II brought dark days indeed for Kent fire-fighters. Fire-fighting has been and will always be a dangerous occupation, the Roll of Honour 1899-1990, compiled by Geoffrey Cooper, an ex-Kent fire-fighter, details the deaths of Kent fire-fighters while on duty. Of the 122'Kent' names listed, 15 were pre-1939, 16 were post-1939 and 91 died during World War II. Nationally, well over 1,000 fire-fighters died during World War II, with stories of fire stations and the water supplies needed for fire-fighting being targeted by German bombers, to maximise the damage caused by incendiary bombs; the last death on duty of a Kent fire-fighter was in 1990. The fire service was returned to local authority control on 1 April 1948 under the Fire Services Act 1947, with responsibility in England and Wales being given to the 146 counties and county boroughs of the day; the County of Kent and the City and County Borough of Canterbury combined to form Kent Fire Brigade, taking over 79 fire stations from the National Fire Service.
Subsequent local government reorganisations have had their effect upon the brigade, most in 1965 when eight fire stations in the northwest of the county were transferred to the newly created Greater London area. Further reorganisation in 1974 saw Canterbury lose its county borough status and the fire brigade became the exclusive responsibility of Kent County Council. In 1998, the structure of local government changed again and Kent combined with the new Medway Towns unitary authority for fire brigade provision. On 1 October 2003, Kent Fire Brigade was renamed Kent Fire and Rescue Service to better reflect the requirements demanded of it for many years; these changes were reflected nationally by the enactment of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 which came into effect on 1 October 2004. In the spring of 2011, Kent Fire and Rescue underwent changes to its structure, these included restructuring from three divisions to 5 area groups: North Kent, East Kent, West Kent, South Kent and Mid Kent.
Each group consists of a number of clusters, which are made up of a number of certain stations where resources are locally managed. The Letter prefix for each division was dropped in the station call sign, for instance Swanley, under the old system was named as Station S31 the S standing for South Division, now it is just Station 31. Water Tender: P1 Rescue Pump Ladder: R3/P1 Rescue Pump Platform: R1 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Turntable Ladder: A1 Swift Water Rescue Unit + Inshore Rescue Boat: B1 Command Support Unit: C1 Fire Fogging Unit: M1 Animal Rescue Unit: R2 Line Rescue Unit: R2 Water Carrier: W1 Water Management Unit: W1 General Purpose Vehicle: T1/T2/T3 General Purpose Vehicle + Breathing Apparatus Support Unit: T1 Light 4x4 Vehicle + All Terrain Vehicle: T1 Personnel Carrier Vehicle: T1/T2 Prime Mover + High Volume Pump: T8 Prime Mover + High Volume Hose Layer: T9 Prime Mover + Incident Command & Control Unit: T1 Prime Mover + Incident Support Unit T4 Detection, Identification, & Monitoring: H8 Incident Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: T9 Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R9 General Purpose Vehicle: T1 Prime Mover: T5/T6/T7/T8/T9Pods: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Pu
Rutland is a landlocked county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire. Its greatest length north to south is only 18 miles and its greatest breadth east to west is 17 miles, it is the fourth smallest in the UK as a whole. Because of this, the Latin motto Multum in Parvo or "much in little" was adopted by the county council in 1950, it has the smallest population of any normal unitary authority in England. Among the current ceremonial counties, the Isle of Wight, City of London and City of Bristol are smaller in area; the former County of London, in existence 1889 to 1965 had a smaller area. It is 323rd of the 326 districts in population; the only towns in Rutland are Oakham, the county town, Uppingham. At the centre of the county is Rutland Water, a large artificial reservoir, an important nature reserve serving as an overwintering site for wildfowl and a breeding site for ospreys. Rutland's older cottages are built from limestone or ironstone and many have roofs of Collyweston stone slate or thatch.
The origin of the name of the county is unclear. In a 1909 edition of Notes and Queries Harriot Tabor suggested "that the name should be Ruthland, that there is a part of Essex called the Ruth, that the ancient holders of it were called Ruthlanders, since altered to Rutland", its first mention, as "Roteland", occurs in the will of Edward the Confessor. The northwestern part of the county was recorded as Rutland, a detached part of Nottinghamshire, in Domesday Book, it was first mentioned as a separate county in 1159, but as late as the 14th century it was referred to as the'Soke of Rutland'. It was known as Rutlandshire, but in recent times only the shorter name is common. Rutland may be from Old English hryþr or hrythr "cattle" and land "land", as a record from 1128 as Ritelanede shows. However, A Dictionary of British Place-Names by A D Mills gives an alternative etymology, "Rota's land", from the Old English personal name and land land, it is from the alternative interpretation of red land that the traditional nickname for a male person from Rutland, a "Raddle Man", derives.
Earl of Rutland and Duke of Rutland are titles in the peerage of England held in the Manners family, derived from the historic county of Rutland. The Earl of Rutland was elevated to the status of Duke in 1703 and the titles were merged; the family seat is Leicestershire. The office of High Sheriff of Rutland was instituted in 1129, there has been a Lord Lieutenant of Rutland since at least 1559. By the time of the 19th century it had been divided into the hundreds of Alstoe, Martinsley and Wrandike. Rutland covered parts of three poor law unions and rural sanitary districts: those of Oakham and Stamford; the registration county of Rutland contained the entirety of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs, which included several parishes in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire – the eastern part in Stamford RSD was included in the Lincolnshire registration county. Under the Poor Laws, Oakham Union workhouse was built in 1836–37 at a site to the north-east of the town, with room for 100 paupers; the building operated as the Catmose Vale Hospital, now forms part of the Oakham School.
In 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894 the rural sanitary districts were partitioned along county boundaries to form three rural districts. The part of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs in Rutland formed the Oakham Rural District and Uppingham Rural District, with the two parishes from Oakham RSD in Leicestershire becoming part of the Melton Mowbray Rural District, the nine parishes of Uppingham RSD in Leicestershire becoming the Hallaton Rural District, the six parishes of Uppingham RSD in Northamptonshire becoming Gretton Rural District. Meanwhile, that part of Stamford RSD in Rutland became the Ketton Rural District. Oakham Urban District was created from Oakham Rural District in 1911, it was subsequently abolished in 1974. Rutland was included in the "East Midlands General Review Area" of the 1958–67 Local Government Commission for England. Draft recommendations would have seen Rutland split, with Ketton Rural District going along with Stamford to a new administrative county of Cambridgeshire, the western part added to Leicestershire.
The final proposals were less radical and instead proposed that Rutland become a single rural district within the administrative county of Leicestershire. Rutland became a non-metropolitan district of Leicestershire under the Local Government Act 1972, which took effect on 1 April 1974; the original proposal was for Rutland to be merged with what is now the Melton borough, as Rutland did not meet the requirement of having a population of at least 40,000. The revised and implemented proposals allowed Rutland to be exempt from this. In 1994, the Local Government Commission for England, conducting a structural review of English local government, recommended that Rutland become a unitary authority; this was implemented on 1 April 1997, when Rutland County Council became responsible for all local services in Rutland, with the exception of the Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service and Leicestershire Police, which are run by joint boards with Leicestershire County Council and Leicester City Council.
Rutland regained a separate Lieutenancy and shrievalty, thus regained status as a ceremonial county. Rutland wa
North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service
North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the seven districts of administrative county of North Yorkshire: Craven, Hambleton, Ryedale, Selby. The service is divided into eight groups related to the above districts; the FRS has a total of 38 fire stations, The majority of these are crewed by staff on the retained duty system, with the minority being wholetime. Unlike other fire and rescue services in the United Kingdom, this FRS has two volunteer fire stations which are crewed by volunteers. There are: 5 Wholetime Shift fire stations 7 wholetime Day-crewed stations 24 RDS stations 2 Volunteer-crewed stations 1 Headquarters and training centre RP = Rescue Pump ALP = Aerial Ladder Platform HRU/ISU = Heavy Rescue Unit/Incident Support Unit ICU = Incident Command Unit WB = Water Bowser IRU = Incident Response Unit WRL = Water Rescue Ladder SCO = Agrocat WRU = Water Rescue Unit GOTCHA = Specialist Rope Rescue VU = Volunteer Unit HVPU/HL = High Volume Pumping Unit/Hose Layer TRV = Targeted Response Vehicle TRV* = TRV at Day Crewed are first response appliances The FRS received a total number of 19,000 emergency calls in 2007, as well as this the service dealt with 9,000 incidents that year.
Additionally, the service experienced a drop in call-outs by 32% between 2003 and 2013. By 2016, this had dropped to 15,000 and received notoriety when a crew in Harrogate was delayed in getting to a car fire after it emerged they had been sent to the wrong location by a control room in Cornwall. NYFRS shares its control room operations with the Cornwall Fire and Rescue Service during peak periods. A investigation determined that the mix-up was down to the caller not supplying timely information rather than the Cornish operator not having'local' knowledge. Fire Service in the United Kingdom Fire apparatus Fire Engine FiReControl List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Homepage
Bedfordshire Fire and Rescue Service
Bedfordshire Fire and Rescue Service is the fire and rescue service for the ceremonial county of Bedfordshire, including unitary authorities of Bedford, Central Bedfordshire, Luton. Bedfordshire Fire Brigade was recreated in 1947 after the disbanding of the National Fire Service. Luton began operating an independent brigade when it became a county borough in 1964. In 1974, the Luton brigade was re-absorbed into Bedfordshire, renamed Bedfordshire Fire Service, it was renamed to Bedfordshire & Luton Fire and Rescue Service in 1997, on the same day that Luton became a unitary authority. This reflected that Luton was no longer in the administrative county of Bedfordshire, though Luton remained in the ceremonial county; the brigade changed to its current name in 2012, three years after the administrative county was abolished and divided into two unitary authorities. Bedfordshire Fire and Rescue Service employ more than 550 staff on a variety of conditions of service; these include Firefighters on the Wholetime shift system.
The county's control room was due to move into a regional control centre in Cambridge in 2011 as part of the FiReControl project. The Firefighters working at the county's five Wholetime stations are the first in the country to work 24-hour shifts. Bedfordshire Fire and Rescue Service operates 14 fire stations, of which five are crewed on 24-hour shifts, one day crewed and the remainder are crewed by retained firefighters who live near to their fire station and can arrive there within five minutes of a call-out. Rescue Pump: P1/P2 Rural Water Tender: P3 Incident Support Unit: 4 Operational Support Unit: 4 Prime Mover + Hazardous Materials Support Unit: H4 Rescue Support Unit: R5 Specialist Rescue Unit: R5 Technical Rescue Unit: R5 Multi Role Vehicle: 6M Aerial Ladder Platform: A7 Water Carrier: W8 Water Rescue Unit + Inshore Rescue Boat: B9 Incident Command Unit: C30CBRN Response: Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Rerobe: 95 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: 96 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Unit: 99 Bedfordshire Police East of England Ambulance Service List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty
Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service
The Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering Herefordshire and Worcestershire in the West Midlands region of England. The two counties consist of around 1,500 square miles, a population of over 750,000 people; the service was created in 1974 when The County Of Hereford Fire Brigade and The Worcester City & County Fire Brigade were merged to create The County Of Hereford and Worcester Fire Brigade. The two counties were split up again in 1998 but the fire service remained, is now run by a joint fire authority; the service has 332 wholetime operational staff, 369 retained staff, 21 Fire Control staff, as well as about 98 non-uniformed support staff. The busiest areas of Hereford and Worcester fire & rescue is Worcester and Redditch both averaging 1,500 call outs a year, the least busiest areas being Peterchurch and Fownhope averaging between 10-20 callouts a year. Evesham & Peterchurch stations are home to the fire services realistic training facilities.
The main training centre is at Droitwich fire station, more complex training is undertaken at the Fire Service College in Moreton In Marsh. The smallest station in the area is Broadway, a small garage situated off a narrow lane & the largest station is the Wyre Forest Hub with 4 pumps & 6 more vehicles Neighbouring fire services include: Gloucestershire, Shropshire, Staffordshire and West Wales, South Wales and the West Midlands; the 4 Wholetime Fire Stations within Herefordshire & Worcestershire have 1 appliance crewed 24/7 by 4 watches of. The 3 Day Crewed Stations within Worcestershire have 1 appliance crewed for 12 hours a day by 2 watches working on a shift pattern of four 12 hour shifts four days off; the appliance is manned by the retained crews at night The one Day Crew Plus Station have the 1 appliance crewed 24/7 by 4 watches of Blue, Green & White, Working on a shift pattern on a self rostering system consisting of two consecutive 24 hour shifts followed by 4 days off. They work within the station for 12 hours and spend the night at an accommodation site within the station boundary.
All stations in Herefordshire & Worcester have Retained crews in which 19 are retained. Retained firefighters are part-time and have to live or work within 5 minutes of the station and be available for up to 50 hours a week. Pump, Standard firefighting appliance based on either.
Leicestershire County Council
Leicestershire County Council is the county council for the English non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire. It was formed in 1889 by the Local Government Act 1888; the county is divided into 52 electoral divisions. The council is controlled by the Conservative Party; the leader of the county council is Nick Rushton, elected to the post in September 2012. The headquarters of the council is County Hall beside the A50 at Glenfield, just outside the city of Leicester in Blaby district. From its establishment in 1889 to 1974 the county council covered the administrative county of Leicestershire, excluding Leicester. In 1974 the Local Government Act reconstituted Leicestershire County Council, adding the former county borough of Leicester, the small county of Rutland to the area. On 1 April 1997 these were removed from the County Council area again, to become unitary authorities. Leicestershire has three tiers of local government; these tiers are the county council, seven district or borough councils and parish councils all of which charge a mandatory tax in return for a service.
In urban areas the work of the parish council is to be undertaken by the county or district council. The seven district councils in Leicestershire are: Blaby District Council Charnwood Borough Council Harborough District Council Hinckley & Bosworth Borough Council Melton Borough Council North West Leicestershire District Council Oadby & Wigston Borough CouncilThese district councils are responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism Leicestershire County Council consists of 55 elected members, from 52 wards; the most recent election was the May 2017 elections. Following these elections the current political composition of the council is. Elections were held for the reconstituted county council in 1973. 1977 saw the Conservative Party take control, but they lost it again in 1981. Elections in 1985, 1989, 1993 and 1997 continued No Overall Control; the Conservatives took control in 2001, helped in part by the removal of the Labour-voting Leicester from the county.
The council's cabinet has, as of December 2015, the following members, with the following portfolios: Nick Rushton - leader, with responsibility for economic development and strategic relationships Byron Rhodes - deputy leader, with responsibility for resources Ivan Ould - lead member for children and young people, including the Supporting Leicestershire Families programme Dave Houseman - lead member for adult social care Blake Pain - lead member for economic development and waste management Peter Osborne - lead member for highways and transport Ernie White - lead member for health and wellbeing, including sport Pam Posnett - lead member for communities Richard Blunt - lead member for heritage and arts and planning Joe Orson - lead member for safer communities and policing and chair of the police and crime panel There are six departments: Corporate Resources Environment and Transport Adults and Communities Children and Family Services Public health Chief Executive's In the five years to 2015, the council's roles and responsibilities changed due to austerity savings, the transfer of public health from the NHS to the council and many schools becoming academies, independent of the council.
However, that still left a number of key responsibilities. As of December 2015, these are: social care for children; the council claims to be the lowest-funded county council, yet one of the top three best performers, across a wide range of indicators. From 2010-2015, the council has had to save £100 million - two thirds as efficiency savings and the remainder from services; the council has predicted it will have to save more from services as austerity continues, with a further £100 million-plus of savings required over the next four years. As of 2015/16, the council's annual budget was £348 million and it had just over 5,000 full-time equivalent staff. Charles Manners, 10th Duke of Rutland, was a county councillor 1945—1985 and Chairman 1974—1977. Local government in England Official website