Afghanistan Campaign Medal
The Afghanistan Campaign Medal is a military award of the United States military, created by Executive Order 13363 of President George W. Bush on November 29, 2004, became available for general distribution in June 2005; the medal was designed by the U. S. Army Institute of Heraldry; the Afghanistan Campaign Medal is awarded to any member of the United States military who has performed duty within the borders of Afghanistan for a period of thirty consecutive days or sixty non-consecutive days. The medal is retroactive to October 24, 2001, is active until a date to be determined. Personnel who have been engaged in combat with an enemy force, or personnel who have been wounded in combat within Afghanistan, may receive the ACM regardless of the number of days spent within the country; the medal is awarded posthumously to any service member who dies in the line of duty within Afghanistan, including from non-combat injuries such as accidents and mishaps. The medal is bronze in 1 1⁄4 inches in diameter.
It depicts above a range of mountains a map of Afghanistan. Around the top is the inscription "AFGHANISTAN CAMPAIGN." On the reverse, a radiating demi-sun superimposed by an eagle’s head couped. Inscribed across the bottom half of the reserve side are the three lines "FOR SERVICE IN AFGHANISTAN", enclosed by a laurel wreath; the following are the established campaign phases for the Afghanistan Campaign Medal: The Afghanistan Campaign Medal is authorized the following devices: Arrowhead device - For qualified Army and Air Force service members. Campaign stars - For each campaign phase that a service member participates in for 1 or more days, a 3⁄16 inch bronze campaign star is worn on the suspension and service ribbon of the medal, with a 3⁄16 inch silver star being worn in lieu of five bronze stars. Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia - The ICM may be awarded with the Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia for qualified Navy service members such as hospital corpsmen assigned to Marine Corps units that participate in combat during the assignment.
Examples of campaign stars worn on the ACM service ribbon: The Afghanistan Campaign Medal replaces the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal for service in Afghanistan and personnel who received the GWOT-EM for Afghanistan service may elect to exchange the medal for the ACM. Both medals may not be received for the same period of service in Afghanistan and any current Afghanistan service will only be recognized with the Afghanistan Campaign Medal. War in Afghanistan Awards and decorations of the United States military United Kingdom Afghanistan medal
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Silver Star Medal, unofficially the Silver Star, is the United States Armed Forces's third-highest personal decoration for valor in combat. The Silver Star Medal is awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States; the Silver Star Medal is the successor award to the "Citation Star", established by an Act of Congress on July 9, 1918, during World War I. On July 19, 1932, the Secretary of War approved the conversion of the "Citation Star" to the SSM with the original "Citation Star" incorporated into the center of the medal. Authorization for the Silver Star Medal was placed into law by an Act of Congress for the U. S. Navy on August 7, 1942, an Act of Congress for the U. S. Army on December 15, 1942; the current statutory authorization for the medal is Title 10 of the United States Code, 10 U. S. C. § 3746 for the U. S. Army, 10 U. S. C. § 8746 for the U. S. Air Force, 10 U. S. C. § 6244 for the U. S. Navy; the U. S. Army and Air Force award the medal as the "Silver Star".
The U. S. Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard continue to award the medal as the "Silver Star Medal". Since 21 December 2016, the Department of Defense refers to the decoration as the Silver Star Medal; the Silver Star Medal is awarded for gallantry, so long as the action does not justify the award of one of the next higher valor awards: the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross, or the Air Force Cross. The gallantry displayed must have taken place while in action against an enemy of the United States, while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force, or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party; the Silver Star Medal is awarded for singular acts of valor or heroism over a brief period, such as one or two days of a battle. Air Force pilots and combat systems officers and Navy/Marine Corps naval aviators and flight officers flying fighter aircraft, are considered eligible to receive the Silver Star upon becoming an ace, which entails the pilot and, in multi-seat fighters, the weapons system officer or radar intercept officer and risking his life multiple times under combat conditions and emerging victorious.
However, during the Vietnam War, the last conflict to produce U. S. fighter aces: an Air Force pilot and two navigators/weapon systems officers, a naval aviator and a naval flight officer/radar intercept officer who had achieved this distinction, were awarded the Air Force Cross and Navy Cross in addition to SSMs awarded for earlier aerial kills. Unit award equivalentAir Force – Gallant Unit Citation Army – Valorous Unit Award Coast Guard – Coast Guard Unit Commendation Navy-Marine Corps – Navy Unit Commendation The Silver Star Medal is a gold five-pointed star, 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter with a laurel wreath encircling rays from the center and a 3⁄16 inch diameter silver star superimposed in the center; the pendant is suspended from a rectangular shaped metal loop with rounded corners. The reverse has the inscription FOR GALLANTRY IN ACTION; the ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 7⁄32 inch Old Glory red. Ribbon devicesSecond and subsequent awards of the Silver Star Medal are denoted by bronze or silver oak leaf clusters in the Army and Air Force and by gold or silver 5⁄16 inch stars in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard.
The Department of Defense does not keep extensive records for the Silver Star Medal. Independent groups estimate that between 100,000 and 150,000 SSMs have been awarded since the decoration was established. Colonel David Hackworth, awarded ten SSMs while serving in the Army during the Korean War and Vietnam War, is to be the person awarded the most SSMs. Three Army nurses that served in World War I were cited in 1919 and 1920 with Citation Stars for gallantry in attending to the wounded while under artillery fire in July 1918. In 2007, it was discovered; the three nurses were awarded the Silver Star Medal posthumously: Jane Rignel – Mobile Hospital No. 2, 42nd Division, for gallantry in "giving aid to the wounded under heavy fire" in France on July 15, 1918 Linnie Leckrone – Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artilley bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918 Irene Robar – Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artillery bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918An unknown number of servicewomen received the award in World War II.
Four Army nurses serving in Italy during the war—First Lieutenant Mary Roberts, Second Lieutenant Elaine Roe, Second Lieutenant Rita Virginia Rourke, Second Lieutenant Ellen Ainsworth —became the first women recipients of the Silver Star, all cited for their bravery in evacuating the 33rd Field Hospital at Anzio on February 10, 1944. That same year, Corporal Magdalena Leones, a Filipino American, received the medal for clandestine activities on Luzon; the next known servicewomen to receive the Silver Star is Army National Guard Sergeant Leigh Ann Hester in 2005, for gallantry during an insurgent ambush on a convoy in Iraq and Army
Fort Lee (Virginia)
Fort Lee, in Prince George County, United States, is a United States Army post and headquarters of the United States Army Combined Arms Support Command / Sustainment Center of Excellence, the U. S. Army Quartermaster School, the U. S. Army Ordnance School, The U. S. Army Transportation School, the Army Logistics University, Defense Contract Management Agency, the U. S. Defense Commissary Agency. Fort Lee hosts two Army museums, the U. S. Army Quartermaster Museum and the U. S. Army Women's Museum; the Army's Ordnance Museum relocated to Fort Lee in 2009–2010 and has plans to return its collection to public display at Fort Lee. The fort is named for Confederate General Robert E. Lee. Fort Lee is a census-designated place, with population of 3,393 at the 2010 census. Just 18 days after a state of war with Germany was declared, the first Camp Lee was selected as a state mobilization camp and became a division training camp. In June 1917, building began and within sixty days some 14,000 men were on the installation.
When construction work ended, there were accommodations for 60,335 men. On 15 July 1917, the War Department announced that the camp would be named after General Robert E. Lee, a Confederate Civil War commander. Brigadier General Malcolm Frost said, "Every Army installation is named for a soldier who holds a place in our military history." He further explained that the historic names chosen "represent individuals, not causes or ideologies," and that it was done "in the spirit of reconciliation, not division."After World War I, Camp Lee was taken over by the Commonwealth of Virginia and designated a game preserve. Portions of the land were incorporated into the Petersburg National Battlefield and the Federal Correctional Institution, Petersburg. In 1920 Camp Lee was still active. In October 1940, the War Department ordered the construction of another Camp Lee on the site of the earlier installation. Built as as the first, construction was still ongoing when the Quartermaster Replacement Training Center started operation in February 1941.
Their number grew to 25,000 in 1942, peaked at 35,000 in 1944. Camp Lee was the home of a Medical Replacement Training Center, but as the Quartermaster training increased, it was decided to relocate the MRTC at Camp Pickett; the QMRTC was re-designated as an Army Services Forces Training Center, but it retained its basic mission of training Quartermaster personnel. While the QMRTC was getting underway, the Quartermaster School was transferred to Camp Lee. A full program of courses was conducted, including Officer Candidate School. By the end of 1941, Camp Lee was the center of both basic and advanced training of Quartermaster personnel and held this position throughout the war; when World War II ended, the fate of Camp Lee was in question. In 1946, the War Department announced that Camp Lee would be retained as a center for Quartermaster training. Official recognition of its permanent status was obtained in 1950 and the post was redesignated as Fort Lee. Troops began Quartermaster training for the Korean War and continued for the next three years.
Fort Lee had a Women's Army Corps training center. After the Korean War, progress was made on an ambitious permanent building program. Under the twenty-year program, Fort Lee changed from an installation of temporary wooden structures to a modern Army post with permanent brick and cinder block buildings; the Quartermaster Training Center, created to supervise the training of Quartermaster personnel and troop units, brought an intensification of training activity within the Quartermaster Corps. As a result, the courses taught at other locations were incorporated in the curriculum of the Quartermaster School. Profound changes were evident at Fort Lee during 1962; the post became a Class 1 military installation under Second United States Army. The Quartermaster School became a part of the Continental Army Command service school system and was selected to serve as the home of the Quartermaster Corps and Corps Historian; the Second United States Army was inactivated at Fort Lee in 1966 until its reactivation at Fort Gillem, Georgia in 1983.
In July 1973, Fort Lee came under the control of Doctrine Command. Fort Lee is the country's first army post to host a'full-size' statue commemorating the service of women in the Army; the statue was unveiled in 2013. In 2005 a Base Realignment and Closure law was passed by Congress. One of BRAC's requirements was the relocation of the U. S. Army Ordnance Center and School headquarters, the Ordnance Mechanical Maintenance School, the United States Army Ordnance Munitions and Electronic Maintenance School, the Ordnance Museum to Fort Lee by the end 2011; the transfer of artifacts from Aberdeen to Fort Lee began in August 2009, with the former museum now designated the U. S. Army Ordnance Training and Heritage Center at Fort Lee. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.4 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,269 people, 1,401 households, 1,223 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 870.2 people per square mile. There were 1,445 housing units at an average density of 173.0/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 39.46% White, 47.05% African American, 0.73% Native American, 2.34% Asian, 0.40% Pacific Islander, 6.67% from other races, 3.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.42% of the population. There were 1,401 households out of which 72.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.0% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and
Bowling Green, Kentucky
Bowling Green is a home rule-class city and the county seat of Warren County, United States. As of 2017, its population of 67,067 made it the third most-populous city in the state after Louisville and Lexington. Founded by pioneers in 1798, Bowling Green was the provisional capital of Confederate Kentucky during the American Civil War; the city was the subject of the 1967 Everly Brothers song "Bowling Green". In the 21st century, it is the location of numerous manufacturers, including General Motors and Fruit of the Loom; the Bowling Green Assembly Plant has been the source of all Chevrolet Corvettes built since 1981. Bowling Green is home to the state's second-largest public university, Western Kentucky University. In 2014, Forbes magazine listed Bowling Green as one of the Top 25 Best Places to Retire in the United States; the first Europeans known to have reached the area carved their names on beech trees near the river around 1775. By 1778, settlers established McFadden's Station on the north bank of the Barren River.
Present-day Bowling Green developed from homesteads erected by Robert and George Moore and General Elijah Covington, the namesake of the town near Cincinnati. The Moore brothers arrived from Virginia circa 1794. In 1798, two years after Warren County had been formed, Robert Moore donated 2 acres of land to county trustees for the purpose of constructing public buildings. Soon after, he donated an additional 30 to 40 acres surrounding the original plot; the city of Bowling Green was incorporated by the Commonwealth of Kentucky on March 6, 1798. Some controversy exists over the source of the town's name; the city refers to the first county commissioners' meeting, which named the town "Bolin Green" after the Bowling Green in New York City, where patriots had pulled down a statue of King George III and used the lead to make bullets during the American Revolution. According to the Encyclopedia of Kentucky, the name was derived from Bowling Green, from where early migrants had come, or the personal "ball alley game" of founder Robert Moore.
Early records indicate that the city name was spelled "Bowlingreen". By 1810, Bowling Green had 154 residents. Growth in steamboat commerce and the proximity of the Barren River increased Bowling Green's importance. Canal locks and dams on the Barren River made it much more navigable. In 1832, the first portage railway connected the river to the location of the current county courthouse. Mules pulled freight and passengers to and from the city on the tracks. Despite rapid urbanization of the Bowling Green area in the 1830s, agriculture remained an important part of local life. A visitor to Bowling Green noted the boasting of a tavern proprietor named Benjamin Vance: In 1859, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad laid railroad through Bowling Green that connected the city with northern and southern markets. Bowling Green declared itself neutral in an attempt to escape the Civil War; because of its prime location and resources, both the Union and Confederacy sought control of the city. The majority of its residents rejected both the Lincoln administration.
On September 18, 1861, around 1300 Confederate soldiers arrived from Tennessee to occupy the city, placed under command of Kentucky native General Simon Bolivar Buckner. The city's pro-Union feelings surprised the Confederate occupiers; the Confederates fortified surrounding hills to secure possible military approaches to the valuable river and railroad assets. In November 1861, the provisional Confederate government of Kentucky chose Bowling Green as its capital. On February 14, 1862, after receiving reports that Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River had both been captured by Union forces under Ulysses S. Grant, the Confederates began to withdraw from Bowling Green, they destroyed bridges across the Barren River, the railroad depot, other important buildings that could be used by the enemy. The city was subject to raids throughout the remainder of the war. During the summer of 1864, Union General Stephen G. Burbridge arrested 22 civilians in and around Bowling Green on a charge of treason.
This incident and other harsh treatment by federal authorities led to bitterness toward the Union among Bowling Green residents and increased sympathies with the Confederacy. After the Civil War, Bowling Green's business district grew considerably. Agriculture had dominated the city's economy. During the 1870s, many of the historic business structures seen today were erected. One of the most important businesses in Bowling Green of this era was Carie Burnam Taylor's dress-making company. By 1906, Taylor employed more than 200 women. In 1868, the city constructed its first waterworks system; the fourth county courthouse was completed in 1868. The first three were completed in 1798, 1805, 1813. In 1889, the first mule-drawn street cars appeared in the city; the first electric street cars began to replace them by 1895. The Sisters of Charity of Nazareth founded St. Columbia's Academy in 1862, succeeded by St. Joseph's School in 1911. In 1884, the Southern Normal School, founded in 1875, moved to Bowling Green from the town of Glasgow, Kentucky.
Pleasant J. Potter founded a women's college in Bowling Green in 1889, it closed in 1909 and its property was sold to the Western Kentucky State Normal School. Other important schools in this era were Methodist Warren College, Ogden College, Green River Female College, a
The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle is a family of light, four-wheel drive, military trucks and utility vehicles produced by AM General. It has supplanted the roles performed by the original jeep, others such as the Vietnam War-era M151 jeep, the M561 "Gama Goat", their M718A1 and M792 ambulance versions, the Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle, other light trucks. Used by the United States military, it is used by numerous other countries and organizations and in civilian adaptations; the Humvee saw widespread use in the Gulf War of 1991, where it negotiated the treacherous desert terrain. After going through a replacement process, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle was chosen as its successor. Since the World War II ¼-ton reconnaissance truck was green-lit for mass-deployment, became known as the "jeep", the United States military had continued to rely on jeeps as general utility vehicles, as a mass-transport for soldiers in small groups. Although the US Army had let Ford redesign the jeep from the ground up during the 1950s, the resulting M151 jeep incorporated significant innovations, it adhered to the original concept—a compact, low profile vehicle, with a folding windshield, that a layman could distinguish from the preceding Willys jeeps.
The jeeps were shorter than a Volkswagen Beetle and weighed just over one metric ton, seating three with an 800 lb payload. During and after the war, the light, 1⁄4-ton jeeps were complemented by the 3⁄4-ton Dodge WC and Korea War M37 models. By the mid-1960s, the U. S. military felt a need to reevaluate their ageing light vehicle fleet. For starters, from the mid 1960s, the U. S. Army had tried to modernize, through replacing the larger, purpose-built Dodge M37s by militarized, "commercial off the shelf" 4×4 trucks—initially the M715 Jeep trucks, succeeded in the 1970s by the Dodge M880 series, but these didn't satisfy newer requirements either—what was wanted was a versatile light military truck, that could replace multiple outdated vehicles; when becoming aware of the U. S. Army's desire for a versatile new light weapons carrier / reconnaissance vehicle, as early as 1969 FMC Corporation started development on their XR311 prototype, offered it for testing in 1970. At least a dozen of these were built for testing under the High Mobility Combat Vehicle, or HMCV program much more as an enhanced capability successor to the M151 jeep, than as a general purpose load lugger.
In 1977, Lamborghini developed the Cheetah model in an attempt to meet the Army contract specifications. In 1979, the U. S. Army drafted final specifications for a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, to replace all the tactical vehicles in the 1/4 to 1 1/4-ton range, namely the M151 quarter-ton jeep and M561 Gama Goat, as one "jack-of-all-trades" light tactical vehicle to perform the role of several existing trucks; the specification called for excellent on and off-road performance, the ability to carry a large payload, improved survivability against indirect fire. Compared to the jeep, it was larger and had a much wider track, with a 16 in ground clearance, double that of most sport-utility vehicles; the new truck was to traverse a 40 percent slope. The air intake was to be mounted flush on top of the right fender (or to be raised on a stovepipe to roof level to ford 5 ft of water and electronics waterproofed to drive through 2.5 ft of water were specified. The radiator was to be mounted sloping over the engine on a forward-hinged hood.
Out of 61 companies that showed interest, only three submitted prototypes. In July 1979, AM General, a subsidiary of American Motors Corporation began preliminary design work. Less than a year the first prototype was in testing. Chrysler Defense and Teledyne Continental produced competing designs. In June 1981, the Army awarded AM General a contract for development of several more prototype vehicles to be delivered to the government for another series of tests; the original M998 A0 series had a curb weight of 5,200 lb, a payload of 2,500 lb, a 6.2 L V-8 diesel engine and 6.3 L gasoline, a three-speed automatic transmission. The three companies were chosen to design and build eleven HMMWV prototypes, which covered over 600,000 miles in trials which included off-road courses in desert and arctic conditions. AM General was awarded an initial contract in 1983 for 2,334 vehicles, the first batch of a five-year contract that would see 55,000 vehicles delivered to the U. S. military, including 39,000 vehicles for the Army.
S. and foreign customers by the Persian Gulf War of 1991, 100,000 were delivered by the Humvee's 10th anniversary in 1995. Ft. Lewis and the 2nd Battalion 1st Infantry, 9th Infantry Division was the testing unit to employ HMMWV in the new concept of a motorized division. Yakima Training Center in Yakima, Washington was the main testing grounds for HMMWVs from 1985 through December 1991, when the motorized concept was abandoned and the division inactivated. HMMWVs first saw combat in Operation Just Cause, the U. S. invasion of Panama in 1989. The HMMWV was designed for personnel and light cargo transport behind front lines, not as a front line fighting vehicle. Like the previous jeep, the basic HMMWV has no armor or protection against chemical, radiological or nuclear threats. Losses were low in conventional operations, such as the Gulf War. Vehicles and crews suffered considerable damage and losses during the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993 due to
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s