The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages. Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a branch of the Indo-Iranians in Central Asia in the mid 2nd millennium BC. In the 1st millennium AD, their area of settlement was reduced as a result of Slavic, Germanic and Mongol expansions and many being subjected to Slavicisation. The Iranian peoples include Balochs, Gilaks, Mazanderanis, Pashtuns, Persians, Talysh people, the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān and Parthian Aryān. The Middle Iranian terms ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic ēr- and ary-, there have been many attempts to qualify the verbal root of ar- in Old Iranian arya-. The following are according to 1957 and linguists, Emmanuel Laroche, Old Iranian arya- being descended from Proto-Indo-European ar-yo-, meaning assembler. Harold Walter Bailey, ar- to beget, unlike the Sanskrit ā́rya-, the Old Iranian term has solely an ethnic meaning.
Today, the Old Iranian arya- remains in ethno-linguistic names such as Iran, Alan, Ir, in the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of Avesta. The earliest epigraphically attested reference to the word occurs in the Bistun Inscription of the 6th century BC. The inscription of Bistun describes itself to have composed in Arya. As is the case for all other Old Iranian language usage, in royal Old Persian inscriptions, the term arya- appears in three different contexts, As the name of the language of the Old Persian version of the inscription of Darius I in the Bistun Inscription. As the ethnic background of Darius the Great in inscriptions at Rustam Relief and Susa, as the definition of the God of Iranians, Ohrmazd, in the Elamite version of the Bistun Inscription. In the Dna and Dse and Xerxes describe themselves as an Achaemenid, a Persian, son of a Persian, although Darius the Great called his language arya-, modern scholars refer to it as Old Persian because it is the ancestor of the modern Persian language.
The trilingual inscription erected by the command of Shapur I gives a clear description. The languages used are Parthian, Middle Persian, and Greek, tou Arianon ethnous despotes eimi, which translates to I am the king of the kingdom of the Iranians. In Middle Persian, Shapur says ērānšahr xwadāy hēm and in Parthian he says aryānšahr xwadāy ahēm, the Avesta clearly uses airiia- as an ethnic name, where it appears in expressions such as airyāfi daiŋˊhāvō, airyō šayanəm, and airyanəm vaējō vaŋhuyāfi dāityayāfi. In the late part of the Avesta, one of the homelands was referred to as Airyanəm Vaējah which approximately means expanse of the Iranians. The homeland varied in its range, the area around Herat
Cinema of Iran
The cinema of Iran or cinema of Persia refers to the cinema and film industries in Iran which produce a variety of commercial films annually. Iranian art films have garnered fame and now enjoy a global following. Along with China, Iran has been lauded as one of the best exporters of cinema in the 1990s, some critics now rank Iran as the worlds most important national cinema, with a significance that invites comparison to Italian neorealism and similar movements in past decades. A range of film festivals have honored Iranian cinema in the last twenty years. The earliest examples of visual representations in Iranian history may be traced back to the bas-reliefs in Persepolis, bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. Persepolis was the center of the ancient kingdom of Achaemenids. Iranian visual arts maybe said to have peaked about a years during the Sassanian reign. A bas-relief from this period in Taq Bostan depicts a hunting scene.
Similar works from the period have been found to articulate movements and it is even possible to see the progenitor of the cinema close-up, a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground, among these works of art. After the conversion from Zoroastrianism to Islam — a religion in which symbols were avoided — Persian art continued its visual practices. Persian miniatures provide great examples of such continued attempts, the deliberate lack of perspective in Persian miniature enabled the artist to have different plots and sub-plots within the same image space. A very popular form of art was Pardeh Khani. Another type of art in the category was Naqqali. Popular dramatic performance arts in Iran, before the advent of cinema, include Marionette, Saye-bazi, Cinema was only five years old when it came to Persia at the beginning of the 20th century. The first Persian filmmaker was Mirza Ebrahim Khan Akkas Bashi, the photographer of Muzaffar al-Din Shah. After a visit to Paris in July 1900, Akkas Bashi obtained a camera and he is said to have filmed the Shahs private and religious ceremonies, but no copies of such films exist today.
A few years after Akkas Bashi started photography, Khan Baba Motazedi and he shot a considerable amount of newsreel footage during the reign of Qajar to the Pahlavi dynasty. The first public screening took place in Tehran in 1904, presented by Mirza Ebrahim Khan Sahaf Bashi and he arranged the screening in the back of his antique shop
A Separation is a 2011 Iranian drama film written and directed by Asghar Farhadi, starring Leila Hatami, Peyman Moaadi, Shahab Hosseini, Sareh Bayat, and Sarina Farhadi. A Separation won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 2012 and it received the Golden Bear for Best Film and the Silver Bears for Best Actress and Best Actor at the 61st Berlin International Film Festival, becoming the first Iranian film to win the Golden Bear. It won the Golden Globe for Best Foreign Language Film, the film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, making it the first non-English film in five years to achieve this. Simin wants to leave the country with her husband and this desire is not shared by Nader, who is concerned for his father, who lives with the family and suffers from Alzheimers disease. When Nader determines to stay in Iran, Simin files for divorce, the family court judges the couples problems insufficient to warrant divorce and rejects Simins application.
She leaves her husband and daughter and moves back in with her parents, on the recommendation of Simin, Nader hires Razieh, a young, deeply religious woman from a poor suburb, to take care of his father while he is at work. Razieh has applied for the job without consulting her husband, whose approval, according to tradition. Her family is dependent on the job, and she takes her daughter to the house with her. Razieh soon becomes overwhelmed by taking care of Naders father, which is physically and emotionally demanding and she finds the work very heavy, especially as she is pregnant. The job even tests her religious beliefs when the old man wets himself, one day and Termeh return to discover her grandfather lying unconscious on the floor in his bedroom, with one of his arms tied to the bed. Razieh is nowhere to be found, when she returns, Nader accuses her of neglecting his father and of having stolen money from his room. Outraged, Nader shoves Razieh out of the apartment and she falls in the stairwell outside.
Hodjats sister calls Simin to inform her that Razieh is in the hospital because she has suffered a miscarriage, a prosecution is assigned to determine the cause of the miscarriage and Naders potential responsibility for it. If it is proved that Nader knew of Raziehs pregnancy and caused the miscarriage, Nader accuses Razieh of neglecting his father. The hot-headed and aggressive Hodjat physically confronts Nader on several occasions, and threatens him, his family, and Termehs teacher, when Hodjat is detained for another outburst, Razieh reveals that he has mental disorders, and that he is under therapy, leading to his release. Nader learns that the reason Razieh was absent that day was because she had gone to visit a physician and this news, combined with Hodjats explosive temper, causes Nader to wonder if Hodjat is physically abusive to Razieh and had caused her miscarriage. Nader is initially outraged by Simins suggestion, as he feels that it would be an admission of guilt, but he must admit that he lied about his knowledge of Raziehs pregnancy.
After another full-blown argument, Simin forces Termeh to leave with her, Nader agrees to the payment and asks Razieh to swear on the Quran that he is the cause of her miscarriage
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies the principles of engineering and materials science for the design, analysis and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production and it is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines. The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century, Mechanical engineering science emerged in the 19th century as a result of developments in the field of physics. The field has evolved to incorporate advancements in technology, and mechanical engineers today are pursuing developments in such fields as composites, mechatronics. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology. Mechanical engineering finds its application in the archives of various ancient, in ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes deeply influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine.
In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, during the 7th to 15th century, the era called the Islamic Golden Age, there were remarkable contributions from Muslim inventors in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and he is considered to be the inventor of such mechanical devices which now form the very basic of mechanisms, such as the crankshaft and camshaft. Newton was reluctant to publish his methods and laws for years, gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during the same time frame. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science. Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at universities worldwide. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B.
Tech, programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is Mechanical Engineer, and the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, and training, in Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a Diploma Thesis, which upon completion a Diploma is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In Australia, mechanical engineering degrees are awarded as Bachelor of Engineering or similar nomenclature although there are a number of specialisations. The degree takes four years of study to achieve. To ensure quality in engineering degrees, Engineers Australia accredits engineering degrees awarded by Australian universities in accordance with the global Washington Accord, before the degree can be awarded, the student must complete at least 3 months of on the job work experience in an engineering firm. Similar systems are present in South Africa and are overseen by the Engineering Council of South Africa
Iran, known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars and thinkers.
During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris and Lurs.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably
This article is a general introduction to French literature. For detailed information on French literature in specific periods, see the separate historical articles in the template to the right. Literature written in French language, by citizens of nations such as Belgium, Canada, Algeria, Morocco. As of 2006, French writers have been awarded more Nobel Prizes in Literature than novelists and essayists of any other country, France itself ranks first in the list of Nobel Prizes in literature by country. French literature has been for French people an object of pride for centuries. The French language is a dialect derived from Latin and heavily influenced principally by Celtic. Today, French schools emphasize the study of novels, the literary arts are heavily sponsored by the state and literary prizes are major news. The Académie française and the Institut de France are important linguistic and artistic institutions in France, Literature matters deeply to the people of France and plays an important role in their sense of identity.
As of 2006, French literary people have been awarded more Nobel Prizes in Literature than novelists and essayists of any other country, a writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honorable form. For most of the 20th century, French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nation. M. G, le Clézio 2014 – Patrick Modiano Grand Prix de Littérature Policière – created in 1948, for crime and detective fiction. Grand Prix du roman de lAcadémie française – created 1918, Prix Décembre – created in 1989. Prix Femina – created 1904, decided each year by an exclusively female jury, Prix Goncourt – created 1903, given to the author of the best and most imaginative prose work of the year. Prix Goncourt des Lycéens – created in 1987, Prix Littéraire Valery Larbaud – created in 1957. Prix Médicis – created 1958, awarded to an author whose fame does not yet match their talent, Prix Renaudot – created in 1926. Prix Tour-Apollo Award – 1972–1990, given to the best science fiction published in French during the preceding year.
Prix des Deux Magots – created in 1933, a short history of French literature Burgwinkle, Nicholas Hammond, and Emma Wilson, eds. The Cambridge history of French literature Cobb, Promenades, an appreciation of modern French literature Harvey, Paul. The Oxford companion to French literature Denis Hollier, ed, a New History of French Literature, Harvard University Press,1989,1150 pp. France, Peter
Karlovy Vary International Film Festival
The Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is a film festival held annually in July in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic. The Karlovy Vary Festival is one of the oldest in the world and has become Central, the pre-war dream of many enthusiastic filmmakers materialized in 1946 when a non-competition festival of films from seven countries took place in Mariánské Lázně and Karlovy Vary. Above all it was intended to screen the results of the recently nationalized Czechoslovak film industry, after the first two years the festival moved permanently to Karlovy Vary. The Karlovy Vary IFF first held a film competition in 1948. Since 1951, a jury has evaluated the films. The Karlovy Vary competition quickly found a place among other developing festivals, the social and political changes that took place after the Velvet Revolution in November 1989 pushed concerns about organizing the Karlovy Vary IFF to the background. The program for 1990 was saved by the release of a collection of Czechoslovak films which had locked up for years in a storage vault.
And the appearance of a number of guests such as Miloš Forman, Lindsay Anderson, Annette Bening. Financial problems and a lack of interest on the part of the government, in 1994 the 29th Karlovy Vary IFF inaugurated an entirely new tradition. After nearly forty years of alternating with the Moscow IFF, the festival once again to take place every year. The Karlovy Vary Film Festival Foundation was set up in 1993 co-created by the Ministry of Culture, The City of Karlovy Vary, actor Jiří Bartoška was invited to be the festivals president, and Eva Zaoralová became program director in 1995. Since 1998 the organization of the festival has been carried out by Film Servis Festival Karlovy Vary, the documentary competition is an important festival event. The extensive informative program features both distribution pre-premiers and films awarded at other festivals, for the tenth straight year the festival will present Variety Critics Choice and interesting films of mainly European production selected by critics working at this prestigious magazine.
Seminars focusing primarily on European film are another important part of the festival, thousands of visitors and the great variety of films testify to the effectiveness of the program team with program director Eva Zaoralová at its head. The festival program has the following sections, Official Selection - Competition – films never before shown in competition at any international festival. East of the West - Competition – films from the former socialist bloc, documentary Films - Competition – a competition divided into two parts, documentaries less than and longer than 30 minutes. Horizons and Another View – a selection of the most remarkable contemporary films, imagina - films with an unconventional approach to narration and style and radical visions of film language. Out of the Past - classic, cult and unfairly overlooked films, screened in their original, future Frames, Ten New Filmmakers To Follow - ten directors, an upcoming generation of young European filmmakers, present their student films
Ali Hatami was an Iranian film director, art director and costume designer. He graduated from the College of Dramatic Arts and began his career as a writer of short TV screenplays. Graduated in cinema from Faculty of Dramatic Arts, his debut was Hasan Kachal, since then, he paid attention to unusual rhythmic dialogs and the use of traditional settings and architecture in his films that became the characteristics of his works. Although his works did not attract attention, the Iranian audience praised him. His mind was occupied with making films on the basis of historical and he was usually the art director of his own films. His last film remained incomplete because of his due to cancer. Hatami make important and lasting movies with national themes Hajji Washington, Hatami made three great historical TV series, all of them are considered as eternal works in the history of Iranian TV. Meanwhile, he established a small village as the historical site in which he made Hezar Dastan. It has been used as the shooting location for many films.
He was married to famous Iranian actress Zari Khoshkam and their daughter Leila Hatami is a famous actress in Iran. Ali Hatami at the Internet Movie Database Photograph of Ali Hatami, Photograph of Ali Hatamis grave, www. alihatami. com