The Innerste is a river in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is 101 km in length; the river name is not related to the German word innerste meaning innermost. Innerste, in earlier times called the Inste, Indistria and Indrista goes back to the Indo-Germanic root oid = turbulent, strong, it may be the name referred to in the name of the battlefield of Idistaviso. The river's source is in the Harz mountains, 4 km from the town of Clausthal-Zellerfeld to the southwest at an elevation of 615 m and is called Innerstesprung; as a small brook, the Innerste flows west and passes a system of lakes, the first of, called Entensumpf. The next lakes are Oberer Nassenwieser Teich, Bärenbrucher Teich, Ziegenberger Teich, Sumpfteich; the German word Teich means "pond". Having passed through the middle of the village of Buntenbock, the Innerste passes Prinzenteich and turns to the west to Wildemann, one of the smallest towns in Germany. Grumbach, one of the first tributaries, flows into the Innerste in the middle of Wildemann.
The Innerste turns to the North to Lautenthal, another town on its course and flows parallel to the abandoned track of the Innerste Valley Railway. Here the Laute flows into the Innerste in the middle of Lautenthal; the name of the town means "Laute Valley". Near Lautenthal the Innerste is dammed; when the dam was built 1963-1966, a nice lake for holidays and watersports was created. A few kilometers further on, the Innerste leaves the Harz Mountains near the town of Langelsheim and turns to the Northwest; the first tributary is river Grane. From here, the Innerste flows through a hilly countryside. Further tributaries are river Lamme, river Bruchgraben, river Neile and river Beuster; some more towns on its course are the southern quarters of Hildesheim. The Innerste passes Marienburg Castle, the centre of Hildesheim and Steuerwald Castle in the North of the City. North of Hildesheim, the Innerste enters the North German Plain. About 18 km further on, it flows into the Leine near the town of Sarstedt, south of Hanover, at an elevation of 65 m. Wilhelm Raabe wrote a novelle titled Die Innerste.
List of rivers of Lower Saxony
The Eichsfeld is a historical region in the southeast of the state of Lower Saxony and northwest of the state of Thuringia in the south of the Harz mountains in Germany. Until 1803 the Eichsfeld was for centuries part of the Archbishopric of Mainz, the cause of its current position as a Catholic enclave in the predominantly Protestant north of Germany. Following German partition in 1945, the West German portion became Landkreis Duderstadt. A few small transfers of territory between the American and Soviet zones of occupation took place in accordance with the Wanfried Agreement. Today the greatest part of the Obereichsfeld makes up the Landkreis Eichsfeld. Other parts belong to the district Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis; the Untereichsfeld Landkreis Duderstadt, was merged with the Landkreis of Göttingen, while Lindau became part of Katlenburg-Lindau, now part of the Landkreis of Northeim. Cities in the Eichsfeld are Duderstadt, Leinefelde-Worbis and Dingelstädt; the Eichsfeld was first mentioned in 897, in 1022 the Archbishopric of Mainz listed its possessions in the region, which were increased up until 1573.
The Ottonian Untereichsfeld became part of Eichsfeld after being part of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Grubenhagen between 1342 and 1434. During the German Peasants' War within the Reichsstadt of Mühlhausen most of the monasteries and castles were plundered and most of the Eichsfeld became Protestant. In 1575 the Society of Jesus established the Counter-Reformation in Eichsfeld; the Thirty Years' War reached Eichsfeld in 1622 and during the years following several armies plundered the region. According to the Peace of Westphalia the Archbishopric of Mainz reestablished Catholicism in the area, two thirds devastated and had lost 75% of its population. During the Napoleonic time Eichsfeld was part of the Kingdom of Westphalia, dissolved after the victory over Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig. From 1949 to 1990 the Obereichsfeld belonged to the GDR. In this atheistic state the people preserved their Catholic roots, church life stayed intact. In consequence of the traditionalism in Eichsfeld, the percentage of voters for the CDU is higher than in the surrounding area.
The Eichsfeld tourism organization History and map of the Eichsfeld 1789 Eichsfeld Wiki - Regiowiki for Eichsfeld
Schwarmstedt is a municipality in the Heidekreis in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated near approx. 20 km south of Bad Fallingbostel, 30 km east of Nienburg. Further districts of the municipality are Bothmer GrindauSchwarmstedt is the seat of the Samtgemeinde Schwarmstedt; the Bundesstraße 214 leads through Schwarmstedt, connecting the cities of Celle. Schwarmstedt has a train station for the line section Soltau - Hannover; the area around the church of Schwarmstedt have been donated by the Edelherr Mirabilis to the Bishopric of Minden around 1150AD. The old church of Schwarmstedt was replaced around 1500AD by a new church, it is presumed that the land changed ownership at the end of the 14th century and was owned by the duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. Data as of 22/01/2012 SPD - 12 seats CDU - 5 seats Schwarmstedt is twinned to Kröpelin and Miekinia in the polish Lower Silesian Voivodeship; the macroeconomist Wilhelm Röpke was born in Schwarmstedt on 10 October 1899. He worked as a scientist and political advisor in post-war Germany and had a relevant influence on its development at that time.
The local school was named after him in his honor
The Rhume is a 48 km long river in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is a right tributary of the Leine, its source is the karstic spring of Rhume Spring in Rhumspringe, south of the Harz mountain range. The water drains with high pressure from the ground of the funnel-shaped well, known for its turquoise colour; the Rhume flows in northwesterly direction through the municipalities of Gieboldehausen, Katlenburg-Lindau and Northeim. It joins the Leine river west of Northeim. Eller Hahle Oder Söse Düne List of rivers of Lower Saxony
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen; the city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover, the Province of Hanover of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Province of Hanover of the Free State of Prussia, of the State of Hanover. From 1714 to 1837, Hanover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in both the east-west and north-south directions. Hannover Airport lies north of the city, in Langenhagen, is Germany's ninth-busiest airport; the city's most notable institutions of higher education are the Hannover Medical School with its university hospital, the University of Hanover. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and up to 2018 the CeBIT; the IAA Commercial Vehicles show takes place every two years. It is the world's leading trade show for transport and mobility; every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, the Oktoberfest Hannover. "Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling is becoming more popular in English; the English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel.
The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts when referring to the British House of Hanover. Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine, its original name Honovere may mean "high bank". Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving town privileges in 1241, due to its position at a natural crossroads; as overland travel was difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.
In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover; the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg's capital, its Electors become monarchs of Great Britain. The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714; the last British monarch who reigned in Hanover was William IV. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover.
As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover, the monarchs visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers, there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757; the French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year. After Napoleon imposed the Conv
An auteur is an artist a film director, who applies a centralized and subjective control to many aspects of a collaborative creative work. The term is referenced to filmmakers or directors with a recognizable style or thematic preoccupation. Auteurism originated in the French film criticism of the late 1940s as a value system that derives from the film criticism approach of André Bazin and Alexandre Astruc—dubbed auteur theory by the American critic Andrew Sarris; the concept was invented to distinguish French New Wave filmmakers from studio-system directors that were part of the Hollywood establishment, has since been applied to producers of popular music as well as to video game creators. Before the auteur theory was defined, the director was considered to be the most important among the people working on a film. Early German film theorist Walter Julius Bloem credited this to film being an art for the masses, the masses being accustomed to regard someone who gives the final product as an artist, those who contribute before as apprentices.
James Agee, one of the most famous film critics of the 1940s, said that "the best films are personal ones, made by forceful directors". Around the same time, the French film critics André Bazin and Roger Leenhardt became advocates for the theory that it is the director that brings the film to life and uses the film to express their thoughts and feelings about the subject matter as well as a worldview as an auteur, they emphasised that an auteur can use lighting, camerawork and editing to add to their vision. The French magazine Cahiers du cinéma was founded in 1951 and became a focal point for discussion on the role of directors in cinema. François Truffaut criticized the prevailing "Cinema of Quality" trend in France in his 1954 essay Une certaine tendance du cinéma français, he characterised these films as being made by directors who were faithful to the script, which in turn was a faithful adaptation of a literary novel. The director was only used as a metteur en scene, a "stager" who adds the performers and pictures to an completed script.
Truffaut argued that the directors who had authority and flexibility over how to realise the script were the ones who made better films. He coined the phrase; these discussions took place at the beginning of the French New Wave in cinema. From 1960, with his first self-directed film The Bellboy, Jerry Lewis was one of the earliest Hollywood studio-system actor-turned-directors to be critiqued as an auteur, his attention to both the business and creative sides of production: writing, lighting and art direction coincided with the rise of the auteur theory. He earned consistent praise by French critics in Positif, his singular mis-en-scene, skill behind the camera, was aligned with Howard Hawks, Alfred Hitchcock and Satyajit Ray. Jean-Luc Godard said, “Jerry Lewis...is the only one in Hollywood doing something different, the only one who isn’t falling in with the established categories, the norms, the principles.... Lewis is the only one today. He’s been able to do it because of his personal genius”.
Andrew Sarris coined the phrase "auteur theory" to translate la politique des auteurs and is credited for popularizing it in the United States and English-speaking media. He first used the phrase in his 1962 essay Notes on the Auteur Theory in the journal Film Culture, he began applying its methods to Hollywood films, expanded his thoughts in his book The American Cinema: Directors and Directions 1929–1968. The impact of Sarris's work was that critical and public attention on each film focused less on its stars and more on the overall product. In the 1960s and the 1970s, the filmmaking industry was revitalized by a new generation of directors. Known as the New Hollywood era, these directors were given increased control over their projects. Studios showed an increased willingness to let directors take risks; the phase came to end in the 1980s, when high-profile financial failures like Heaven's Gate prompted studios to reassert control. The auteur theory had detractors from the beginning. Pauline Kael was an early opponent and she debated it with Andrew Sarris in the pages of The New Yorker and various film magazines.
Kael opposed privileging the director and instead argued that a film should be seen as a collaborative process. In her 1971 essay Raising Kane, on Orson Welles's Citizen Kane, she points out how the film made extensive use of the distinctive talents of co-writer Herman J. Mankiewicz and cinematographer Gregg Toland. Richard Corliss and David Kipen have argued that writing is more important to a film's success than the directing. In his 2006 book, Kipen coined the term Schreiber theory to refer to the theory that the screenwriter is the principal author of a film. Film historian Georges Sadoul pointed out that the main author of a film is not the director, but can be the main actor, producer, or the author of the original story, he argued that the film can only be seen as a work of a collective and not as a work of a single person. Film historian Aljean Harmetz, referring to the creative input of producers and studio executives in classical Hollywood, argues that the auteur theory "collapses against the reality of the studio system".
Some criticize the auteur theory, the practice of praising auteurs, for being male-dominated. Writing for IndieWire in 2013, Maria Giese noted tha