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Leinster House

Leinster House is the seat of the Oireachtas, the parliament of Ireland. Leinster House was the ducal palace of the Dukes of Leinster. Since 1922, it is a complex of buildings, of which the former ducal palace is the core, which house Oireachtas Éireann, its members and staff; the most recognisable part of the complex, the "public face" of Leinster House, continues to be the former ducal palace at the core of the complex. Leinster House was the former ducal residence in Dublin of the Duke of Leinster, since 1922 served as the parliament building of the Irish Free State, predecessor of the modern Irish state, before which it functioned as the headquarters of the Royal Dublin Society; the society's famous Dublin Spring Show and Dublin Horse Show were held on its Leinster Lawn, facing Merrion Square. The building is the meeting place of Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann, the two houses of the Oireachtas, as such the term'Leinster House' has become a metonym for Irish political activities. Ireland's parliament over the centuries had met in a number of locations, most notably in the Irish Houses of Parliament at College Green, next to Trinity College, Dublin.

Its medieval parliament consisted of a House of Commons and a House of Lords. Ireland's senior peer, the Earl of Kildare, had a seat in the Lords. Like all the aristocrats of the period, for the duration of the Social Season and parliamentary sessions, he and his family resided in state in a Dublin residence. From the late eighteenth century Leinster House was the Earl's official Dublin residence; when it was first built in 1745–48 by James FitzGerald, Earl of Kildare, it was located on the unfashionable and isolated south side of the city, far from the main locations of aristocratic residences, namely Rutland Square and Mountjoy Square. The Earl predicted; the building itself was designed by acclaimed architect Richard Cassels. In the history of aristocratic residences in Dublin, no other mansion matched Kildare House for its sheer size or status; when the Earl was made the first Duke of Leinster in 1766, the family's Dublin residence was renamed Leinster House. Its first and second floors were used as the floor model for the White House by Irish architect James Hoban, while the house itself was used as a model for the original stone-cut White House exterior.

One famous member of the family who resided in Leinster House was Lord Edward FitzGerald, who became involved with Irish nationalism during the 1798 Rebellion, which cost him his life. With the passage of the Act of Union in 1800, Ireland ceased to have its own parliament. Without a House of Lords to attend, increasing numbers of aristocrats stopped coming to Dublin, selling off their Dublin residences, in many cases to buy residences in London, where the new united parliament met; the 3rd Duke of Leinster sold Leinster House in 1815 to the Royal Dublin Society. In 1853 the Great Industrial Exhibition was hosted in its grounds. At the end of the nineteenth century, two new wings were added, to house the National Library of Ireland and the National Museum of Ireland; the Natural History Museum was built on the site. Part of this scheme intended to re-clad the house in more attractive Portland stone and extend the portico outwards; this was not undertaken. The Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 provided for the creation of a self-governing Irish dominion, to be called the Irish Free State.

As plans were made to bring the new state into being, the Provisional Government under W. T. Cosgrave sought a temporary venue for the meetings of the new Chamber of Deputies Dáil Éireann and Senate Seanad Éireann. Plans were made to turn Royal Hospital Kilmainham, an eighteenth-century former soldiers' home in extensive parklands, into a full-time Parliament House. However, as it was still under the control of the British Army, who had yet to withdraw from it, the new Governor-General of the Irish Free State was due to deliver the Speech from the Throne opening parliament within weeks, it was decided to hire the main RDS Lecture Theatre attached to Leinster House for use in December 1922 as a temporary Dáil chamber. In 1924, due to financial constraints, plans to turn the Royal Hospital into a parliament house were abandoned. A new Senate or Seanad chamber was created in the Duke's old ballroom, while wings from the neighbouring Royal College of Science were taken over as used as Government Buildings.

The entire Royal College of Science, which by had been merged with University College Dublin, was subsequently taken over in 1990 and turned into state of the art Government Buildings. Both the National Library and National Museum wings next to Leinster House remain used by as a library and museum and are not attached to the parliamentary complex. While plans were made to provide a brand-new parliament house, the Oireachtas has remained permanently located in Leinster House. Since a number of extensions have been added, most in 2000, to provide adequate office space for 166 TDs, 60 senators, members of the press and other staff. Among the world leaders who have visited Leinster House to address joint sessions of the Oireachtas are U. S. presidents John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton, Bri

Noon language

Noon is a Cangin language of Senegal spoken in the Thiès region. There is an estimated population of 10,000- 50,000 speakers worldwide, rendering this language to be vulnerable. Ethnologue reports that it is 84% cognate with Lehar a divergent dialect, 68% cognate with the other Cangin languages; the Noon people identify themselves ethnically as Serer. However, their language called Serer-Noon on the assumption that it is a Serer dialect, is not related to the principal language of the Serer population, Serer-Sine. Like many of the local languages in Senegal, the Noon language is recognized as one of the national languages of country; the Noon language is written using the Latin alphabet. In 2005, a decree was passed by the Senegalese Government, it has been proposed that there are 47 letters that are used when listed below. The Noon language contains 27 consonants. Note that the glottal stop is not written at the beginning of the word, it has no separate form for upper-case letters; the pre-nasalized occlusive marking is shown explicitly like in the following symbols, mb, nd, ñj, ŋg.

In addition, the used nasal quality is justified by the enunciation point of the occlusive it precedes. Noon, like other Senegalese languages, gives the possibility of extensive and varied combinations within its large graphic representation. Twin consonants are possible within words between vowels and are noted by two identical letters, such as ɓɓ, cc, ff, hh, kk, ll, mm, nn, pp, ss, tt, ww, yy. However, this excludes the consonants b, d, g, j, ɗ, ƴ, ñ, those that are pre-nasalized occlusives. Additionally, the "ɗ" letter does not exist in a word as well as in final voiced stops using the letters b, d, g and j. In Noon, a long vowel is represented by a digraph, considered a letter, while a geminate consonant is interpreted as a series of two identical letters; the Noon language contains 20 vowels. Dropped vowels are symbolized by the letters: a, e, i, o, u. Long vowels are represented by two-lettered symbols: aa, ee, ii, oo uu. In the case of tense vowels, only the first letter is marked by a diacritical mark, ëe, ée, íi, óo, úu.

Please note, that a long vowel is considered a single letter, represented by a digraph. In general, there are three rules regarding capitalization in Noon. Much like other languages, they capitalize letters at the beginning of names. Rule 1. An uppercase is used at the beginning of each enunciation point, after each interrogation point, exclamation point, or the beginning of a quotation after a colon. Example: Ɓa haydoh këyitcaa hen, ɓa ee'tarica, kúmaandagaa an: «Yugat! Ɗú ɗekoh!» which translates to,'As soon as they had searched the papers, they gave them to him, the commander said: "Sit down! Be quiet!" Rule 2. The first letter of any personal name, country, etc. are indicated by an uppercase letter. Example: Senegaal is indicative of'Senegal' or Caañaak is indicative of'Thiès' Rule 3. For franchise or business names beginning with ki-, the letter that precedes the prefix ki- is uppercased while the prefix itself is lowercased. Although, there is an exception if the prefix ki- appears in the beginning of a phrase or enunciation point.

Example:'kiToŋgol' translates to,'this year'. In Noon, the vocalic system contains 10 long vowels. In Noon, the consonantal system contains 22 phonemes. In Noon, the division of words is based on grammatical rules; the language undergoes many morphological changes, thus the language treats certain morphemes as being part of a single or key word, making them dependent. These morphemes are treated as prefixes that do not carry any independent meaning in itself, but are used for grammatical context. Ki- The infinitive ki- is prefixed to the subject of the verb. Examples: kiñam'to eat' ki'on'to give' kilímu'to be born' kiɗúukool'to be sick' Di- The adverb di- is prefixed. However, when bi- is used as a conjunction, it is written separately. Example: Adverb: tani'in dijëfí' translates to,'he is much better' Conjunction: tani'in bi jof translates to,'he is much better' Class Markers such as wi-,fi-,mi-, etc. are prefixed to the subject of the adjective. Examples: kaan fi'as'a new house' ha'mun yi'as'a new owner.

Other object pronouns are linked as suffixes when they appear with a preposition. However, there is an exception with the preposition ga-, never suffixed to the verb. Examples: hottoo'he sees me' hottaa'he sees you' hotti'he sees him' hottíi'he sees us' hottuu'he sees us' hottúu'he sees you' hotɓa'he sees them' hotfa'he sees it' hotca'he sees them' Ga- preposition exception: Ñamaa ga!'Eat it!' yaa tík gaɗa'the following' Furthermore, the same object pronouns are suffixed to prepositions. Example:'Mi hay naraa kitaam.' translates to,'I will go with you' The possessive pronouns in Noon are suffixed to a name that appears after the definite article. The decision to treat these pronouns as suffixes, not as an independent words that are forme

Straight man

The straight man is a stock character in a comedy performance a double act, sketch comedy, or farce. When a comedy partner behaves eccentrically, the straight man is expected to maintain composure; the ability to maintain a serious demeanor in the face of the most preposterous comedy is crucial to a successful straight man. Whatever direct contribution to the comedy a straight man provides comes in the form of deadpan. A straight man with no direct comedic role has been known as a stooge, he is expected to feed the funny man lines that he can respond to for laughs, while seeking no acclamation for himself. In vaudeville, effective straight men were much less common than comedians; the straight man's name appeared first and he received 60% of the take. This helped take the sting out of not being the laugh-getter and helped ensure the straight man's loyalty to the team. Abbott and Costello, one of America's most popular comedy duos of the 1940s and 50s in radio and television, began as nightclub performers when the straight-faced Bud Abbott contrasted against the bumbling Lou Costello.

Despite the usual name, women can fulfill an equivalent role, although they are described as a "comedic foil." Examples of noteworthy female foils include Margaret Dumont who performed with the Marx Brothers in their films, Bernardine Flynn up against Art van Harvey on Vic and Sade, Pam Dawber who performed with Robin Williams on the television series, Mork & Mindy. The role is still found today in sitcoms. In the manzai comedy of Japan, the straight man is called tsukkomi. Everyman Foil Manzai