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Leleges

The Leleges were an aboriginal people of the Aegean region, before the Greeks arrived. They were distinct from another pre-Hellenic people of the Pelasgians; the exact areas to which they were native are uncertain, since they were pre-literate and the only references to them are in ancient Greek sources. These references are sometimes fictitious. Little is known about the language of the Leleges. Many Greek authors link the Leleges to the Carians of south-west Anatolia. Homer names the Leleges among the Trojan allies alongside the Carians, Pelasgians and Gaucones, it is thought that the name Leleges is an exonym, in a long-extinct language, rather than an endonym. That is, during the Bronze Age the word lulahi meaning "strangers" was used in the Luwian language and in other Anatolian languages. For example, in a Hittite cuneiform inscription and temple servants are directed to avoid conversing with lulahi and foreign merchants. According to the suggestion of Vitaly Shevoroshkin, an attempt to transliterate lulahi into Greek might result in leleges.

Late traditions reported in Pseudo-Apollodorus, by Pausanias, derive the name from an eponymous king Lelex. In Homer's Iliad, the Leleges are allies of the Trojans, though they do not appear in the formal catalogue of allies in Book II of the Iliad, their homeland is not specified, they are distinguished from the Carians, with whom some writers confused them. The topographical name "Pedasus" occurs in several ancient places: near Cyzicus, in the Troad on the Satniois River, in Caria, as well as in Messenia, according to Encyclopædia Britannica 1911. Gargara in the Troad was counted as Lelegian. Alcaeus calls Antandrus in the Troad "Lelegian", but Herodotus substitutes the epithet "Pelasgian", so the two designations were broadly synonymous for the Greeks. According to Homer, the Leleges were a distinct Anatolian tribe. However, Herodotus states. Pherecydes of Leros attributed to the Leleges the coast land of Caria, from Ephesus to Phocaea, with the islands of Samos and Chios, placing the true Carians farther south from Ephesus to Miletus.

If this statement derives from Pherecydes, both native and knowledgeable, it has great weight. Pausanias was reminded that the temple of the goddess at Ephesus predated the Ionian colony there, when it was rededicated to the goddess as Artemis, he states with certainty that it antedated the Ionic immigration by many years, being older than the oracular shrine at Dodona. He says that the pre-Ionic inhabitants of the city were Leleges and Lydians and that, although Androclus drove out of the land all those whom he found in the upper city, he did not interfere with those who dwelt about the sanctuary. By giving and receiving pledges he put these on a footing of neutrality; these remarks of Pausanias find confirmation in the form of the cult in historic times, centering on a many-breasted icon of the "Lady of Ephesus" whom Greeks called Artemis. Other cult aspects, being in all essentials non-Hellenic, suggest the indigenous cult was taken over by the Greek settlers. Historians assume, as a general rule, that autochthonous inhabitants survive an invasion as an under-class where they do not retreat to mountain districts, so it is interesting to hear in Deipnosophistae that Philippus of Theangela referred to Leleges still surviving as serfs of the "true Carians", later Strabo attributes to the Leleges a distinctive group of deserted forts and tombs in Caria that were still known in his day as "Lelegean forts".

Plutarch implies the historic existence of Lelegian serfs at Tralles in the interior. The fourth-century BC historian Philippus of Theangela suggested that the Leleges maintained connections to Messenia, Laconia and other regions in mainland Greece, after they were overcome by the Carians in Asia Minor. A single passage in the fragmentary Hesiodic Catalogue of Women places "Leleges" in Deucalion's mythicized and archaic time in Locris in central Greece. Locris is the refuge of some of the Pelasgian inhabitants forced from Boeotia by Cadmus and his Phoenician adventurers, but not until the 4th century BCE does. But the confusion of the Leleges with the Carians which first appears in a Cretan legend and is repeated by Callisthenes and other writers, led to the suggestion of Callisthenes, that Leleges joined the Carians in their raids on the coasts of Greece. Herodotus says that the Leleges were a people who in old times dwelt in the islands of the Aegean and were subject to Minos of Crete.

Southworth & Hawes

Southworth & Hawes was an early photographic firm in Boston, 1843–1863. Its partners, Albert Sands Southworth and Josiah Johnson Hawes, have been hailed as the first great American masters of photography, whose work elevated photographic portraits to the level of fine art, their images are prominent in every major collection of early American photography. Southworth & Hawes worked exclusively in the daguerreotype process. Working in the 8 ½ x 6 ½ inch whole plate format, their images are brilliant, mirror-like, finely detailed. Writing in the Photographic and Fine Art Journal, August 1855, the contemporary Philadelphia daguerreotypist Marcus Aurelius Root paid them this praise: "Their style, indeed, is peculiar to themselves; these traits have achieved for them a high reputation with all true artists and connoisseurs." He further noted that the firm had devoted their time chiefly to daguerreotypes, with little attention to photography on paper. During their 20 years of collaboration, Southworth & Hawes catered to the famous.

Their advertisements drew a distinction between the appropriate styles for personal versus public portraiture. "A likeness for an intimate acquaintance or one’s own family should be marked by that amiability and cheerfulness, so appropriate to the social circle and the home fireside. Those for the public, of official dignitaries and celebrated characters admit of more firmness and soberness." Among their sitters were Louisa May Alcott, Lyman Beecher, Benjamin Butler, William Ellery Channing, Rufus Choate, Cassius Marcellus Clay, Charlotte Cushman, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. Dorothea Dix, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edward Everett, William Lloyd Garrison, Grace Greenwood, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sam Houston, Thomas Starr King, Louis Kossuth, Jenny Lind, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Horace Mann, Donald McKay, Lola Montez, George Peabody, William H. Prescott, Lemuel Shaw, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Charles Sumner, Daniel Webster, John Greenleaf Whittier, Robert C. Winthrop. On the evening of September 30, 1846, Mr. Eben Frost, suffering from a violent toothache, called upon Dr. William Thomas Green Morton, a dentist at No. 19 Tremont Row, Boston.

Dr. Morton administered extracted the tooth. Less than three weeks the so-called "Death of Pain" took place on October 16, when Dr. Morton administered ether to a patient before Dr. John Collins Warren, senior surgeon at the Massachusetts General Hospital, removed a tumor from his neck. Although it is believed that ether anesthesia had been administered for surgery earlier, most notably by Dr. Crawford Long in Jefferson Georgia on March 30, 1843, it had been done and not reported in the medical literature. Morton's public demonstration of general anesthesia was therefore historic. To commemorate this momentous event, Southworth & Hawes were asked to daguerreotype the operation. On April 3, 1847, Southworth & Hawes were called upon to record an actual operation, again with the patient under ether. Dr. Warren presented his Laundy scalpel and probe, the surgical instruments he used in the first operation, to Hawes in gratitude for recording the operations. Hawes lived until 1901, continuing to operate a studio and protecting its sizeable archive.

The archives were dispersed during the Great Depression. Most made their way into three museums, while only a comparatively few have been held. However, on April 27, 1999, a unknown hoard of 240 Southworth & Hawes daguerreotypes appeared at Sotheby's auction from the estate of David Feigenbaum; the total sales price realized. American Museum of Photography Amon Carter Museum of Ft. Worth, Texas Boston Athenæum George Eastman House Historic New England Metropolitan Museum of Art Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Becky Simmons Albert Sands Southworth and Josiah Johnson Hawes Biography George Eastman House https://www.flickr.com/photos/george_eastman_house/sets/72157606223836462/ Works by Southworth & Hawes, from the George Eastman House https://web.archive.org/web/20090912080225/http://museum.icp.org/museum/exhibitions/southworth_hawes/pages/intro.html Exhibition at the International Center of Photography, 2005 http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hi/hi_southworthalbertsands.htm Works in the Metropolitan Museum Museum of Fine Arts, works by Southworth & Hawes

1987 Australian Drivers' Championship

The 1987 Australian Drivers' Championship was a CAMS sanctioned national motor racing title contested over a single race for Australian Formula 2 racing cars. The race, billed as the "Australia Cup for the 1987 CAMS Gold Star", was staged at the Adelaide Street Circuit in South Australia on Friday, 13 November 1987; this was the first year that the championship had been restricted to Australian Formula 2 cars and is the only year to date in which the title has been awarded on the results of a single race rather than a series of races. David Brabham won the race after a remarkable drive from grid position 38 after poor qualifying caused by missing all of practice with carburettor and electrical problems. While Brabham picked his way through the field the battle for the race saw Rohan Onslow and Mark McLaughlin take the lead after polesitter Arthur Abrahams was left on the grid with a failed ignition ballast restrictor. McLaughlin led for much of the race but his Elfin slowed near the end of the race and was swamped by Onslow Brabham.

With two laps remaining Brabham pulled away for a 1.7-second victory. Ian Richards and John Wise fought over fourth for much of the event but Wise slowed near the end of the race with Shane Flynn taking fifth ahead of Chris Hocking. Results as follows. Note: Given that there were thirty six cars on the grid, there are eight drivers not accounted for in the above table

Belebathan

Belebathan is a census town in Raniganj CD Block in Asansol Sadar subdivision of Paschim Bardhaman district in the state of West Bengal, India. Belebathan is located at 23°38′19″N 87°03′52″E; the Asansol-Durgapur area is composed of undulating laterite region. This area lies between two mighty rivers -- the Ajay, they flow parallel to each other in the region – the average distance between the two rivers is around 30 km. For ages the area was forested and infested with plunderers and marauders; the discovery of coal in the 18th century led to industrialisation of the area and most of the forests have been cleared. Jemari, Murgathaul, Egara, Sahebganj and Ballavpur form a cluster of census towns on the western and southern side of Raniganj. Banshra and Baktarnagar are adjacent to Raniganj on the eastern side; as per the 2011 census, 83.33% of the population of Asansol Sadar subdivision was urban and 16.67% was rural. In 2015, the municipal areas of Kulti and Jamuria were included within the jurisdiction of Asansol Municipal Corporation.

Asansol Sadar subdivision has 26 Census Towns.. As per 2011 Census of India Belebathan had a total population of 4,459 of which 2,302 were males and 2,157 were females. Population below 6 years was 594; the total number of literates in Belebathan was 2,792. As of 2001 India census, Belebathan had a population of 4,292. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Belebathan has an average literacy rate of 54%, lower than the national average of 59.5%. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Belebathan has two primary schools

Hindi blogosphere

The Hindi blogosphere is the online community of Hindi-language weblogs that are a part of the larger Indian Blogosphere. Alok Kumar is known as the first Hindi blogger, his blog नौ दौ ग्यारह was the first known Hindi blog and abdul qader khan Second most popular Hindi Blogger his blog name is achhisoch. He coined the term Chittha for blog, adopted by other bloggers and became the standard Hindi term for it; because of the difficulties involved in typing Hindi script few people used it online, but on, due to the availability of Hindi typing tools, the number of Hindi bloggers began growing. In 2007, the number of Hindi blogs increased rapidly; this was due to the advent of Indic Unicode support in various blogging services, the advent of new Hindi typing tools like Google Indic Transliteration tool in Blogger and the promotion of Hindi blogging in the mainstream media. Some of the most popular Hindi bloggers are women. In April 2013, there were more than 50,000 Hindi blogs, one fourth of which were written by female bloggers.

During the beginning days, most Hindi blogs were personal, there were few topic focused blogs. During 2007, the number of Hindi blogs increased and blogs focused on various topics like cinema, science, photoblog began; the Parikalpna Award is a literary award for blogs in India. It is presented by the company Parikalpnaa. First International Hindi Bloggers Conference was inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Uttarakhand Mr. Ramesh Pokhariyal Nishank in New Delhi at 30 April 2011; this One day celebration session was chaired by Ashok Chakradhar, Dr. Ram Darash Mishra, Prabhakar Shrotriy, Ravindra Prabhat and Vishwa Bandhu Gupta. Second Hindi Bloggers Conference was inaugurated by the Senior Indian Journalist Mr Mudra Rakshas in Lucknow at 27 August 2012; this One day celebration session was chaired by Shailendra Sagar, Birendra Yadav, Rakesh Veda, Sudhakar Adeeb, Ravindra Prabhat and Dr. Subhaash Ray. Third International Bloggers Conference was inaugurated by the Senior leader of Nepali Congress Party and Ex- cabinet mister of Nepal Mr.

Arjun Narasingha K. C. in Kathmandu, Nepal started at 13 September 2013 that concluded at 15 September 2013. South Asian Bloggers and literary persons participated in Kathmandu. Parallel online contributions were made by the other participants; this three days celebration session was chaired by Mr. Kumud Adhikari, Suman Pokhrel, Uma Suvedi, Sanat Regmi, Vikram Mani Tripathi, Ravindra Prabhat, Dr. Rama Dwivedi, Dr. Sampatdevi Muraraka, K. K. Yadav, Akanksha Yadav, Girish Pankaj, Lalit Sharma, B. S. Pawala, Dr Ram Bahadur Mishra, Shailesh Bharatvasi, Mukesh Kumar Sinha, Mukesh Tiwari, Manoj Bhavuk, Saroj Suman, Vinay Prajapati, Sunita Prem Yadav etc. Nepali, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Chhattisgarhi writer and folklore scholar. Fourth International Bloggers Conference was inaugurated by the Secretary General Bhutan Chamber of Commerce and Industry Mr. Fub shring in Thimpu, Bhutan started at 16 January 2015 that concluded at 18 January 2015; this three days celebration session was chaired by Deputy Secretary General of Bhutan Chamber of Commerce and Industry Mr.

Chandra Kshetri, Chairperson of Women's Wing of SAARC Committee and the International School of Bhutan Mrs. Thinley Lham, chairman of linguistics department Assam University in Silchar Professor Mr. Nityanand Pandey, Director Indian postal services Allahabad region Mr. Krishna Kumar Yadav and Senior Hindi satirist Mr. Girish Pankaj. Fifth International Bloggers Conference was inaugurated by the Senior Dramatist in Sri Lanka Mr. Somrathne Withana and Ex Cabinet Minister of Uttar Pradesh Govt. Mr. Nakul Dubey in Sri Lanka’s capital Colombo and cultural capital Kandy from 23 May to 27 May 2015; this three days celebration session was chaired by Director Postal Service, Rajasthan west Region, Jodhpur, Mr. Krishna Kumar Yadav, Head of Deptt. Hindi Department and Uttar Maharashtra University Jalgaon, Mr. Sunil Kulkarni and Chief Editor of Parikalpana Samay and organizer of ‘International Bloggers Conference’Senior Hindi satirist Mr. Ravindra Prabhat. Blogosphere Indic computing

Apamea sublustris

Apamea sublustris, the reddish light arches, is a moth of the family Noctuidae. The species was first described by Eugenius Johann Christoph Esper in 1788, it is found in central and southern Europe and the Caucasus. The wingspan is 42–48 mm, it differs from the similar Apamea lithoxylaea in having the forewing shorter, more suffused with brown, or brownish grey along costa which in A. lithoxylaea is whitish: stigmata much plainer. Adults are on wing from June to July; the larvae feed on the roots including fescues. Kimber, Ian. "73.164 BF2323 Reddish Light Arches Apamea sublustris". UKMoths. Retrieved 28 June 2019. Savela, Markku. "Apamea sublustris". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved 28 June 2019. Taxonomy Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa Lepiforum e. V. De Vlinderstichting