click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Len Sassaman

Leonard Harris Sassaman was an advocate for privacy, the maintainer of the Mixmaster anonymous remailer code and operator of the randseed remailer. Sassaman graduated from The Hill School in 1998. Sassaman was employed as the security architect and senior systems engineer for Anonymizer, he was a PhD candidate at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium, as a researcher with the Computer Security and Industrial Cryptography research group, led by Bart Preneel. David Chaum and Bart Preneel were his advisors. Sassaman was a well-known cypherpunk and privacy advocate, he worked for Network Associates on the PGP encryption software, was a member of the Shmoo Group, a contributor to the OpenPGP IETF working group, the GNU Privacy Guard project, appeared at technology conferences like DEF CON. Sassaman was the co-founder of CodeCon along with Bram Cohen, co-founder of the HotPETS workshop, co-author of the Zimmermann–Sassaman key-signing protocol, at the age of 21, was an organizer of the protests following the arrest of Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov.

On February 11, 2006, at the fifth CodeCon, Sassaman proposed to returning speaker and noted computer scientist Meredith L. Patterson during the Q&A after her presentation, they were married; the couple worked together on several research collaborations, including a critique of privacy flaws in the OLPC Bitfrost security platform, a proposal of formal methods of analysis of computer insecurity in February 2011. Meredith Patterson's current startup, aims to commercialize Patterson's Support Vector Machine-based "query by example" research. Sassaman and Patterson announced Osogato's first product, a downloadable music recommendation tool, at SuperHappyDevHouse 21 in San Francisco. In 2009, Dan Kaminsky presented joint work with Sassaman and Patterson at Black Hat in Las Vegas, showing multiple methods for attacking the X.509 certificate authority infrastructure. Using these techniques, the team demonstrated how an attacker could obtain a certificate that clients would treat as valid for domains the attacker did not control.

Sassaman is reported to have died on July 3, 2011. Patterson reported. A presentation given by Kaminsky at the 2011 Black Hat Briefings revealed that a testimonial in honor of Sassaman had been permanently embedded into Bitcoin's block chain. Information privacy Information security Sassaman's home page at the Wayback Machine Sassaman's former blog at the Wayback Machine

German submarine U-1273

German submarine U-1273 was a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was ordered on 23 March 1942, was laid down on 7 June 1943, at Bremer Vulkan-Vegesacker Werft, Bremen-Vegesack, as yard number 68, she was launched on 10 January 1944, commissioned under the command of Leutnant zur See Karl-Heinz Voswinkel on 16 February 1944. German Type VIIC/41 submarines were preceded by the heavier Type VIIC submarines. U-1273 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, an overall beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8-276 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged, she had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres.

The submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-1273 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, one 3.7 cm Flak M42 and two 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between fifty-two. On 17 February 1945, U-1273 struck a British air-laid mine off Horten in the Skagerrak in Oslofjord. Kapitänleutnant Helmut Knollmann and 42 other crewmen died out of a crew of 51; the wreck now lies at 59°24′N 10°32′E. Battle of the Atlantic

Gaylord Chemical Corporation

The company headquarters of Gaylord Chemical Company LLC are located in the New Orleans suburb of Slidell, Louisiana, USA. Gaylord's original manufacturing facility located in Bogalusa, Louisiana was shut down and demolished in 2010, when the company relocated its operations to Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA; the company has manufactured dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl sulfide continuously since the early 1960s. Prior to its acquisition by its management team in 2007 Gaylord operated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Temple-Inland Inc.. After the ownership transition was complete it continued to operate from its Slidell office, established in the late 1980s. Gaylord announced expanded DMSO production capacity in Tuscaloosa, which came on-line in 2010. Prior to being a subsidiary of Temple-Inland, Gaylord Chemical was a division of Gaylord Container Corporation, the successor of the brown paper division of Crown Zellerbach. Crown Zellerbach, the San Francisco-based forest products company, developed the DMS / DMSO manufacturing technology in use by Gaylord today.

Crown Zellerbach's research and development facility was located in Washington. A focus of the Chemical Products Division was to develop chemicals derived from paper industry by-products, to complement the company's established pulp and paper business; the oxidation technology used by Gaylord Chemical to make DMSO was developed at the Camas R&D lab by David Goheen and coworkersCrown Zellerbach was the object of a hostile takeover by James Goldsmith in mid-1985, which split up the corporation in May 1986. The majority of its manufacturing assets were acquired by the James River Corporation of Richmond, Virginia; the remaining CZ assets were divided between timber holdings, the brown paper division, which became Gaylord Container Corporation in November 1986, relocated its headquarters to Deerfield, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. After less than 16 years as a company, Gaylord was acquired by rival Temple-Inland in 2002. In 1995 a railroad tank car at the Bogalusa facility vented its contents when pressure overwhelmed its rupture disc.

The railcar contained dinitrogen tetroxide, used as a process oxidant. The subsequent release forced an evacuation of about 3,000 people within a one-mile radius of the plant. Lawsuits filed against Gaylord Chemical Corporation and Vicksburg Chemical were settled in May 2005. A follow-up investigation determined that the accident occurred as a result of mixing of the railcar's contents with water; the incident had a strong effect on the process and personnel safety management system in the corporation and catalyzed a determined effort to improve safety performance. By 2008 Gaylord Chemical was recognized by the Louisiana Chemical Association for this work and was named as a Class 1'Best in Louisiana" SAFE award winner; the chemical process used in Bogalusa to manufacture DMSO and dimethyl sulfide was unique in that it relied biorenewable inputs. The old Gaylord plant received a portion of the Kraft black liquor generated by the Temple Inland paper mill, used as a sulfur alkylating agent to make DMS.

The crude dimethyl sulfide product was purified by distillation and could be used to produce DMSO. When Gaylord closed its Bogalusa plant in 2010, it changed its process technology to manufacture DMS from methanol and hydrogen sulfide gas via gas phase thioetherification; this is the dominant method used worldwide to make DMS and there are no longer any producers practicing the original lignin-based process. An interesting footnote is the naturopathic belief that DMSO derived from ‘natural’ raw materials has unusual medicinal properties relative to petrochemically derived DMSO. There would seem to be no scientific evidence to substantiate these claims. DMSO produced by the discontinued lignin-based process can be distinguished analytically from petrochemically produced DMSO using high resolution mass spectroscopy; this is due to the higher abundance of C14 isotopes present in lignin-derived DMS. In 2010 Gaylord Chemical Company built a new DMSO production facility in Tuscaloosa, AL; the new plant was constructed 400 km away from the original Bogalusa location.

The company built new infrastructure in Tuscaloosa dismantled and reinstalled key equipment in 100 days. The rationale provided for the plant relocation included Gaylord’s inability to expand its production capacity at the Bogalusa location due to raw material restrictions. Additionally the long term availability of sour gas provided by a nearby refinery allowed the company to implement the established H2S / Methanol process. Gaylord Chemical Company’s Tuscaloosa facility is ISO 9000:2008 certified and its products are compliant with the Registration, Evaluation and Restriction of Chemicals regulations established in the European Union under Regulation No 1907/2006; the company maintains both Kosher and Halal certificates for its facility, due in part to the use of dimethyl sulfide as a food and flavoring ingredient. Official website

Serra de la Vall de la Torre

Serra de la Vall de la Torre known as Serra de la Vall, is a mountain range located at the southern end of the Catalan Pre-Coastal Range, Spain. The ridge's highest point is 450.8 m. This mountain range lies within the Corbera d'Ebre municipal term, it is a lower northern prolongation of the Serra de Cavalls. In the valley formed between this range and the Serra de Cavalls there is an ancient castle known as Torre de la Vall; these mountains, along with Serra de Pàndols and Serra de Cavalls further south, as well as the Serra de la Fatarella in the north, were the scenario of bloody battles during the Battle of the Ebro in the Spanish Civil War. The Ebro Battle was the last action of the International Brigades, who were withdrawn midway through it. Siege of Gandesa International Brigades Catalan Pre-Coastal Range Jaume Aguadé i Sordé, El diari de guerra de Lluís Randé i Inglés.

Nubian languages

The Nubian languages are a group of related languages spoken by the Nubians. They form a branch of the Eastern Sudanic languages, part of the wider Nilo-Saharan phylum. Nubian languages were spoken throughout much of Sudan, but as a result of arabization they are today limited to the Nile Valley between Aswan and Al Dabbah as well as a few villages in the Nuba mountains and Darfur. In the October War Egypt employed Nubian-speaking Nubian people as code talkers. Rilly distinguishes the following Nubian languages, spoken by in total about 900,000 speakers: Nobiin, the largest Nubian language with 545,000 speakers in Egypt and the Nubian diaspora. Known by the geographic terms Mahas and Fadicca/Fiadicca; as late as 1863 this language, or a related dialect, was known to have been spoken by the arabized Nubian Shaigiya tribe. Kenzi with 100,000 speakers in Egypt and Dongolawi with 180,000 speakers in Sudan, they are no longer considered a single language, but related. The split between Kenzi and Dongolawi is dated recently to the 14th century.

Midob with 30,000 speakers. The language is spoken in and around the Malha volcanic crater in North Darfur. Birgid, spoken north of Nyala around Menawashei until the 1970s. Was the predominant language between the corridor of Nyala and al-Fashir in the north and the Bahr al-Arab in the south as recent as 1860. Kordofan Nubian, a group of related dialects spoken in various villages in the northern Nuba Mountains. An additional language, Haraza, is known only from a few dozen words recalled by village elders in 1923. Old Nubian is preserved in at least a hundred pages of documents, comprising both texts of a Christian religious nature and documentary texts dealing with state and legal affairs. Old Nubian was written with a slanted uncial variety of the Coptic alphabet, with the addition of characters derived from Meroitic; these documents range in date from the 8th to the 15th century AD. Old Nubian is considered ancestral to modern Nobiin though it shows signs of extensive contact with Dongolawi.

Another, as yet undeciphered Nubian language has been preserved in a few inscriptions found in Soba, the capital of Alodia. Since their publication by Adolf Ermann in 1881, they are referred as'Alwan inscriptions' or'Alwan Nubian.' Synchronic research on the Nubian languages began in the last decades of the nineteenth century, first focusing on the Nile Nubian languages Nobiin and Kenzi-Dongolawi. Several well-known Africanists have occupied themselves with Nubian, most notably Lepsius and Meinhof. Additionally, important comparative work on the Nubian languages has been carried out by Thelwall, Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst in the second half of the twentieth century and Claude Rilly and George Starostin in the twenty-first. Traditionally, the Nubian languages are divided into three branches: Northern and Central. Ethnologue's classifies the Nubian languages as follows:. Northern Old Nubian Nobiin Western Midob Central Kenzi Birgid Dongolawi Hill Kadaru-Ghulfan Ghulfan Kadaru Unclassified Dair Dilling El Hugeirat Karko WaliGlottolog groups all non-Northern Nubian branches in a single group named West-Central Nubian.

Additionally, within Hill Nubian, Glottolog places Dair in the same branch as Kadaru. The relation between Dongolawi and Nobiin remains a matter of debate within Nubian Studies. Ethnologue's classification is based on glotto-chronological research of Thelwall and Bechhaus-Gerst, which considers Nobiin the earliest branching from Proto-Nubian, they attribute the current syntactical and phonological proximity between Nobiin and Dongolawi to extensive language contact. Arguing that there is no archeological evidence for a separate migration to the Nile of Dongolawi speakers, Rilly provides evidence that the difference in vocabulary between Nobiin and Dongolawi is due to a pre-Nubian substrate underneath Nobiin, which he relates to the Meroitic. Approaching the inherited proto-Nubian vocabulary in all Nubian languages systematically through a comparative linguistic approach, Rilly arrives at the following classification: Nile Nubian Old Nubian Nobiin Kenzi-Dongolawi Dongolawi Kenzi Western Nubian Birgid Midob-Kordofan Midob Kordofan A reconstruction of Proto-Nubian has been proposed by Claude Rilly.

There are three active proposals for a Nubian alphabet: based on the Arabic script, the Latin script and the Old Nubian alphabet. Since the 1950s, Latin has been used by four authors, Arabic by two and Old Nubian by three, in the publication of various books of proverbs and textbooks. For Arabic, the extended ISESCO system may be used to indicate vowels and consonants not found in the Arabic alphabet itself. List of Proto-Nubian reconstructions Swadesh List comparing basic words of the Nubian languages Panafrican localization page on Nubian Nubian alphabet examples The Lucky Bilingual: Ethnography of Factors Influencing Code-switching Among the Nubian Community in Southern Egypt

Mary R. Bassett

Mary Robertson Bassett was a late 19th and early 20th century illustrator of magazines and children's books. Mary Robertson Bassett illustrated magazines such as Ladies' Home Journal, children's books published by P. F. Volland Company, Baker & Taylor Company, Grosset & Dunlap, other publishers, her illustrations are sold at auction. Reviewers noted that her work was "unusually attractive", "charming", "beautifully illustrated", "not only skilfully made, but show a most appreciate feeling for the contents of the book." School and Home Education wrote of her work in Fairy Operettas, "The imagination of the reader is agreeably stimulated by the illustrations from the pens and brushes of Mary Robertson Bassett." Wells and Mary R. Bassett. Marjorie's New Friend. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1909. OCLC 3411644 Freeman, Mary Eleanor Wilkins, Mary R. Bassett; the Green Door. New York: Moffat and Company, 1910. OCLC 5327045 Johnson and Mary R. Bassett. Little Folks' Book of Verse. New York: Baker & Taylor Co, 1911.

OCLC 20809715 Richards and Mary Robertson Bassett. Fairy Operettas. Boston: Little, Brown, 1916. OCLC 5504251 Croll and Mary R. Bassett. Just for You. Chicago: P. F. Volland Co, 1918. OCLC 610575342 Johnson, Mary R. Bassett and Will Hammell. Poems My Children Love Best of All. New York: Lloyd Adams Noble, 1918. OCLC 21766715