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Lena Horne

Lena Mary Calhoun Horne was an American singer, dancer and civil rights activist. Horne's career spanned over 70 years, appearing in film and theater. Horne joined the chorus of the Cotton Club at the age of 16 and became a nightclub performer before moving to Hollywood. Returning to her roots as a nightclub performer, Horne took part in the March on Washington in August 1963 and continued to work as a performer, both in nightclubs and on television while releasing well-received record albums, she announced her retirement in March 1980, but the next year starred in a one-woman show, Lena Horne: The Lady and Her Music, which ran for more than 300 performances on Broadway. She toured the country in the show, earning numerous awards and accolades. Horne continued recording and performing sporadically into the 1990s, disappearing from the public eye in 2000. Horne died of congestive heart failure on May 9, 2010, at the age of 92. Lena Horne was born in Bedford -- Brooklyn, she was descended from the John C. Calhoun family, both sides of her family were African American through a mixture of African, Native American, European American descent and belonged to the upper stratum of middle-class, well-educated people.

Her father, Edwin Fletcher "Teddy" Horne Jr. a numbers kingpin in the gambling trade, left the family when she was three and moved to an upper-middle-class African American community in the Hill District community of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Her mother, Edna Louise Scottron, was a granddaughter of inventor Samuel R. Scottron. Edna's maternal grandmother, Amelie Louise Ashton, was a Senegalese slave. Horne was raised by her grandparents, Cora Calhoun and Edwin Horne; when Horne was five, she was sent to live in Georgia. For several years, she traveled with her mother. From 1927 to 1929, she lived with her uncle, Frank S. Horne, dean of students at Fort Valley Junior Industrial Institute in Fort Valley, who served as an adviser to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. From Fort Valley, southwest of Macon, Horne moved to Atlanta with her mother, she attended Girls High School, an all-girls public high school in Brooklyn that has since become Boys and Girls High School. Aged 18, she moved to her father's home in Pittsburgh, staying in the city's Little Harlem for five years and learning from native Pittsburghers Billy Strayhorn and Billy Eckstine, among others.

In the fall of 1933, Horne joined the chorus line of the Cotton Club in New York City. In the spring of 1934, she had a featured role in the Cotton Club Parade starring Adelaide Hall, who took Lena under her wing. Horne made her first screen appearance as a dancer in the musical short Cab Calloway's Jitterbug Party. A few years Horne joined Noble Sissle's Orchestra, with which she toured and with whom she made her first records, issued by Decca. After she separated from her first husband, Horne toured with bandleader Charlie Barnet in 1940–41, but disliked the travel and left the band to work at the Cafe Society in New York, she replaced Dinah Shore as the featured vocalist on NBC's popular jazz series The Chamber Music Society of Lower Basin Street. The show's resident maestros, Henry Levine and Paul Laval, recorded with Horne in June 1941 for RCA Victor. Horne left the show after only six months when she was hired by former Cafe Trocadero manager Felix Young to perform in a Cotton Club-style revue on the Sunset Strip in Hollywood.

Horne had two low-budget movies to her credit: a 1938 musical feature called The Duke is Tops. Horne's songs from Boogie Woogie Dream were released individually as soundies. Horne made her Hollywood nightclub debut at Felix Young's Little Troc on the Sunset Strip in January 1942. A few weeks she was signed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In November 1944, she was featured in an episode of the popular radio series Suspense, as a fictional nightclub singer, with a large speaking role along with her singing. In 1945 and 1946, she sang with Billy Eckstine's Orchestra, she made her debut at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in Panama Hattie and performed the title song of Stormy Weather based loosely on the life of Adelaide Hall, at 20th Century Fox, while on loan from MGM. She appeared in a number of MGM musicals, most notably Cabin in the Sky, but was never featured in a leading role because of her race and the fact that her films had to be re-edited for showing in cities where theaters would not show films with black performers.

As a result, most of Horne's film appearances were stand-alone sequences that had no bearing on the rest of the film, so editing caused no disruption to the storyline. A notable exception was the all-black musical Cabin in the Sky, although one number from that film was cut before release because it was considered too suggestive by the censors: Horne singing "Ain't It the Truth" while taking a bubble bath; this scene and song are featured in the film That's Entertainment! III which featured commentary from Horne on why the scene was deleted prior to the film's release. Lena Horne was the first African-American elected to serve on the Screen Actors Guild board of directors. In Ziegfeld Follies, she performed "Love" by Ralph Blane. Horne lobbied for the role of Julie LaVerne in MGM's 1951 version of Show Boat (having played the role when a segment of Show Bo

Pankrác Prison

Pankrác Prison Prague Pankrác Remand Prison, is a prison in Prague, Czech Republic. A part of the Czech Prison Service, it is located southeast of Prague city centre in Pankrác, not far from Pražského povstání metro station on Line C, it serves as a prison for persons awaiting trial and for convicted inmates. Since 2008, women have been incarcerated here; the prison was built in 1885–1889 in order to replace the obsolete St Wenceslas Prison, which used to stand between Charles Square and the Vltava River. The site for the new prison was out of city limits, amidst fields above Nusle suburb, in the time of its construction; the expanding Prague encompassed the prison within several decades. At the time of its opening, the prison was a modern institution with hot air central heating; the prison had its own gasworks. It opened in 1889 under name "The Imperial-Royal prison for men in Prague"; the prison included bathrooms, classrooms, a lecture hall, gymnasium, 22 workshop rooms, 6 exercise yards, a Roman Catholic church, an Evangelical chapel, a Jewish house of prayer.

The bedroom section of the prison hospital had 22 rooms for patients from among the prisoners. A large building of Regional court was added to the facility in 1926 and since it served as the largest of 37 Regional Court prisons for detainees and prisoners serving up to 1-year imprisonment terms; the court and the prison are connected by underground corridor. In 1926 the prison was approved for conducting capital punishment; the first execution took place on 6 December 1930, when František Lukšík was hanged for committing a murder and robbery. Altogether 5 executions took place in the prison between 1930 and 1938, when the democratic First Czechoslovak Republic ceased to exist following the Munich Agreement and German and Polish occupation of the country's border areas. During Nazi German occupation in 1939–1945, the German Gestapo investigation unit and court were established at the prison; the Czech prison guards were replaced by Waffen SS members. Thousands of Czech people, from members of the resistance to alleged black marketeers, were detained here before being sent to execution sites the Kobylisy Shooting Range, to other prisons within Nazi Germany, or to concentration camps.

The prison capacity was boosted to 2,200, it became the largest prison in the occupied country. In spring 1943 the Nazi Germans started carrying out executions directly inside the facility itself, where three cells had been adapted for this purpose. General Josef Bílý, who at the beginning of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia led the anti-Nazi resistance group Obrana Národa, was imprisoned at Pankrác Prison before being executed by shooting elsewhere in 1941. Bílý refused a blindfold and his last words to his executioners were "Shoot, you German dogs!"Between 5 April 1943 and 26 April 1945 a total of 1,079 people were beheaded by guillotine in Pankrác by Nazi executioners. The chief Nazi executioner was Alois Weiss; the three rooms used for this purpose have been preserved, serve as memorial, accessible to schools and public. After the war, many executions of Nazi officials and collaborators took place in the prison, including the hanging of Karl Hermann Frank, as well as Kurt Daluege, the SS chief responsible for the Lidice and Ležáky massacres.

The executions of Nazis were public, but this practice was soon abandoned. Following the 1948 communist coup d'état, Pankrác Prison became the place of execution of most of the 234 political prisoners that were executed in Czechoslovakia, including the former Member of Parliament and anti-communist dissident Milada Horáková. Following a power struggle within the party, Rudolf Slánský, former head of the Czechoslovak communist party and one of the creators and organizers of the 1948 coup was killed here as well. Since 1954, the prison was the only place in the Czech lands where capital punishments were carried out. In 1960s Czechoslovakia became the only country to the East of the Iron Curtain which accepted the United Nations standard minimum rules for prisons; this meant introduction of e.g. psychologists and pedagogues. In the last decades before the abolition of capital punishment in Czechoslovakia, the vast majority of executions took place here, the last in 1989. With view to the fact that the number of people executed by hanging by Nazi Germans is unknown, altogether at least 1,580 people were executed in Pankrác Prison between 1930 and 1989.

The Czech dissident Pavel Wonka, the last political prisoner to die under the communist regime, was imprisoned at Pankrác, although he died at a prison in Hradec Králové in 1988. In 2011, prisoners started secret preparations for a riot. After discovering a large stockpile of stabbing and slashing weapons in Pankrác Prison's workshops, the Prison Service and the Czech Police uncovered plans for a coordinated riot in 5 different prisons around the country preventing it from happening. Today, the Pankrác Prison serves as a house of detention for charged persons, as a prison for sentenced persons. While the official capacity in 2006 was 858 inmates, it was 1075 persons by year 2012 (incl. 111 capacity of th

Herlong Recreational Airport

Herlong Recreational Airport known as Herlong Airport, is a public airport located eight nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Jacksonville, a city in Duval County, United States. This airport is assigned a three-letter location identifier of HEG by the Federal Aviation Administration, but it does not have an International Air Transport Association airport code; the Jacksonville Aviation Authority is the owner of all four public airports in Jacksonville and serves as the Fixed-Base Operator at Herlong. The airport was built during World War II to facilitate pilot training for the Navy and Air Force. After the war, the property was given to the city, subsequently the JAA. In recognition of the improvements and excellent operations, Herlong Recreational Airport was named the Florida Department of Transportation's General Aviation Airport of the Year in 2001. Herlong Recreational Airport covers an area of 1,484 acres which contains two asphalt paved runways: 7/25 measuring 4,000 x 100 ft and 11/29 measuring 3,500 x 100 ft.

For the 12-month period ending October 20, 1999, the airport had 80,700 aircraft operations, an average of 221 per day: 97% general aviation and 3% military. There are 162 aircraft based at this airport: 70% single-engine, 9% multi-engine, 10% ultralight, 8% glider and 2% helicopter. Herlong Recreational Airport page at the Jacksonville Aviation Authority website "Herlong Airport". Brochure from CFASPP FAA Terminal Procedures for HEG, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for HEG AirNav airport information for HEG FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for HEG