Maya River is a river in Khabarovsk Krai and Sakha, Russia. It is a right tributary of the Aldan River of the Lena basin; the length of the river is 1,053 kilometres. The area of its basin 171,000 square kilometres; the Maya River stays under the ice until May. The Yudoma River is one of the biggest tributaries of the Maya; the river is navigable up to 500 kilometres upstream from its mouth. The Maya was part of the river route from Yakutsk to the Okhotsk Coast, its course is "V"-shaped. The upper Maya runs about 201 kilometres southwest parallel to the coast between the Dzhugdzhur Mountains and the Yudoma Plateau. About 80 kilometres from its source the Mati River comes in from the south. From the Mati either the Lama Portage or the Alanchak Portage led to the coast. Near the southernmost point was the settlement of Nelkan from which a track led over the mountains to Ayan; the Maya flows west for 64 kilometres and receives the Maimakan River from the southwest. From here the river flows north about 320 kilometres, receives the Yudoma River from the east and joins the Aldan River at Ust-Maya.
From Ust-Maya there was a horse-track to Yakutsk. Eastbound boats that reached Ust-Maya from the Lena River were replaced by smaller boats to continue up the Maya
Lena Pillars is the name given to a natural rock formation along the banks of the Lena River in far eastern Siberia. The pillars are 150–300 metres high, were formed in some of the Cambrian period sea-basins; the highest density of pillars is reached between the villages of Tit-Ary. The Lena Pillars Nature Park was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2012; the site lies around 180 kilometres, less than a day's boat ride, upriver from the city of Yakutsk, the capital of the autonomous Sakha Republic. One may plan a river cruise by contacting a travel service in the city of Yakutsk; those interested in limnology or ecotourism, others who visit Lake Baikal, can coordinate a river sojourn with the aid of a guide from the Lake Baikal region. Few modern amenities exist in this part of Russia, unless one travels by cruise ship on the Lena River. Hiking trails in the region are steep and at times precarious; the pillars consist of alternating layers of limestone, marlstone and slate of early to middle Cambrian age, which are weathered, producing the rugged outcrops.
These types of rocks are formed in marine environments and the horizontal layering and vertical variation indicates marine transgression/regression. Climate here is acutely continental with temperatures reaching as low as -60°C in winter and as high as +35°C in summer
The Lena is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean. With a mean annual discharge of 588 cubic kilometers per year, it is the second largest of the Arctic rivers, it is the largest river whose catchment is within the Russian territorial boundaries. Permafrost underlies most of the catchment, with 77% of the catchment containing continuous permafrost. Originating at an elevation of 1,640 meters at its source in the Baikal Mountains south of the Central Siberian Plateau, 7 kilometres west of Lake Baikal, the Lena flows northeast, being joined by the Kirenga River, Vitim River and Olyokma River. From Yakutsk it enters the lowlands and flows north until joined by its right-hand tributary the Aldan River and its most important left-hand tributary, the Vilyuy River. After that, it bends westward, flowing alongside the Verkhoyansk Range and making its way nearly due north to the Laptev Sea, a division of the Arctic Ocean, emptying south-west of the New Siberian Islands by the Lena Delta – 30,000 square kilometres in area, traversed by seven principal branches, the most important being the Bykovsky channel, farthest east.
The area of the Lena river basin is calculated at 2,490,000 square kilometres and the mean annual discharge is 588 cubic kilometers per year. Gold is washed out of the sands of the Vitim and the Olyokma, mammoth tusks have been dug out of the delta; the Kirenga River flows north between the upper Lena Lake Baikal. The Vitim River drains the area northeast of Lake Baikal; the Olyokma River flows north. The Amga River flows into the Aldan; the Aldan River flows into the Lena north of Yakutsk. The Maya River, a tributary of the Aldan, drains an area to the Sea of Okhotsk; the T-shaped Chona-Vilyuy River system drains most of the area to the west. It is believed that the Lena derives its name from the original Even-Evenk name Elyu-Ene, which means "the Large River". According to folktales related a century in the years 1620–1623 a party of Russian fur hunters under the leadership of Demid Pyanda sailed up Lower Tunguska, discovered the Lena, either carried their boats there or built new ones. In 1623 Pyanda explored some 2,400 kilometres of the river from its upper reaches to the central Yakutia.
In 1628 Vasily Bugor and 10 men reached the Lena, collected'yasak' from the'natives' and founded Kirinsk in 1632. In 1631 the voyevoda of Yeniseisk sent 20 men to construct an ostrog at Yakutsk. From Yakutsk other expeditions spread out to the south and east; the Lena delta was reached in 1633. Baron Eduard Von Toll, accompanied by Alexander von Bunge, led an expedition that explored the Lena delta and the islands of New Siberia on behalf of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1885. In 1886 they investigated the Yana River and its tributaries. During one year and two days the expedition covered 25,000 kilometres, of which 4,200 kilometres were up rivers, carrying out geodesic surveys en route; the Lena massacre was the name given to the 1912 shooting-down of striking goldminers and local citizens who protested at the working conditions in the mine near Bodaybo in northern Irkutsk. The incident was reported in the Duma by Kerensky and is credited with stimulating revolutionary feeling in Russia.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov may have taken his alias, from the river Lena, when he was exiled to the Central Siberian Plateau. At the end of the Lena River there is a large delta that extends 100 kilometres into the Laptev Sea and is about 400 km wide; the delta is frozen tundra for about seven months of the year, but in May the region is transformed into a lush wetland for the next few months. Part of the area is protected as the Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve; the Lena delta divides into a multitude of flat islands. The most important are: Chychas Aryta, Sagastyr, Samakh Ary Diyete, Turkan Bel'keydere, Sasyllakh Ary, Kolkhoztakh Bel'keydere, Grigoriy Diyelyakh Bel'kee, Nerpa Uolun Aryta, Misha Bel'keydere, Atakhtay Bel'kedere, Urdiuk Pastakh Bel'key, Agys Past' Aryta, Dallalakh Island, Otto Ary, Ullakhan Ary and Orto Ues Aryta. Turukannakh-Kumaga is a narrow island off the Lena delta's western shore. One of the Lena delta islands, Ostrov Amerika-Kuba-Aryta or Ostrov Kuba-Aryta, was named after the island of Cuba during Soviet times.
It is on the northern edge of the delta. Alexander von Bunge & Baron Eduard Von Toll, The Expedition to the New Siberian Islands and the Yana country, equipped by the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Lena Pillars List of rivers of Russia List of longest undammed rivers William Barr, writer of The First Soviet Convoy to the Mouth of the Lena; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lena". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Arctic Great Rivers Observatory NASA Earth Observatory page on flooding on the Lena River Information and a map of the Lena's watershed Permafrost in the Lena Delta Alfred Wegner institute Publications, Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung - free, downloadable research reports on the biology, oceanography, paleontology, fauna, soils, so forth of the Lena Delta, Laptev
Kirensk is a town and the administrative center of Kirensky District in Irkutsk Oblast, located at the confluence of the Kirenga and Lena Rivers, 950 kilometers north of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 12,640 , it was founded in 1630 by the Cossacks under Vasily Bugor as a winter settlement called Nikolsky pogost. Along with Ust-Kut, it was one of the two main portages between the Lena basins. In the 1630s, Yerofey Khabarov ran. In 1665, it was renamed Kirensky Ostrog. In 1775, it was granted town status. In the 19th century, a large number of political prisoners were forcibly resettled here, among whom was Józef Piłsudski. Under Stalin there was a GULAG transit camp. In 1991, over eighty bodies were found buried in the basement of the former NKVD building. All were said to have been killed on a single day in 1938 and all were killed by blows on the head to hide the noise. During the construction of the Baikal–Amur Mainline, goods were shipped up the Kirenga to Magistralny.
In the 1970s, a dam was built across one mouth of the Kirenga to reduce ice jams. In 2001, there was a major flood. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kirensk serves as the administrative center of Kirensky District, to which it is directly subordinated; as a municipal division, the town of Kirensk, together with nine rural localities in Kirensky District, is incorporated within Kirensky Municipal District as Kirenskoye Urban Settlement. There is ship transport along the Lena in summer and an airport, but no railroad, no proper road link to the rest of Russia; the port is used to transfer goods to smaller ships going further up the Lena. The town is served by the Kirensk Airport. During World War II, it was a staging point for American aircraft transferred to Russia via Alaska. Kirensk has a subarctic climate. Winters are cold with average temperatures from −32.2 °C to −21.0 °C in January, while summers are warm with average temperatures from +12.2 °C to +25.3 °C. Precipitation is quite low and is higher in summer than at other times of the year.
Daniel Broido, computer engineer Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Постановление №9/5-ЗС от 15 апреля 2009 г. «Устав Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №2-У от 14 декабря 2017 г. «О поправках к Уставу Иркутской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная", №45, 24 апреля 2009 г.. Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №49-ОЗ от 21 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №12-ОЗ от 23 марта 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 25 и 33 Закона Иркутской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Иркутской области" и Закон Иркутской области "О порядке рассмотрения Законодательным Собранием Иркутской области предложений о присвоении наименований географическим объектам и о переименовании географических объектов"». Вступил в силу после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная", №71, 25 июня 2010 г.. Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области.
Закон №87-оз от 16 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Киренского района Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №63-ОЗ от 13 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Иркутской области». Вступил в силу с 31 декабря 2004 г. но не ранее чем через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Восточно-Сибирская правда", №254–255, 20 декабря 2004 г.. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Formations of Irkutsk Oblast
The Ob River Ob', is a major river in western Siberia, is the world's seventh-longest river. It forms at the confluence of the Biya and Katun Rivers which have their origins in the Altay Mountains, it is the westernmost of the three great Siberian rivers. The Gulf of Ob is the world's longest estuary; the internationally known name of the river is based on the Russian name Обь. From Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hā́p-, "river, water". Katz proposes Komi ob'river' as the immediate source of derivation for the Russian name. Katz's proposal of a common Finno-Ugric root, loaned early on from a pre-Indo-Iranian source related to Sanskrit ambhas-'water' is deemed improbable by Rédei, who prefers to analyze this as a loan from a descendant of the non-nasal root form *Hā́p-; the Ob is known to the Khanty people as the As, Yag and Yema. The Ob forms 25 km southwest of Biysk in Altai Krai at the confluence of the Katun rivers. Both these streams have their origin in the Altay Mountains, the Biya issuing from Lake Teletskoye, the Katun, 700 kilometres long, bursting out of a glacier on Mount Byelukha.
The Ob's entire main course is within Russia, though its tributaries extend into Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The river splits into more than one arm after joining the large Irtysh tributary at about 69° E. From the source of the Irtysh to the mouth of the Ob, the river flow is the longest in Russia at 4,248 kilometers. Other noteworthy tributaries are: from the east, the Tom, Ket and Vakh rivers; the Ob zigzags west and north until it reaches 55° N, where it curves round to the northwest, again north, wheeling eastwards into the Gulf of Ob, a 1,000-kilometre-long bay of the Kara Sea, separating the Yamal Peninsula from the Gydan Peninsula. The combined Ob-Irtysh system, the fourth-longest river system of Asia, is 5,410 kilometres long, the area of its basin 2,990,000 square kilometres; the river basin of the Ob consists of steppe, swamps and semi-desert topography. The floodplains of the Ob are characterized by many lakes; the Ob is ice-bound at southern Barnaul from early in November to near the end of April, at northern Salekhard, 150 km above its mouth, from the end of October to the beginning of June.
The Ob River crosses several climatic zones. The upper Ob valley, in the south, grows grapes and watermelons, whereas the lower reaches of the Ob are Arctic tundra; the most comfortable climate for the rest on the Ob are Biysk and Novosibirsk. The Ob provides irrigation, drinking water, hydroelectric energy, fishing. There are several hydroelectric power plants along the Ob river, the largest being Novosibirskaya GES rated at 460 MW; the navigable waters within the Ob basin reach a total length of 15,000 km. The importance of navigation in the Ob basin for transportation was great before the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, despite the general south-to-north direction of the flow of Ob and most of its tributaries, the width of the Ob basin provided for transportation in the east-west direction as well; until the early 20th century, a important western river-port was Tyumen, located on the Tura River, a tributary of the Tobol. Reached by an extension of the Ekaterinburg-Perm railway in 1885, thus obtaining a rail link to the Kama and Volga rivers in the heart of Russia, Tyumen became an important railhead for some years until the railway extended further east.
In the eastern reaches of the Ob basin, Tomsk on the Tom River functioned as an important terminus. Tyumen had its first steamboat in 1836, steamboats have navigated the middle reaches of the Ob since 1845; the first steamboat on the Ob, Nikita Myasnikov's Osnova, was launched in 1844. Steamboats started operating on the Yenisei on the Lena and Amur in the 1870s. In 1916 there were 49 steamers on the Ob. In an attempt to extend the Ob navigable system further, a system of canals, utilizing the Ket River, 900 km long in all, was built in the late 19th-century to connect the Ob with the Yenisei, but soon abandoned as being uncompetitive with the railway; the Trans-Siberian Railway, once completed, provided for more direct, year-round transportation in the east-west direction. But the Ob river-system still remained important for connecting the huge expanses of Tyumen Oblast and Tomsk Oblast with the major cities along the Trans-Siberian route, such as Novosibirsk or Omsk. In the second half of the 20th century, construction of rail links to Labytnangi and the oil and gas cities of Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk provided more railheads, but did not diminish the importance of the waterways for reaching places still not served by the rail.
A dam built near Novosibirsk in 1956 created the then-largest artificial lake in Siberia, called Novosibirsk Reservoir. From the 1960s through 1980s, Soviet engineers and administrators contempl
New Siberian Islands
The New Siberian Islands are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha Republic. The first news about the existence of the New Siberian Islands was brought by a Cossack, Yakov Permyakov, in the beginning of the 18th century. In 1712, a Cossack unit led by M. Vagin reached the Great Lyakhovsky Island. In 1809–10 Yakov Sannikov and Matvei Gedenschtrom went to the New Siberian Islands on a cartographic expedition. Sannikov reported the sighting of a "new land" north of Kotelny in 1811; this became the myth of Sannikov Land. In 1886 Polar explorer and scientist Eduard Toll, during his first visit to the New Siberian Islands, thought that he had seen an unknown land north of Kotelny Island, he guessed. Toll paid a further visit to the island group in the spring of 1892, accompanied by one Cossack and three natives, he traveled over the ice in sleds drawn by dogs and reached the south coast of Great Lyakhovsky Island.
Along the southern coast of this island he found well-preserved bones, peat, a tree within 40-meter high sea cliffs that expose Late Pleistocene sediments. These sediments are cemented by permafrost and have accumulated periodically over the last 200,000 years. In September 2014, the Russian Navy re-established a Soviet era naval base which had lain abandoned since 1993; the New Siberian Islands proper, or Anzhu Islands, covering a land area of about 29,000 km2, consist of: Kotelny Island 11,700 km2 and Faddeyevsky Island 5,300 km2. Bunge Land 6,200 km2 links Faddeyevsky Island. Close to Bunge Land's northwestern coast lie two smaller islands: Zheleznyakov Island, right off the NW cape and east of it, Matar Island. Both islands have a length of about 5 km. Nanosnyy Island 76.283°N 140.416°E / 76.283. It is C-shaped and only 4 km in length, but its importance lies in the fact that it is the northernmost island of the New Siberian group. Novaya Sibir 6,200 km2 Belkovsky Island 500 km2To the south and nearer to the Siberian mainland lie the Lyakhovskiye Islands: Great Lyakhovsky Island 4,600 km2 Little Lyakhovsky Island 1,325 km2 Stolbovoy Island 170 km2 Semyonovsky Island 0 km2 The small De Long Islands lie to the north-east of Novaya Sibir.
Jeannette Island Henrietta Island Bennett Island Vilkitsky Island Zhokhov Island The New Siberian Islands are low-lying. Their highest point is located with an elevation of 426 m; the New Siberian Islands once formed major hills within the Great Arctic Plain that covered the northern part of Late Pleistocene "Beringia" between Siberia and Alaska during the Last Glacial Maximum. These islands represent the remains of about 1.6 million square kilometers of the subaerial Great Arctic Plain that now lies submerged below parts of the Arctic Ocean, East Siberian Sea, Laptev Sea. At this plain's greatest extent, sea level was 100–120 m below modern sea-level and the coastline lay 700 to 1000 kilometers north of its current position; this plain did not undergo extensive glaciation during the Late Pleistocene or the Last Glacial Maximum because it lay in the rain shadow of the Northern European ice sheet. During the frigid polar climate of the Last Glacial Maximum, 17,000 to 24,000 BC, small passive ice caps formed on the adjacent De Long Islands.
Fragments of these ice caps remain on Jeannette and Bennett Islands. Traces of former small slope and cirque glaciers in the form of buried ground ice deposits are preserved on Zhokhov Island; the sea submerged the Great Arctic Plain within a short time span of 7,000 years during the Early–Middle Holocene. As noted by Digby and numerous publications, this archipelago consists of a mixture of folded and faulted sedimentary and igneous rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Pliocene; the Lyakhovsky Islands consist of a folded and faulted assemblage of Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The Anzhu Islands consist of a faulted and folded assemblage of Ordovician to Devonian limestones, sandstones, volcanoclastic strata, igneous rocks; the De Long Islands consist of early Paleozoic, middle Paleozoic and Neogene sedimentary and igneous rocks. These sedimentary and igneous rocks are mantled by loose Pleistocene and Holocene sediments that range in thickness from a fraction of a meter to about 35 meters.
Digby noted that some early papers published about the New Siberian Islands incorrectly describe them along with other Arctic islands, as being made either up entirely of mammoth bones and tusks or of ice and the bones of mammoths and other extinct megafauna. Some of these papers were written by persons who had never visite