Sviatoslav Teofilovich Richter was a Soviet pianist of Russian-German origin, regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the 20th century. He is known for the "depth of his interpretations, his virtuoso technique, his vast repertoire." Richter was born in Zhytomyr, Volhynian Governorate of the Russian Empire, a native town of his parents. His father, Teofil Danilovich Richter, was a pianist and composer born to German expatriates, his mother, Anna Pavlovna Richter, came from a noble Russian landowning family, at one point she studied under her future husband. In 1918, when Richter's parents were in Odessa, the Civil War separated them from their son, Richter moved in with his aunt Tamara, he lived with her from 1918 to 1921, it was that his interest in art first manifested itself: he first became interested in painting, which his aunt taught him. In 1921 the family was reunited, the Richters moved to Odessa, where Teofil taught at the Odessa Conservatory and worked as organist of a Lutheran church.
In early 1920s Richter started studying piano. Unusually, he was self-taught, his father only gave him a basic education in music, so did one of his father's pupils, a Czech harpist. At an early age, Richter was an excellent sight-reader and practised with local opera and ballet companies, he developed a lifelong passion for opera and chamber music that found its full expression in the festivals he established in La Grange de Meslay, in Moscow, at the Pushkin Museum. At age 15, he started to work at the Odessa Opera. On March 19, 1934, Richter gave his first recital, at the Engineers' Club of Odessa. During Richter's audition for Neuhaus, Neuhaus whispered to a fellow student, "This man's a genius". Although Neuhaus taught many great pianists, including Emil Gilels and Radu Lupu, it is said that he considered Richter to be "the genius pupil, for whom he had been waiting all his life," while acknowledging that he taught Richter "almost nothing." Early in his career, Richter tried his hand at composing, it appears that he played some of his compositions during his audition for Neuhaus.
He gave up composition shortly after moving to Moscow. Years Richter explained this decision as follows: "Perhaps the best way I can put it is that I see no point in adding to all the bad music in the world". By the beginning of World War II, Richter's parents' marriage had failed and his mother had fallen in love with another man; because Richter's father was a German, he was under suspicion by the authorities and a plan was made for the family to flee the country. Due to her romantic involvement, his mother did not want to leave and so they remained in Odessa. In August 1941 his father was arrested and found guilty of espionage, being sentenced to death on 6 October 1941. Richter didn't speak to his mother again until shortly before her death nearly 20 years in connection with his first US tour. In 1943 Richter met an operatic soprano, he noticed Dorliak during the memorial service for Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, caught up with her at the street and suggested to accompany her in recital. In 1945 they remained companions until Richter's death.
They had no children. Dorliak accompanied Richter both in his complex career, she supported him in his last sickness, died herself a few months on May 17, 1998. It was rumored that Richter was homosexual and that having a female companion provided a social front for his sexual orientation, because homosexuality was still seen as taboo and could result in legal repercussions. Richter was not open to interviews, he never publicly discussed his personal life until, in the last year of his life, filmmaker Bruno Monsaingeon convinced him to be interviewed for a documentary. In 1949 Richter won the Stalin Prize, which led to extensive concert tours in Russia, Eastern Europe and China, he gave his first concerts outside the Soviet Union in Czechoslovakia in 1950. In 1952, Richter was invited to play Franz Liszt in a film based on the life of Mikhail Glinka, called The Composer Glinka; the title role was played by Boris Smirnov. On February 18, 1952, Richter made his sole appearance as a conductor in the world premiere of Prokofiev's Symphony-Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in E minor, with Mstislav Rostropovich as the soloist.
In 1960 though he had a reputation for being "indifferent" to politics, Richter defied the authorities when he performed at Boris Pasternak's funeral. Having received the Stalin and Lenin prizes and become People's Artist of the RSFSR, he gave his first tour concerts in the USA in 1960, in England and France in 1961. In 1948, Richter and Dorliac gave recitals in Bucharest, Romania in 1950 performed in Prague and Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. In 1954, Richter gave recitals in Hungary. In 1956, he again toured Czechoslovakia in 1957, he toured China again performed in Prague and Warsaw. In 1958, Richter recorded Prokofiev's 5th Piano Concert
Dmitry Yevgenyevich Okhotsimsky was a Soviet Russian aerospace engineer and scientist, the pioneer of space ballistics in the USSR. He wrote fundamental works in spaceflight dynamics and robotics. Okhotsimsky was lived his whole life in Moscow, his father, Yevgeny Pavlovich Okhotsimsky, was his mother a housewife. Okhotsimsky was attached to his parents and always lived together with them. At the age of fifteen he suffered diphtheria in a hard form and was prohibited from any sports or physical activity, he showed his whole life remarkable energy and good health, was working until his death at the age of 84. He entered the Department of Mechanics and Mathematics of the University of Moscow in 1939; when World War II broke, the department was temporarily closed. He participated in the building of defense installations around Moscow, worked at the munitions factory. In 1941 he was conscripted to the Red Army but was dismissed in 1942 for vision problems and returned to the University. In 1946 he presented a paper about the optimization of the missile flight, where he was able to find an analytical solution using an original technique of calculus of variations, a precursor in some respects to what was formulated in a more general form as the Pontryagin maximum principle.
In 1949 he joined the Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, where was working in the department of Applied Mathematics led by Mstislav Keldysh, the future President of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Keldysh was an active member of the think tank behind the space program and his support was instrumental for active integration of Okhotsimsky and his group in space projects; the department of Keldysh became a separate institute known as the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics and the group of Okhotsimsky became a department in this institute, which he was leading until his death. Since his first student work, Okhotsimsky was interested in analytical and numerical solution of variational problems to which the optimization of space mission can be reduced: how the mission can achieve its target with the minimal total fuel consumption. Using first Soviet computers (such as Strela computer, he worked with his colleagues to develop new generation of numerical methods and principles of programming.
After the launch of the first satellite he published a few papers were the mathematical aspects of the launch and evolution of the orbit were analyzed. Okhotsimsky's leadership was instrumental in the development within his department of the remarkable group of young talents collectively nicknamed "Keldysh boys". Many of them became well-known, such as Ye. L. Akim, T. M. Yeneyev, A. K. Platonov, V. A. Yegorov, V. A. Sarychev, M. L. Lidov, V. V. Beletsky. Okhotsimsky contributed to the planning of multiple space missions including launches to Moon and Venus, his analysis of the first failed docking attempts on Soyuz spacecraft helped to find a reason of mechanical instability and develop successful docking techniques. Together with Ye. F. Golubev and Yu. G. Sikharulidze he developed a concept of a dual-entry aerodynamically controlled landing algorithm of a spacecraft where the two-stage entry was used to reduce speed and achieve an accuracy of landing of a few km, he developed the methods on the passive stabilization of satellites using the gravity gradient and the non-sphericity of the tensor of inertia.
Okhotsimsky's team, along with a group managed by Mikhail Tikhonravov at NII-4, did analysis and optimization of multi-stage rocket designs. Okhotsimsky studied the general problem of how rockets could increase their range by dropping parts of their construction during flight; this included sequential stages and parallel "packet" rockets and schemes involving the pumping of fuel between stages during flight. This led directly to the design of the R-7 missile and the exact proportions of its strap-on booster stages. In the middle of the 1970s Okhotsimsky became interested in robotics in the modeling and control of insect-like walking. A few successful models of 6-legged walking robots were created including systems with autonomous vision able to climb the stairs and handle complicated terrain. In the work of Okhotsimsky and his school realistic mechanical modeling of the motion was combined with sophisticated algorithms adapted to the context of a particular task, he advocated a "from the bottom up" approach aimed at first handling particular low-level problems and moving to assembling a more general setup.
He thought. Okhotsimsky combined the talents of an administrator, his career was linked to the section of Mechanics and Control of the Soviet/Russian Academy of Science, of which he was a deputy-secretary. Parallel to his main work in the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, he was appointed in 1962 a chair of Theoretical Mechanics at the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics at the Moscow State University and performed both functions until his last days, he was always striving to find practical forms of cooperation between the Academy of Science and the University. Until his last days he remained a staunch supporter of the leading role of the Academy of Science as a center of fundamental research in Russia. Okhotsimsky was one of the 5 initiators of the creation of the Department of Control and Applied Mathematics at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Corresponding Member since 1960, Academician since 1991 Foreign Member of the Serbi
Yevgeny Viktorovich Vuchetich was a prominent Soviet sculptor and artist. He is known for his heroic monuments of allegoric style, including The Motherland Calls, the largest sculpture in the world at the time. Vuchetich was born in Yekaterinoslav, Russian Empire, the son of Viktor Vučetić, of Serbian ethnicity, Anna Andreevna Stewart, of Russian and of French descent, he was a prominent representative of the Socialist Realism style and was awarded with the Lenin Prize in 1970, the Stalin Prize, Order of Lenin, Order of the Patriotic War, Hero of Socialist Labor and People's Artist of the USSR. One of his step-granddaughters is Israeli politician Ksenia Svetlova. Soviet War Memorial in Treptower Park, overseen by a 13m tall monument of a Soviet soldier holding a German child, with a sword, over a broken swastika; this war memorial design was used on coins and medals commemorating the end of fascist rule in 1945. Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares in the United Nations garden Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares in front of the plant "Gazoapparat" in Volgograd.
A sculpture of Felix Dzerzhinsky, colloquially known as "Iron Felix", used to be in Moscow at the Lubyanka Square. The Motherland Calls! at Mamayev Kurgan List of Russian artists
The AK-47 known as the Avtomat Kalashnikova, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is the originating firearm of the Kalashnikov rifle family. Design work on the AK-47 began in 1945. In 1946, the AK-47 was presented for official military trials, in 1948, the fixed-stock version was introduced into active service with selected units of the Soviet Army. An early development of the design was the AKS, equipped with an underfolding metal shoulder stock. In early 1949, the AK-47 was accepted by the Soviet Armed Forces and used by the majority of the member states of the Warsaw Pact. After seven decades, the model and its variants remain the most popular and used assault rifles in the world because of their substantial reliability under harsh conditions, low production costs compared to contemporary Western weapons, availability in every geographic region and ease of use; the AK-47 has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with armed forces as well as irregular forces and insurgencies worldwide, was the basis for developing many other types of individual, crew-served and specialised firearms.
As of 2004, "Of the estimated 500 million firearms worldwide 100 million belong to the Kalashnikov family, three-quarters of which are AK-47s". During World War II, the Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifle used by German forces made a deep impression on their Soviet counterparts; the select-fire rifle was chambered for a new intermediate cartridge, the 7.92×33mm Kurz, combined the firepower of a submachine gun with the range and accuracy of a rifle. On 15 July 1943, an earlier model of the Sturmgewehr was demonstrated before the People's Commissariat of Arms of the USSR; the Soviets were impressed with the weapon and set about developing an intermediate caliber automatic rifle of their own, to replace the PPSh-41 submachine guns and outdated Mosin–Nagant bolt-action rifles that armed most of the Soviet Army. The Soviets soon developed the 7.62×39mm M43 cartridge, the semi-automatic SKS carbine and the RPD light machine gun. Shortly after World War II, the Soviets developed the AK-47 assault rifle, which would replace the SKS in Soviet service.
Introduced in 1959, the AKM is a lighter stamped steel version and the most ubiquitous variant of the entire AK series of firearms. In the 1960s, the Soviets introduced the RPK light machine gun, an AK type weapon with a stronger receiver, a longer heavy barrel, a bipod, that would replace the RPD light machine gun. Mikhail Kalashnikov began his career as a weapon designer in 1941, while recuperating from a shoulder wound which he received during the Battle of Bryansk. Kalashnikov himself stated..."I was in the hospital, a soldier in the bed beside me asked:'Why do our soldiers have only one rifle for two or three of our men, when the Germans have automatics?' So I designed one. I was a soldier, I created a machine gun for a soldier, it was called an Avtomat Kalashnikova, the automatic weapon of Kalashnikov—AK—and it carried the year of its first manufacture, 1947."The AK-47 is best described as a hybrid of previous rifle technology innovations. "Kalashnikov decided to design an automatic rifle combining the best features of the American M1 and the German StG44."
Kalashnikov's team had access to these weapons and had no need to "reinvent the wheel". Kalashnikov himself observed: "A lot of Russian Army soldiers ask me how one can become a constructor, how new weaponry is designed; these are difficult questions. Each designer seems to have his own successes and failures, but one thing is clear: before attempting to create something new, it is vital to have a good appreciation of everything that exists in this field. I myself have had many experiences confirming this to be so."There are claims about Kalashnikov copying other designs, like Bulkin's TKB-415 or Simonov's AVS-31. Kalashnikov started work on a submachine gun design in 1942 and with a light machine gun in 1943. "Early in 1944, Kalashnikov was given some 7.62×39mm M43 cartridges and informed that there were several designers working on weapons for this new Soviet small-arms cartridge. It was suggested to him that this new weapon might well lead to greater things, he undertook work on the new rifle."
In 1944, he entered a design competition with this new 7.62×39mm, semi-automatic, gas-operated, long stroke piston, carbine influenced by the American M1 Garand. "The rifle that Kalashnikov designed was in the same class as the familiar SKS-45 Simonov with fixed magazine and gas tube above the barrel." However, this new Kalashnikov design lost out to a Simonov design. In 1946, a new design competition was initiated to develop a new assault rifle. Kalashnikov submitted an entry, it was gas-operated rifle with a short-stroke gas piston above the barrel, a breech-block mechanism similar to his 1944 carbine, a curved 30-round magazine. Kalashnikov's rifles AK-1 and AK-2 proved to be reliable weapons and were accepted to a second round of competition along with other designs; these prototypes had a rotary bolt, a two-part receiver with separate trigger unit housing, dual controls and a non-reciprocating charging handle located on the left side of the weapon. This design had many similarities to the STG 44.
In late 1946, as the rifles were being tested, one of Kalashnikov's assistants, Aleksandr Zaitsev, suggested a major redesign to improve reliability. At first, Kalashnikov wa
Nikolay Yakovlevich Demyanov known as Demjanov and Demjanow, was a Russian organic chemist and a member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He is internationally known for other discoveries, he was a recipient of the Lenin Prize in 1930. Imperial Moscow University: 1755-1917: encyclopedic dictionary. Moscow: Russian political encyclopedia. A. Andreev, D. Tsygankov. 2010. Pp. 212–213. ISBN 978-5-8243-1429-8. Academician Nikolay Yakovlevich Demyanov
Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems; the simplest form of technology is the use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. Technology has many effects, it has allowed the rise of a leisure class.
Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; the use of the term "technology" has changed over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution.
The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie, absent in English, which translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, utensils, instruments, clothing and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." Bain's definition remains common among scholars today social scientists. Scientists and engineers prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use. More scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self.
Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, etc. to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, etc., created by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter."Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems, it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.
Tools and machines need not be material. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose."The word "technology" can be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; when combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. Technology can be viewed as an activity that changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, an
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin, was a Russian communist revolutionary and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1922 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration and the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism. Born to a moderately prosperous middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empire's Tsarist government, he devoted the following years to a law degree, he became a senior Marxist activist. In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent theorist in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.
In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, leading the Bolshevik faction against Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Encouraging insurrection during Russia's failed Revolution of 1905, he campaigned for the First World War to be transformed into a Europe-wide proletarian revolution, which as a Marxist he believed would cause the overthrow of capitalism and its replacement with socialism. After the 1917 February Revolution ousted the Tsar and established a Provisional Government, he returned to Russia to play a leading role in the October Revolution, in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the new regime. Lenin's Bolshevik government shared power with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, elected soviets, a multi-party Constituent Assembly, although by 1918 it had centralised power in the new Communist Party. Lenin's administration redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry, it withdrew from the First World War by signing a treaty with the Central Powers and promoted world revolution through the Communist International.
Opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign administered by the state security services. His administration defeated right and left-wing anti-Bolshevik armies in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922 and oversaw the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. Responding to wartime devastation and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin encouraged economic growth through the market-oriented New Economic Policy. Several non-Russian nations secured independence after 1917, but three re-united with Russia through the formation of the Soviet Union in 1922. In poor health, Lenin died at his dacha in Gorki, with Joseph Stalin succeeding him as the pre-eminent figure in the Soviet government. Considered one of the most significant and influential figures of the 20th century, Lenin was the posthumous subject of a pervasive personality cult within the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991, he became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism–Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement.
A controversial and divisive individual, Lenin is viewed by supporters as a champion of socialism and the working class, while critics on both the left and right emphasize his role as founder and leader of an authoritarian regime responsible for political repression and mass killings. Lenin's father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs. Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility. Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863. Well educated and from a prosperous background, she was the daughter of a wealthy German–Swedish Lutheran mother, a Russian Jewish father who had converted to Christianity and worked as a physician, it is that Lenin was unaware of his mother's half-Jewish ancestry, only discovered by his sister Anna after his death. Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, rising to become Director of Primary Schools in the Simbirsk district six years later.
Five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450 schools as a part of the government's plans for modernisation. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, which bestowed on him the status of hereditary nobleman. Lenin was baptised six days later, he was one of eight children, having two older siblings and Alexander. They were followed by three more children, Olga and Maria. Two siblings died in infancy. Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria—a Lutheran by upbringing—was indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children. Both parents were monarchists and liberal conservatives, being committed to the emancipation reform of 1861 introduced by the reformist Tsar Alexander II; every summer they holidayed at a rural manor in Kokushkino. Among his siblings, Lenin was closest to his sister Olga, whom he bossed around.