Don Leopoldo Carrillo was a Mexican-American entrepreneur and one of the earliest pioneers of Tucson, Arizona. He became a naturalized American citizen in 1873. Leopoldo Carrillo was born on May 24, 1836 in Moctezuma, Sonora as the illegitimate son of Luis Carrillo and Dona Maria Martines. Luis Carrillo was a Spanish soldier and Dona Maria Martines was half Opata. Leopoldo had two younger brothers and Procopio, an older sister named Teodosia, he had another relative named Emilio. The latter is as Leopoldo referred to him as "primo", the Spanish word for cousin. Leopoldo Carrillo had no formal education, teaching himself how to read and speak Spanish and the Opata language, he had humble beginnings selling bottles on the streets to pay for his lessons. This would lead him to becoming a strong supporter of the establishment of Tuscon School District #1. Leopoldo Carrillo married Jesusita Suarez on August 21, 1865 in Mexico. Jesusita's sister, Elvira Suarez de Carrillo, moved into the household. Along with hired servants, she helped to look after his large family of nine children.
After fifteen years of marriage, Jesusita died on June 28, 1880 at the age of 33. She had given birth to Mortimer Carrillo two days earlier; as it was improper for an unmarried woman to be living with a widower, Leopoldo married Elvira on September 6, 1880 who helped to raise his children who at the time were from ages two to thirteen. Leopoldo's success as a businessman allowed for his children to live off most of his earnings. Carrillo was able to afford Leopoldo Jr.'s education at Santa Clara College in California. Leopoldo Jr. claimed. Leopoldo Carrillo was fond of gambling. Among the games he played were poker and Monte, the latter of, a card game with origins in Spain, he won furniture such as a large mirror from these games, but he was cautious about gambling debts. He would put his property under his wife Jesusita's name to minimize his losses. One of his brothers, who owned the key to Leopoldo's safe, would not allow him to gamble if his losses were too great. Leopoldo Carrillo had a successful career as an entrepreneur.
However, it was not without obstacles. The events of his career were contemporaneous to major civil conflicts such as the American Civil War and the Mexican Revolution. In addition to raids by Native Americans and the surrounding area was unstable. In 1859, Carrillo ventured to the town of Tucson, Arizona which at the time was a government outpost on the verge of exponential growth; as a visionary, he saw the potential for the town's growth via mass transit and was key to getting the railroad through Tucson. Owning a farm near Fort Lowell, he was one of the first members of the Arizona Pioneer Society; as an entrepreneur, he set about to establish numerous facilities in Tuscon. His experience as a freighter during the American Civil War and as a supporter of the Union gave him national recognition leading to his sudden rise in success; the freight business extended all the way from Sonora to St. Louis, Missouri. From there, goods were exported all the way to other Asian countries. In 1869, a raiding party of Native Americans stole from Carrillo's cattle by herding them away from his ranch near San Xavier.
Leopoldo retaliated by amassing a large group of 50 bronco horses. He led them to recapture the entirety of his missing livestock in addition to capturing four horses from the Native Americans. During August 1875, Leopoldo was accused of providing guns to Mexican revolutionists despite him being in Canoa, Arizona at the time. Several days he was captured by a Mexican rebel named Don Jose Maria Escalante in an effort to obtain his money. A community effort was made to raise enough money to pay the ransom, but Escalante raised the amount from $5,000 to $7,000 in addition to all of Carrillo's cattle from his hacienda. After delivering the money, Escalante still threatened to kill Carrillo anyway. Though Leopoldo prepared a plan for his family to recover his corpse should the ransom deal fail, he managed to escape on his own, he fled to the mountains disguising himself as a Native American through his dark skin and knowledge of the Opata language. After Carrillo escaped, a friend of his named Juan Bojorquez provided him with a horse to allow him to return to Tucson.
They reunited with Jesusita, accompanied by five other men armed with rifles. After this event, Leopoldo never celebrated the Mexican Independence Day again. After Carrillo's kidnapping, the Arizona Citizen brought attention to the national level with a series of recollections about the event, they accused the government of Sonora of conspiracy and corruption holding them responsible for the attempt on Carrillo's life and the theft of $20,000. Translating to 2018 inflation, the total losses equated to $458,000. Leopoldo Carrillo built numerous establishments in Tucson. By 1881, he had owned more than 100 buildings. Among them included a ten pin bowling alley and a piano parlor used by the Tucson Glee Club, he commissioned the construction of the city's first two story building, built the town's first ice cream parlor, unique in that it served wine with it. He was a musician himself, his largest project was known as Carrillo's Gardens located just southwest of the main Tucson area. Built in 1885, it became the city's first free public park.
Across eight acres, a variety of different fruit trees were planted, numerous artificial lakes and ponds were constructed. These bo
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park is a California state park located within the Colorado Desert of southern California, United States. The park takes its name from 18th century Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza and borrego, the Spanish word for sheep. With 600,000 acres that includes one-fifth of San Diego County, it is the largest state park in California; the park occupies eastern San Diego County and reaches into Imperial and Riverside counties, enveloping two communities: Borrego Springs, home to the park's headquarters, Shelter Valley. The park is an anchor in the Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve, adjacent to the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument; the great bowl of the surrounding desert is surrounded by mountains, with the Vallecito Mountains to the south and the highest Santa Rosa Mountains to the north which are in the wilderness area, without paved roads and with the only year-round creeks. The park has 500 mi of dirt roads, 12 designated wilderness areas, 110 mi of hiking trails.
ABDSP is around a two-hour drive northeast from San Diego, southeast from Riverside or Irvine, south from Palm Springs. Access on the east-Coachella Valley side is via County Route S22 and State Route 78. Access on the west-Pacific Ocean side is via California County Routes S79. S67 provides access through the high and forested Laguna Mountains, such as in Cuyamaca Rancho State Park; these highways climb from the coast to 2,400 ft above sea level descend 2,000 ft down into the Borrego Valley in the center of the park. Park information and maps are available in the Visitor Center; the park has Wi-Fi access. The habitats are within the Colorado Desert ecosystem of the Sonoran Desert ecoregion; the higher extreme northern and eastern sections in the Peninsular Ranges are in the California montane chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. The park contains bajadas and desert washes; the bajadas are predominantly creosote bush-bur sage with creosote bush and the palo verde-cactus shrub ecosystems with the palo verde tree and ocotillo.
In the washes, Colorado/Sonoran microphylla woodlands can be found. These woodlands include such plants as smoke tree, velvet mesquite, catclaw; the park has natural oases, with the state's only native palm, the California Fan Palm. Seasonal wildflower displays can be seen in many plant community association throughout the park; the high-country to the north and east has closed-cone pine forests and oak woodlands. The oases are prolific with many types of fauna for bird-watching. Throughout the park, visitors may see bighorn sheep, mountain lions, kit foxes, mule deer, greater roadrunners, golden eagles, black-tailed jackrabbits, ground squirrels, kangaroo rats and prairie falcons. In the reptile class, desert iguanas and the red diamond rattlesnakes can be seen; some areas are habitats for the Peninsular bighorn sheep called desert bighorn sheep. Few park visitors see them, the sheep avoid human contact. Observers count this endangered species to study the population, monitor its current decline from human encroachment.
The expanses of ABDSP's eroded badlands provide a different view into the region's long-vanished tropical past. The inland of southeastern California was not always a desert. Paleontology, the study of the fossilized remains of ancient life, is the key to understanding this prehistoric world. ABDSP has an exceptional fossil record which includes preserved plants, a variety of invertebrate shells, animal tracks, an array of bones and teeth. Most fossils found in ABDSP date from six million to under a half million years in age, or about 60 million years after the last dinosaur age ended. ABDSP lies in a unique geologic setting along the western margin of the Salton Trough; this major topographic depression with the Salton Sink having elevations of 200 ft below sea level, forms the northernmost end of an active rift valley and a geological continental plate boundary. The trough extends north from the Gulf of California to San Gorgonio Pass, from the eastern rim of the Peninsular Ranges eastward to the San Andreas Fault zone along the far side of the Coachella Valley.
Over the past seven million years, a complete geologic record of over 20,000 ft of fossil-bearing sediment has been deposited within the park along the rift valley's western margin. Paleontological remains are widespread and diverse, are found scattered over hundreds of square miles of eroded badlands terrain extending south from the Santa Rosa Mountains into northern Baja California in Mexico. Both marine and terrestrial environments are represented by this rich fossil record. Six million years ago, the ancestral Gulf of California filled the Salton Trough, extending northward past what would become the city of Palm Springs; these tropical waters supported a profusion of both small marine organisms. Through time, the sea gave way as an immense volume of sediment eroded during the formation of the Grand Canyon spilled into the Salton Trough. Little by little, the ancestral Colorado River built a massive river delta across the sea way. Fossil hardwoods from the deltaic sands and associated coastal plain deposits suggest the region received three times as much rainfall as now.
The Anza-Borrego region changed from a predominately marine environment into a system of interrelated terrestrial habitats. North of the Colorado River Delta and intermittently fed by the river, a
Renault Renaldo Duncan, better known as Duncan Renaldo, was a Romanian-born American actor best remembered for his portrayal of The Cisco Kid in films and on the 1950-1956 American TV series, The Cisco Kid. Renaldo told some interviewers that he did not know where he was born; the prosecution in his immigration case entered into evidence a copy of a birth certificate forwarded by the Romanian consul stating that he was born in Oancea, Romania as Vasile Dumitru Cugheanos, the natural son of Dumitru and Teodora Cugheanos. Renaldo claimed in his defense that he was born in Camden, New Jersey and only raised in Romania as Basil Couyanos by people whom he sometimes referred to as "mother" and "father", but other times by their Christian names and Theodora. Renaldo claimed to have never known his biological parents and was raised in several European countries, he emigrated to America in the 1920s. He claimed Romanian nationality when he took a job on a French freighter, entered the United States in 1917, registering as a foreign seaman.
S. Puget Sound in 1917, first entered the United States when this ship landed at Baltimore, Maryland that year. Failing to support himself as a portrait painter, he tried producing short films, he took up acting and signed with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1928 where he worked in at least two major films, The Bridge of San Luis Rey and Trader Horn. In January 1933, Renaldo was sentenced to serve two years in federal prison and fined $2000 on conviction of falsely claiming American citizenship, falsifying a passport, perjury, but he was pardoned by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and returned to acting, he found minor roles at Republic Studios and other Poverty Row studios until he convinced Republic head Herbert Yates in 1939 to introduce a Latin cowboy into The Three Mesquiteers series. The character only lasted a year and Renaldo was back to minor roles in B-films, for example Tiger Fangs. Renaldo did play some roles in mainstream films as well, including in Spawn of the North with George Raft, Henry Fonda and John Barrymore.
He was a producer and director. In the late 1940s, Renaldo starred in several Hollywood Westerns as The Cisco Kid, in 1950, he began playing the role in a popular television series that ran until 1956. In the age of black-and-white television, the show was filmed in color; as Cisco, Renaldo roamed the Old West on a black-and-white horse named Diablo, accompanied by his constant companion, played by Leo Carrillo, 24 years Renaldo's senior. Renaldo illustrated a book of poetry by Moreton B. Price titled Drifter's Dreams, his illustrations are ink sketches of idyllic scenes seascapes and landscapes. He painted in oils. Two of his large paintings of members of the Maasai tribe whom he met in Kenya while filming Trader Horn were prominently displayed in his Santa Barbara home in 1971. Renaldo died of lung cancer in 1980, aged 76, in California, his interment took place in Calvary Cemetery in California. For his contributions to the television industry, Renaldo has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1680 Vine Street.
He is pictured with the band War on their 1974 album, War Live, which includes the group's 1973 song, "The Cisco Kid". Lady Luck Rose of the Rio Grande Down Mexico Way Call of the South Seas Two Years Before the Mast Duncan Renaldo on IMDb Video: Frank Buck and Duncan Renaldo in Tiger Fangs on YouTube
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil Blount DeMille was an American filmmaker. Between 1914 and 1958, he made a total of both silent and sound films, he is acknowledged as a founding father of the cinema of the United States and the most commercially successful producer-director in film history. His films were distinguished by his cinematic showmanship, he made silent films of every genre: social dramas, Westerns, morality plays, historical pageants. DeMille began his career as a stage actor in 1900, he moved to writing and directing stage productions, some with Jesse Lasky, a vaudeville producer. DeMille's first film, The Squaw Man, was the first feature film shot in Hollywood, its interracial love story made it a phenomenal hit and it "put Hollywood on the map". The continued success of his productions led to the founding of Paramount Pictures with Lasky and Adolph Zukor, his first biblical epic, The Ten Commandments, was both a financial success. In 1927, he directed The King of Kings, a biography of Jesus of Nazareth, acclaimed for its sensitivity and reached more than 800 million viewers.
The Sign of the Cross was the first sound film to integrate all aspects of cinematic technique. Cleopatra was his first film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. After more than thirty years in film production, DeMille reached the pinnacle of his career with Samson and Delilah, a biblical epic which did "an all-time record business". Along with biblical and historical narratives, he directed films oriented toward "neo-naturalism", which tried to portray the laws of man fighting the forces of nature, he went on to receive his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director for his circus drama The Greatest Show on Earth, which won both the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama. His last and most famous film, The Ten Commandments a Best Picture Academy Award nominee, is the seventh-highest-grossing film of all time, adjusted for inflation. In addition to his Best Picture Award, he received an Academy Honorary Award for his film contributions, the Palme d'Or for Union Pacific, a DGA Award for Lifetime Achievement, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award.
He was the first recipient of the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, named in his honor. There are several variants of his surname, his family's Dutch surname was spelled de Mil and became de Mille. As an adult, he adopted the spelling DeMille for professional purposes but continued to use de Mille in private life; the family name de Mille was used by his children Cecilia, John and Katherine. DeMille's brother and his daughters and Agnes, as well as DeMille's granddaughter, Cecilia de Mille Presley used the de Mille spelling. Cecil Blount DeMille was born in Ashfield, while his parents were vacationing there, grew up in Washington, North Carolina, his father, Henry Churchill de Mille, was a North Carolina-born dramatist and lay reader in the Episcopal Church, who had earlier begun a career as a playwright, writing his first play at age 15. His mother was the playwright and script writer Matilda Beatrice DeMille, whose parents were both of German Jewish heritage, she emigrated from England with her parents in 1871 when she was 18, they settled in Brooklyn.
Beatrice grew up in a middle-class English household. DeMille's mother was related to British politician Herbert Louis Samuel. DeMille's parents met as members of literary society in New York. Henry was a red-headed student. Beatrice was intelligent, educated and strong-willed, they were both born in 1853 and both loved the theater. When they married, Beatrice converted to Henry's faith. Henry worked as a playwright and faculty member during the early years of The American Academy of Dramatic Arts, established in New York City in 1884, he built a house for his family in New Jersey. The family spent time in Pompton Lakes, New Jersey, operating a private school in that town and attending Christ Episcopal Church. DeMille recalled that this church was the place where he visualized the story of his 1923 version of The Ten Commandments. Henry read to his children nightly, both from the Bible. DeMille studied read the Bible during lunch in the studio commissary, he was the first to admit that he did not attend church services but he did profess an unshakable belief in prayer.
He stated. "My ministry," said DeMille, "has been to make religious movies and to get more people to read the Bible than anyone else has."In 1893, at the age of forty, Henry de Mille contracted typhoid fever and died leaving Beatrice with three children, a house, no savings. Beatrice had "enthusiastically supported" her husband's theatrical aspirations. In his eulogy, she wrote: May your sons be as noble and good and honest as you were. May they follow in your steps. Within eight weeks of Henry's death, Beatrice opened an acting workshop in her home, the Henry C. De Mille School for Girls, she became the second female play broker on Broadway. DeMille attended Pennsylvania Military College in Pennsylvania from the age of fifteen. Both DeMille and his brother William attended and graduated from the American Academy of Dramatic Arts, which they attended on scholarship; the Academy honored DeMille with an Alumni Achievement Award. DeMille be
Master of ceremonies
A master of ceremonies, abbreviated MC, is the official host of a ceremony, staged event or similar performance. The term is earliest documented in the Catholic Church since the 5th century, where the Master of Ceremonies was and still is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy; the master of ceremonies sometimes refers to the protocol officer during an official state function in monarchies. Today, the term is used to connote a compère, which corresponds to a master of ceremonies who presents performers, speaks to the audience, entertains people, keeps an event moving; this usage occurs in the entertainment industry, including for television game show hosts, as well as in contemporary hip hop and electronic dance music culture. In addition, the term exists in various chivalric orders and fraternal orders. Alternative names include compère, microphone controller; the term originated in the Catholic Church.
The Master of Ceremonies is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy. He may be an official involved in the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials involving the Roman Pontiff, the Papal Court, other dignitaries and potentates. Examples of official liturgical books prescribing the rules and regulations of liturgical celebrations are Cæremoniale Romanum and Cæremoniale Episcoporum; the office of the Master of Ceremonies itself is old. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the most ancient ceremonials and rituals of the Catholic Church are the Ordines Romani. Names of Masters of Ceremonies are known since the Renaissance. However, copies of books prescribing the forms of rituals and customs of pontifical ceremonies are known to have been given to Charles Martel in the 8th century; the rules and rituals themselves are known to have been compiled or written by the pontifical masters of ceremonies, dating back to the time of Pope Gelasius I with modifications and additions made by Pope Gregory the Great.
It is reasonable to assume. The duties of the Master of Ceremonies may have developed from the time Emperor Constantine the Great gave the Lateran Palace to the popes or from the time Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, were no doubt influenced by imperial practices and norms. However, documentary evidence from the late Roman period is scarce or lost; the ceremonies and practices of the Byzantine emperors are known to have influenced the papal court. The accumulation of elaborations and complications since the Renaissance and Baroque eras continued well into the 20th century, until some of the ceremonies were simplified or eliminated by Pope Paul VI in the 1970s after Vatican II. At a large Catholic church or cathedral, the Master of Ceremonies organizes and rehearses the proceedings and ritual of each Mass, he may have responsibility for the physical security of the place of worship during the liturgy. At major festivities such as Christmas and Easter, when the liturgies are long and complex, the Master of Ceremonies plays a vital role in ensuring that everything runs smoothly.
The current papal Master of Ceremonies is Monsignor Guido Marini, who succeeded Archbishop Piero Marini. Certain European royal courts maintained senior offices known as Masters of Ceremonies, responsible for conducting stately ceremonies such as coronations and receptions of foreign ambassadors. Examples included: Spanish Empire: Maestro de Ceremonias British Empire: Master of the Ceremonies France: Grand Master of Ceremonies Japan: Master of Ceremonies Russian Empire: see Table of Ranks Ottoman Empire: Kapıcıbaşı "chief doorkeeper" of the Topkapi Palace The function is prevalent in the culture of chivalric orders, as well as in more modern fraternal orders, such as Freemasons and Odd Fellows. Most large corporate and association conferences and conventions use an MC to keep the events running smoothly; this role is sometimes performed by someone inside the group but by an outside professional expert MC. Their role could include - introducing and thanking speakers, introducing the theme of the conference, facilitating a panel discussion & interviewing guests.
During the wedding reception, the multifaceted responsibility of the Master of Ceremony is to keep the agenda flowing smoothly by: skillfully capturing and maintaining the attention of the wedding guests directing their attention on whatever the bride and groom have chosen to include keeping the wedding attendees informed so at any given moment they know what is happening comfortably guiding the bride's and groom's friends and family so they know what they are supposed to do to participateThe role of the wedding master of ceremonies incorporates a wide range of skills, those who serve in this capacity have undergone extensive training in the following areas: Delivering applause cues Presenting introductions Microphone technique Posture and stance Voice inflection Staging Masters of ceremonies at weddings and private events ensure the coordination of their event, including liaison with catering staff. In hip hop and electronic dance music, "MC" refers to rap artists or performers who perform vocals for their own or other artist's original material
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea