Color Field painting is a style of abstract painting that emerged in New York City during the 1940s and 1950s. It was inspired by European modernism and related to Abstract Expressionism, while many of its notable early proponents were among the pioneering Abstract Expressionists. Color Field is characterized by large fields of flat, solid color spread across or stained into the canvas creating areas of unbroken surface and a flat picture plane; the movement places less emphasis on gesture and action in favour of an overall consistency of form and process. In color field painting "color is freed from objective context and becomes the subject in itself."During the late 1950s and 1960s, Color field painters emerged in Great Britain, Washington, D. C. and the West Coast of the United States using formats of stripes, simple geometric patterns and references to landscape imagery and to nature. The focus of attention in the world of contemporary art began to shift from Paris to New York after World War II and the development of American Abstract Expressionism.
During the late 1940s and early 1950s Clement Greenberg was the first art critic to suggest and identify a dichotomy between differing tendencies within the Abstract Expressionist canon. Taking issue with Harold Rosenberg, who wrote of the virtues of action painting in his article "American Action Painters" published in the December 1952 issue of ARTnews, Greenberg observed another tendency toward all-over color or Color Field in the works of several of the so-called'first generation' Abstract Expressionists. Mark Rothko was one of the painters that Greenberg referred to as a Color Field painter exemplified by Magenta, Green on Orange, although Rothko himself refused to adhere to any label. For Rothko, color was "merely an instrument." In a sense, his best known works – the "multiforms" and his other signature paintings – are, in essence, the same expression, albeit one of purer means, that of the same "basic human emotions," as his earlier surrealistic mythological paintings. What is common among these stylistic innovations is a concern for "tragedy and doom".
By 1958, whatever spiritual expression Rothko meant to portray on canvas, it was growing darker. His bright reds and oranges of the early 1950s subtly transformed into dark blues, greens and blacks, his final series of paintings from the mid-1960s were gray, black with white borders abstract landscapes of an endless bleak, tundra-like, unknown country. Rothko, during the mid-1940s, was in the middle of a crucial period of transition, he had been impressed by Clyfford Still's abstract fields of color, which were influenced in part by the landscapes of Still's native North Dakota. In 1947, during a subsequent semester teaching at the California School of Fine Art and Still flirted with the idea of founding their own curriculum or school. Still was considered one of the foremost Color Field painters – his non-figurative paintings are concerned with the juxtaposition of different colors and surfaces, his jagged flashes of color give the impression that one layer of color has been "torn" off the painting, revealing the colors underneath, reminiscent of stalactites and primordial caverns.
Still's arrangements are irregular and pitted with heavy texture and sharp surface contrast as seen above in 1957D1. Another artist whose best known works relate to both abstract expressionism and to color field painting is Robert Motherwell. Motherwell's style of abstract expressionism, characterized by loose opened fields of painterly surfaces accompanied by loosely drawn and measured lines and shapes, was influenced by both Joan Miró and by Henri Matisse. Robert Motherwell's Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 110 is the work of a pioneer of both Abstract Expressionism and Color Field painting. Robert Motherwell's Elegy to The Spanish Republic series embodies both tendencies, while Motherwell's Open Series of the late 1960s, 1970s and 1980s places him within the Color Field camp. In 1970 Motherwell said, "Throughout my life, the 20th-century painter whom I've admired the most has been Matisse", alluding to several of his own series of paintings that reflect Matisse's influence, most notably his Open Series that come closest to classic Color Field painting.
Barnett Newman is considered one of the major figures in abstract expressionism and one of the foremost of the color field painters. Newman's mature work is characterized by areas of color pure and flat separated by thin vertical lines, or "zips" as Newman called them, exemplified by Vir Heroicus Sublimis in the collection of MoMA. Newman himself thought that he reached his mature style with the Onement series seen here; the zips define the spatial structure of the painting while dividing and uniting the composition. Although Newman's paintings appear to be purely abstract, many of them were untitled, the names he gave them hinted at specific subjects being addressed with a Jewish theme. Two paintings from the early 1950s, for example, are called Adam and Eve, there are Uriel and Abraham, a dark painting, which, in addition to being the name of a biblical patriarch, was the name of Newman's father, who had died in 1947. Newman's late works, such as the Who's Afraid of Red and Blue series, use vibrant, pure colors on large canvases.
Jackson Pollock, Adolph Gottlieb, Hans Hofmann, Barnett Newman, Clyfford Still, Mark Rothko, Robert Motherwell, Ad Reinhardt and Arshile Gorky wer
Lyrical abstraction is either of two related but distinct trends in Post-war Modernist painting: European Abstraction Lyrique born in Paris, the French art critic Jean José Marchand being credited with coining its name in 1947, considered as a component of when the name of this movement was coined in 1951 by Pierre Guéguen and Charles Estienne the author of L'Art à Paris 1945–1966, American Lyrical Abstraction a movement described by Larry Aldrich in 1969. A third definition is the usage as a descriptive term, it is a descriptive term characterizing a type of abstract painting related to Abstract Expressionism. Many well known abstract expressionist painters like Arshile Gorky seen in context have been characterized as doing a type of painting described as lyrical abstraction; the original common use refers to the tendency attributed to paintings in Europe during the post-1945 period and as a way of describing several artists with painters like Wols, Gérard Schneider and Hans Hartung from Germany or Georges Mathieu, etc. whose works related to characteristics of contemporary American abstract expressionism.
At the time, Paul Jenkins, Norman Bluhm, Sam Francis, Jules Olitski, Joan Mitchell, Ellsworth Kelly and numerous other American artists were, as well and working in Paris and other European cities. With the exception of Kelly, all of those artists developed their versions of painterly abstraction, characterized at times as lyrical abstraction, color field and abstract expressionism; the art movement Abstraction lyrique was born in Paris after the war. At that time, the artistic life in Paris, devastated by the Occupation and Collaboration, resumed with numerous artists exhibited again as soon as the Liberation of Paris in mid-1944. According to the new abstraction forms that characterised some artists, the movement was named by the art critic, Jean José Marchand, the painter, Georges Mathieu, in 1947; some art critics looked at this movement as an attempt to restore the image of artistic Paris, which had held the rank of capital of the arts until the war. Lyrical abstraction represented a competition between the School of Paris and the new New York School of Abstract Expressionism painting represented above all since 1946 by Jackson Pollock Willem de Kooning or Mark Rothko, which were promoted by the American authorities from the early 1950s.
Lyrical abstraction was opposed not only to the Cubist and Surrealist movements that preceded it, but to geometric abstraction. Lyrical abstraction was, in some ways, the first to apply the lessons of Wassily Kandinsky, considered one of the fathers of abstraction. For the artists, lyrical abstraction represented an opening to personal expression. In the late 1960s, many painters re-introduced painterly options into their works and the Whitney Museum and several other museums and institutions at the time formally named and identified the movement and uncompromising return to painterly abstraction as'lyrical abstraction'. Just after World War II, many artists old and young were back in Paris where they worked and exhibited: Nicolas de Staël, Serge Poliakoff, André Lanskoy and Zaks from Russia. S. A. All these artists and many others were at that time among the "Lyrical Abstractionists" with the French: Pierre Soulages, Jean-Michel Coulon, Jean René Bazaine, Jean Le Moal, Gustave Singier, Alfred Manessier, Roger Bissière, Pierre Tal-Coat, Jean Messagier and others.
Lyrical Abstraction was opposed not only to "l'Ecole de Paris" remains of pre-war style but to Cubist and Surrealist movements that had preceded it, to geometric abstraction. For the artists in France, Lyrical Abstraction represented an opening to personal expression. In Belgium, Louis Van Lint figured a remarkable example of an artist who, after a short period of geometric abstraction, has moved to a lyrical abstraction in which he excelled. Many exhibitions were held in Paris for example in the galleries Arnaud, Jeanne Bucher, Louis Carré, Galerie de France, every year at the "Salon des Réalités Nouvelles" and "Salon de Mai" where the paintings of all these artists could be seen. At the Drouin gallery one could see Jean Le Moal, Gustave Singier, Alfred Manessier, Roger Bissière, Wols and others. A wind blew over the capital when Georges Mathieu decided to hold two exhibitions: L'Imaginaire in 1947 at the Palais du Luxembourg which he would have prefer to call abstraction lyrique to impose the name and HWPSMTB with in 1948.
In March 1951 was held the larger exhibition Véhémences confrontées in the gallery Nina Dausset where for the first time were presented side to side French and American abstract artists. It was organised by the critic Michel Tapié, whose role in the defense of this movement was of the highest importance. With these events, he déclared that « the lyrical abstraction is born », it was, however, a short reign, supplanted by the New Realism of Pierre Restany and Yves K
Edward Joseph Ruscha IV is an American artist associated with the pop art movement. He has worked in the media of painting, drawing and film. Ruscha works in Culver City, California. Ruscha was born into a Roman Catholic family in Omaha, with an older sister, a younger brother, Paul. Edward Ruscha, Sr. was an auditor for Hartford Insurance Company. Ruscha's mother was supportive of her son's early signs of artistic skill and interests. Young Ruscha was attracted to cartooning and would sustain this interest throughout his adolescent years. Though born in Nebraska, Ruscha lived some 15 years in Oklahoma City before moving to Los Angeles in 1956 where he studied at the Chouinard Art Institute under Robert Irwin and Emerson Woelffer from 1956 through 1960. While at Chouinard, Ruscha edited and produced the journal "Orb" together with Joe Goode, Emerson Woelffer, Stephan von Huene, Jerry McMillan, others. Ruscha spent much of the summer of 1961 traveling through Europe. After graduation, Ruscha took a job as a layout artist for the Carson-Roberts Advertising Agency in Los Angeles.
By the early 1960s he was well known for his paintings and photographs, for his association with the Ferus Gallery group, which included artists Robert Irwin, John Altoon, John McCracken, Larry Bell, Ken Price, Edward Kienholz. He worked as layout designer for Artforum magazine under the pseudonym “Eddie Russia” from 1965 to 1969 and taught at UCLA as a visiting professor for printing and drawing in 1969, he is a lifelong friend of guitarist Mason Williams. Ruscha achieved recognition for paintings incorporating words and phrases and for his many photographic books, all influenced by the deadpan irreverence of the Pop Art movement, his textual, flat paintings have been linked with both the beat generation. While in school in 1957, Ruscha chanced upon unknown Jasper Johns’ Target with Four Faces in the magazine Print and was moved. Ruscha has credited these artists’ work as sources of inspiration for his change of interest from graphic arts to painting, he was impacted by John McLaughlin's paintings, the work of H.
C. Westermann, Arthur Dove’s 1925 painting Goin’ Fishin’, Alvin Lustig's cover illustrations for New Directions Press, much of Marcel Duchamp’s work. In a 1961 tour of Europe, Ruscha came upon more works by Johns and Robert Rauschenberg, R. A. Bertelli’s Head of Mussolini, Ophelia by Sir John Everett Millais; some critics are quick to see the influence of Edward Hopper's Gas in Ruscha's 1963 oil painting, Standard Station, Texas. In any case, "Art has to be something that makes you scratch your head," Ruscha said. Although Ruscha denies this in interviews, the vernacular of Los Angeles and Southern California landscapes contributes to the themes and styles central to much of Ruscha's paintings and books. Examples of this include the publication Every Building on the Sunset Strip, a book of continuous photographs of a two and one half mile stretch of the 24 mile boulevard. In 1973, following the model of Every Building on the Sunset Strip, he photographed the entire length of Hollywood Boulevard with a motorized camera.
Paintings like Standard Station, Large Trademark, Hollywood exemplify Ruscha's kinship with the Southern California visual language. Two of these paintings and Large Trademark were emulated out of car parts in 2008 by Brazilian photographer Vik Muniz as a commentary on Los Angeles and its car culture, his work is strongly influenced by the Hollywood film industry: the mountain in his Mountain Series is a play on the Paramount Pictures logo. The proportions of the Hollywood print seems to mimic the Cinemascope screen. Ruscha completed Large Trademark with Eight Spotlights in 1961, one year after graduating from college. Among his first paintings this is the most known, exemplifies Ruscha's interests in popular culture, word depictions, commercial graphics that would continue to inform his work throughout his career. Large Trademark was followed by Standard Station and Wonder Bread. In Norm’s, La Cienega, on Fire, Burning Gas Station, Los Angeles County Museum of Art on Fire, Ruscha brought flames into play.
In 1966, Ruscha reproduced Standard Station in a silkscreen print using a split-fountain printing technique, introducing a gradation of tone in the background of the print, with variations following in 1969. In 1985, Ruscha begins a series of "City Lights" paintings, where grids of bright spots on dark grounds suggest aerial views of the city at night. More his "Metro Plots" series chart the various routes that transverse the city of Los Angeles by rendering schematized street maps and blow-ups of its neighborhood sections, such as in Alvarado to Doheny; the paintings are grey and vary in their degrees of light and dark, therefore appearing as they were done by pencil in the stippling technique. A 2003 portfolio of prints called Los Francisco San Angeles shows street intersectio
Frank Philip Stella is an American painter and printmaker, noted for his work in the areas of minimalism and post-painterly abstraction. Stella works in New York City. Frank Stella was born in Massachusetts, to parents of Italian descent, his father was a gynecologist, his mother was an artistically inclined housewife who attended a fashion school and took up landscape painting. After attending high school at Phillips Academy in Andover, where he learned about abstract modernists Josef Albers and Hans Hofmann, he attended Princeton University, where he majored in history and met Darby Bannard and Michael Fried. Early visits to New York art galleries fostered his artistic development, his work was influenced by the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Franz Kline. Stella moved after his graduation, he is one of the most well-regarded postwar American painters still working today. He is heralded for creating abstract paintings that bear no pictorial illusions or psychological or metaphysical references in twentieth-century painting.
As of 2015, Stella lives in Greenwich Village and keeps an office there but commutes on weekdays to his studio in Rock Tavern, New York. Upon moving to New York City, he reacted against the expressive use of paint by most painters of the abstract expressionist movement, instead finding himself drawn towards the "flatter" surfaces of Barnett Newman's work and the "target" paintings of Jasper Johns, he began to produce works which emphasized the picture-as-object, rather than the picture as a representation of something, be it something in the physical world, or something in the artist's emotional world. Stella married Barbara Rose a well-known art critic, in 1961. Around this time he said that a picture was "a flat surface with paint on it – nothing more"; this was a departure from the technique of creating a painting by first making a sketch. Many of the works are created by using the path of the brush stroke often using common house paint; this new aesthetic found expression in a series of new paintings, the Black Paintings in which regular bands of black paint were separated by thin pinstripes of unpainted canvas.
Die Fahne Hoch! is one such painting. It takes its name from the first line of the Horst-Wessel-Lied, the anthem of the National Socialist German Workers Party, Stella pointed out that it is in the same proportions as banners used by that organization, it has been suggested that the title has a double meaning, referring to Jasper Johns' paintings of flags. In any case, its emotional coolness belies the contentiousness its title might suggest, reflecting this new direction in Stella's work. Stella's art was recognized for its innovations. In 1959, several of his paintings were included in "Three Young Americans" at the Allen Memorial Art Museum at Oberlin College, as well as in "Sixteen Americans" at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. From 1960 Stella began to produce paintings in aluminium and copper paint which, in their presentation of regular lines of color separated by pinstripes, are similar to his black paintings; however they use a wider range of colors, are his first works using shaped canvases being in L, N, U or T-shapes.
These developed into more elaborate designs, in the Irregular Polygon series, for example. In the 1960s, Stella began to use a wider range of colors arranged in straight or curved lines, he began his Protractor Series of paintings, in which arcs, sometimes overlapping, within square borders are arranged side-by-side to produce full and half circles painted in rings of concentric color. These paintings are named after circular cities he had visited while in the Middle East earlier in the 1960s; the Irregular Polygon canvases and Protractor series further extended the concept of the shaped canvas. Stella began his extended engagement with printmaking in the mid-1960s, working first with master printer Kenneth Tyler at Gemini G. E. L. Stella produced a series of prints during the late 1960s starting with a print called Quathlamba I in 1968. Stella's abstract prints used lithography, screenprinting and offset lithography. In 1967, he designed the set and costumes for a dance piece by Merce Cunningham.
The Museum of Modern Art in New York presented a retrospective of Stella's work in 1970, making him the youngest artist to receive one. During the following decade, Stella introduced relief into his art, which he came to call "maximalist" painting for its sculptural qualities; the shaped canvases took on less regular forms in the Eccentric Polygon series, elements of collage were introduced, pieces of canvas being pasted onto plywood, for example. His work became more three-dimensional to the point where he started producing large, free-standing metal pieces, although they are painted upon, might well be considered sculpture. After introducing wood and other materials in the Polish Village series, created in high relief, he began to use aluminum as the primary support for his paintings; as the 1970s and 1980s progressed, these became more exuberant. Indeed, his earlier Minimalism became baroque, marked by curving forms, Day-Glo colors, scrawled brushstrokes, his prints of these decades combined various printmaking and drawing techniques.
In 1973, he had a print studio installed in his New York house. In 1976, Stella was commissioned by BMW to paint a BMW 3.0 CSL for the second installment in the BMW Art Car Project. He has said of this project, "The starting point for the art cars was racing livery. In the old days there
Edwin Parker "Cy" Twombly Jr. was an American painter and photographer. He belonged to the generation of Jasper Johns. Twombly's paintings are predominantly large-scale, freely-scribbled and graffiti-like works on solid fields of gray, tan, or off-white colors, his paintings and works on paper shifted toward "romantic symbolism", their titles can be interpreted visually through shapes and forms and words. Twombly quoted poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Rainer Maria Rilke and John Keats, as well as classical myths and allegories in his works. Examples of this are his Apollo and The Artist and a series of eight drawings consisting of inscriptions of the word "VIRGIL". Twombly is said to have influenced younger artists such as Jean-Michel Basquiat, Anselm Kiefer, Francesco Clemente, Julian Schnabel, his works are in the permanent collections of modern art museums globally, including the Menil Collection in Houston, the Tate Modern in London and the New York's Museum of Modern Art. He was commissioned for the ceiling at the Musée du Louvre in Paris.
In a 1994 retrospective, curator Kirk Varnedoe described Twombly's work as "influential among artists, discomfiting to many critics and truculently difficult not just for a broad public, but for sophisticated initiates of postwar art as well." Twombly was born in Lexington, Virginia, on April 25, 1928. Twombly's father nicknamed "Cy", pitched for the Chicago White Sox, they were both nicknamed after the baseball great Cy Young who pitched for, among others, the Cardinals, Red Sox and Braves. At age 12, Twombly began to take private art lessons with the Catalan modern master Pierre Daura. After graduating from Lexington High School in 1946, Twombly attended Darlington School in Rome and studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia. On a tuition scholarship from 1950 to 1951, he studied at the Art Students League of New York, where he met Robert Rauschenberg with whom he had a relationship. Rauschenberg encouraged him to attend Black Mountain College near North Carolina.
At Black Mountain in 1951 and 1952 he studied with Franz Kline, Robert Motherwell and Ben Shahn, met John Cage. The poet and rector of the College Charles Olson had a great influence on him. Arranged by Motherwell, Twombly's first solo exhibition was organized by the Samuel M. Kootz Gallery in New York in 1951. At this time his work was influenced by Kline's black-and-white gestural expressionism, as well as Paul Klee's imagery. In 1952, Twombly received a grant from the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts which enabled him to travel to North Africa, Spain and France, he spent this journey in Europe with Robert Rauschenberg. In 1954, he served in the U. S. Army as a cryptographer in Washington, D. C. and would travel to New York during periods of leave. From 1955 through 1956, he taught at the Southern Seminary and Junior College in Buena Vista, Virginia known as Southern Virginia University. In 1957, Twombly moved to Rome, where he met the Italian artist Tatiana Franchetti – sister of his patron Baron Giorgio Franchetti.
They were married at City Hall in New York in 1959 and bought a palazzo on the Via di Monserrato in Rome. In addition, they had a 17th-century villa in Bassano in Teverina, north of Rome, they had a son, Cyrus Alessandro Twombly, a painter and lives in Rome. In 1964, Twombly met Nicola Del Roscio of Gaeta. Twombly rented a studio in Gaeta in the early 1990s. Twombly and Tatiana, who died in 2010, never remained friends. In 2011, suffering from cancer for several years, died in Rome after a brief hospitalization. A plaque in Santa Maria in Vallicella commemorates him. After his return in 1953, Twombly served in the U. S. army as a cryptologist, an activity that left a distinct mark on his artistic style. From 1955 to 1959, he worked in New York, where he became a prominent figure among a group of artists including Robert Rauschenberg, with whom he was sharing a studio, Jasper Johns. Exposure to the emerging New York School purged figurative aspects from his work, encouraging a simplified form of abstraction.
He became fascinated with tribal art, using the painterly language of the early 1950s to invoke primitivism, reversing the normal evolution of the New York School. Twombly soon developed a technique of gestural drawing, characterized by thin white lines on a dark canvas that appear to be scratched onto the surface, his early sculptures, assembled from discarded objects cast their gaze back to Europe and North Africa. He stopped making sculptures in 1959 and did not take up sculpting again until 1976. Twombly inscribed on paintings the names of mythological figures during the 1960s. Twombly's move to Gaeta in Southern Italy in 1957 gave him closer contact with classical sources. From 1962 he produced a cycle of works based on myths including Leda and the Swan and The Birth of Venus. Between 1960 and 1963 Twombly painted the rape of Leda by the god Zeus/Jupiter in the form of a Swan six times, once in 1960, twice in 1962 and three times in 1963. Twombly's 1964 exhibition of the nine-panel Discourses on Commodus at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York was panned by artist and writer Donald Judd who said “There are a few drips and splatters and an occasional pencil line,” he wrote in a review.
“There isn’t anything to these paintings.” They are exhibited at the Guggenheim Bilbao. Erotic
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the