Music Man (company)
Music Man is an American guitar and bass guitar manufacturer. It is a division of the Ernie Ball corporation. In 1971, Forrest White and Tom Walker formed Tri-Sonix, Inc. Walker had been a sales representative at Fender. Walker approached Leo Fender about financial help in the founding; because of a ten-year non-compete clause in the 1965 contract that sold the Fender companies to the CBS Corporation, Leo Fender became a silent partner. White had worked with Leo Fender since 1954, in the early days of the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company as the plant manager becoming vice president, stayed on after the company was sold to CBS, but grew unhappy with their management and resigned in 1966. Fender did not like the corporate name, so it changed first to Musitek, Inc. and in January 1974 the final name, Music Man, appeared. In 1974, the company started producing its first product, an amplifier designed by Leo Fender and Tom Walker called the "Sixty Five," a hybrid of tube and solid-state technology that players characterized as "loud as hell."
The number of designs increased, 15 of the 28 pages from the 1976 catalogue were dedicated to amplification. In 1975, Fender's legal restriction expired and, after a vote of the board, he was named the president of Music Man. Fender operated a consulting firm, CLF Research, in Fullerton, California. By 1976, it had built a manufacturing facility for musical instruments, was contracted to make Music Man products. In June 1976, production started in August basses followed; these instruments were designed by White. The 1976 catalogue shows the first offerings: a two-pickup guitar, the StingRay 1, the StingRay bass. Both instruments featured bolt-on neck designs; the basses featured a distinctive 3+1 tuner arrangement to help eliminate "dead spots," while the guitars came with a traditional, Fender-style 6-on-a-side tuner array. The StingRay Bass featured a single large humbucking pickup with a two-band fixed-frequency EQ. A row of string mutes sat on the bridge. Basses were produced in fretless versions.
Tom Walker played a large part in the design of the bass preamp. They were the first production guitar and basses to use active electronics which could boost levels in selected frequency bands; the preamps were coated with epoxy to prevent reverse engineering. The StingRay Bass sold well. While innovative electronically, the guitar was not blessed cosmetically and met with little success. Part of the reason for the poor sales of the guitar was that the preamp made the sound "too clean" for most Rock and Roll guitarists. In December 1978, a two-pickup bass was introduced called the Sabre. A redesigned guitar bearing the same name followed. Both sold poorly. CLF Research and Music Man were treated as separate companies, headed by Fender and Walker, respectively. Fender made the basses, while Walker's company made the amplifiers and sold accessories; the instruments were made at CLF and shipped to Music Man's warehouse, where each instrument was inspected and tested. Problems with fibers in the finish caused Music Man's inspectors to reject a high percentage of the instruments, return them to CLF for refinishing.
Since Music Man didn't pay CLF Research until the instrument finishes were deemed acceptable, a rift developed between CLF and Music Man over payment. Low sales stressed the staff; the company's internal conflicts caused Leo Fender to form another partnership: Leo had decided to market guitars under another name besides Music Man in 10/79 due to tension between CLF and Music Man. Production of bodies and necks for both Music Man and G&L were concurrent up to and including March 1981. G&L was incorporated May 1980, although some early models with the moniker "G&L" have body dates from March 1980. In an interview conducted by Gav Townsing, George Fullerton offers this scenario: "At the end of 1979 we stopped building for Music Man and never made another item for them. We weren’t friends at that point and not talking."In November 1979, Leo had enough of Music Man's pressure and the ties were cut. A contract was given to Grover Jackson to build bass bodies and assemble the instruments with CLF necks and the remaining CLF hardware.
When CLF stopped making necks Jackson made those also. Given this climate, the StingRay guitar was dropped from the line; the Sabre guitar soldiered on until 1984. A graphite-neck StingRay Bass debuted in 1980. Fender had been opposed to the idea; the neck was made by Modulus. It was called the Cutlass and the two pickup variant, the Cutlass II. Neither it, nor the new translucent finishes, were able to turn the financial tide and by 1984 the company was near bankruptcy. After looking at a few offers Music Man was sold to Ernie Ball on March 7, 1984. Music Man's remaining physical assets were sold on June 1, 1984; the production of amplifiers, which were manufactured at a separate factory, ceased. Ernie Ball had started producing a modern acoustic bass guitar in 1972 under the name Earthwood but, despite endorsement by players of the stature of John Entwistle, the bass was only moderately successful in terms of sales and production stopped around the mid-1970s. Ball's partner in this company was George Fullerton.
The factory, which Ball still owned at the time of the Music Man purchase, was located in San Luis Obispo and, where Music Man started producing basses in 1985. Ernie Ball Music Man improved their visibility in the guitar market with a succession of new guitar models player-endorsed, including the Silhouette, Steve Morse Signature, Eddie Van Halen Signature/Axis model, Albert Lee Signature, Steve Lukather Signature (1993
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
An "archtop guitar" is a hollow steel-stringed acoustic or semiacoustic guitar with a full body and a distinctive arched top, whose sound is popular with jazz, blues and psychobilly guitarists. An archtop guitar has: 6 strings An arched top and back, not a flat top and back A hollow body Moveable adjustable bridge F-holes similar to members of the violin family Rear mounted tailpiece, stoptail bridge, or Bigsby vibrato tailpiece 14th-fret neck join The archtop guitar is credited to Orville Gibson, whose innovative designs led to the formation of the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co, Ltd in 1902, his 1898 patent for a mandolin, applicable to guitars according to the specifications, was intended to enhance "power and quality of tone." Among the features of this instrument were a violin-style arched top and back, each carved from a single piece of wood, thicker in the middle than at the sides. But Gibson was not the first to apply violin design principles to the guitar. Guitar maker A. H. Merrill, for example, patented in 1896 a modern looking instrument "of the guitar and mandolin type... with egg-shaped hoop or sides and a graduated convex back and top."
The instrument featured a metal tailpiece and teardrop shaped "f-holes," and resembled the archtop guitars of the 1930s. James S. Back obtained patent #508,858 in 1893 for a guitar that among other features included an arched top, which were produced under the Howe Orme name. Another transitional design is the parlor guitar fitted with tailpiece; these inexpensive instruments, manufactured by companies such as Stella and Harmony, are associated with early blues musicians. The earliest Gibson designs introduced the arched top and increasing body sizes, but still had round or oval sound holes. In 1922, Lloyd Loar was hired by the Gibson Company to redesign their instrument line in an effort to counter flagging sales, in that same year the Gibson L5 was released to his design. Although the new instrument models flopped commercially and Loar left Gibson after only a couple of years, Gibson instruments signed by Loar now are among the most prized and celebrated in stringed-instrument history; the most revered instrument from this period is the F5 mandolin, but the more broadly influential was the L5 guitar, which remains in production to this day.
The mature Gibson archtop guitar and its imitators are regarded as the quintessential "jazzbox." Archtop guitars were subsequently made by many top American luthiers, notably John D'Angelico of New York and Jimmy D'Aquisto, William Wilkanowski, Charles Stromberg and Son in Boston, by other major manufacturers, notably Gretsch and Epiphone. In Europe, companies such as Framus, Höfner, Hagström took up the manufacture of archtops. Archtop guitars were adopted by both jazz and country musicians, in big bands and swing bands. Gibson's ES-150 guitar is recognized as the world's first commercially successful Spanish-style electric guitar; the ES stands for Electric Spanish, it was designated 150 because it cost $150, along with an EH-150 amplifier and a cable. After its introduction in 1936, it became popular in jazz orchestras of the period. Unlike the usual acoustic guitars utilized in jazz, it was loud enough to take a more prominent position in ensembles. Jazz guitarist Eddie Durham is credited with making the first electric guitar solo, but it was ES-150 player Charlie Christian who popularized the jazz guitar as a solo, not just a rhythm, instrument.
The ES-150's top was not carved on the underside. In 1951, Gibson released the L5CES, an L5 with a single cutaway body and two electric pickups playable as either an acoustic guitar or an electric guitar; this innovation was popular, while purely acoustic archtop guitars such as the Gibson L-7C remain available to this day, they have become the exception. In 1958, the L5CES was redesigned with humbucking pickups; the electric archtop was popular with jazz musicians Tal Farlow, Barney Kessel and Johnny Smith. Other manufacturers introduced electric archtop guitars, notable examples including the Gretsch White Falcon and various Chet Atkins models; some of these instruments have a distinctive "twangy" sound and were taken up by country music and early rock and roll artists such as Duane Eddy and Eddie Cochran. Similar models remain popular in rockabilly. Gibson's last innovation in archtop design was the creation, in late 1950s, of "thinline" models with a reduced body depth, notably the Gibson ES-335 and Epiphone Casino.
These were easier to play standing up. They are classed as semiacoustic guitars. Thinlines became popular with mainstream rock artists during the 1960s; the 335 and similar guitars were taken up by, remain steadfastly popular with, electric blues players. The 1970s and 1980s were a low point of interest in archtops, with many rock and pop players switching to solid body guitars. Interest in archtops was revived in the 1990s. Archtops had long been expensive instruments, with a level of ornament to match. Boutique luthiers such as Roger Borys and Bob Benedetto brought the aesthetics of the instrument to greater heights, making them attractive to co
San Luis Obispo, California
San Luis Obispo, or SLO for short, is a city in the U. S. state of California, located midway between Los Angeles and San Francisco on the Central Coast of Southern California. The population was 45,119 at the 2010 census; the population of San Luis Obispo County was 269,637 in 2010. Founded in 1772 by Spanish Franciscan Junípero Serra, San Luis Obispo is one of California's oldest communities. Serra's original mission was named after bishop Louis of Toulouse; the city, locally referred to as San Luis, SLO, or SLO Town is the county seat of San Luis Obispo County and is adjacent to California Polytechnic State University. The earliest human inhabitants of the local area were the Chumash people. One of the earliest villages lies south of San Luis Obispo and reflects the landscape of the early Holocene when estuaries came farther inland; the Chumash people used marine resources of the inlets and bays along the Central Coast and inhabited a network of villages, including sites at Los Osos and Morro Creek.
During the Spanish Empire expansion throughout the world in 1769, Franciscan Junípero Serra received orders from Spain to bring the Catholic faith to the natives of. Mission San Diego was the first Spanish mission founded in Alta California that same year. On September 7, 1769, an expedition led by Gaspar de Portolá entered the San Luis Obispo area from coastal areas around today's Pismo Beach. One of the expedition's three diarists, padre Juan Crespí, recorded the name given to this area by the soldiers as Cañada de Los Osos; the party traveled north along San Luis Obispo Creek, turned west through Los Osos Valley, reached Morro Bay on September 9. In 1770, Portola established the Presidio of Monterey and Junípero Serra founded the second mission, San Carlos Borromeo, in Monterey; the mission was moved to Carmel the following year. As supplies dwindled in 1772 at the mission and Presidio, the people faced starvation. Remembering the Valley of the Bears, Presidio of Monterey commander Pedro Fages led a hunting expedition to bring back food.
Over twenty-five mule loads of dried bear meat and seed were sent north to relieve the missionaries and neophytes. The natives were impressed at the ease by which the Spaniards could take down the huge grizzlies with their weapons; some of the bear meat was traded with the local people in exchange for edible seed. It was after this that Junípero Serra decided that La Cañada de Los Osos would be an ideal place for the fifth mission; the area had abundant supplies of food and water, the climate was very mild, the local Chumash were friendly. With soldiers and pack animals carrying mission supplies, Junípero Serra set out from Carmel to reach the Valley of the Bears. On September 1, 1772, Junípero Serra celebrated the first Mass with a cross erected near San Luis Creek; the next day, he departed for San Diego leaving Fr. José Cavaller, with the difficult task of building the mission. Fr. José Cavaller, five soldiers and two neophytes began building Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, which would become the town of San Luis Obispo.
The first mission structures were built with. More permanent buildings were constructed with adobe walls, wood timber roof beams and tile roofs; the completed mission compound included: the church, the priests' residence, the convento, storerooms and visitor residences, soldiers' barracks and other structures. The mission had a grist mill, water supply system, land for farming and pastures for livestock; the whole community of priests and soldiers needed to produce goods for their own livelihood. When the Mexican War of Independence from Spain broke out in 1810, all California missions had to become self-sufficient, receiving few funds or supplies from Spanish sources. Beginning soon after Mexico won her independence from Spain in 1821, anti-Spanish feelings led to calls for expulsion of the Spanish Franciscans and secularization of the missions; because the fledgling Mexican government had many more important problems to deal with than far-off California, actual secularization didn't happen until the mid-1830s.
After 1834, the mission became an ordinary parish, most of its huge land holdings were broken up into land grants called ranchos. The ranchos were given by Mexican land grant from 1837–1846, with the mission itself being granted in the final year; the central community, remained in the same location and formed the nucleus of today's city of San Luis Obispo. After the Mexican–American War annexed California to the United States, San Luis Obispo was the first town incorporated in the newly formed San Luis Obispo County, it remained the center of the county to the present. Early in the American period, the region was well known for lawlessness, it gained a reputation as "Barrio del Tigre" because of the endemic problem. Robberies and murders that left no witnesses were carried out on along the El Camino Real and elsewhere around San Luis Obispo for several years. A gang of eight men committed a robbery with three murders and a kidnapping at the Rancho San Juan Capistrano del Camote in May 1858, that uncharacteristically left two witnesses alive.
This brought about the formation of a vigilance committee in the County that killed one, the suspected leader of the gang Pio Linares, lynched six others, a total of seven men suspected of such
G&L Musical Instruments
G&L is a guitar design and production company founded by Leo Fender, George Fullerton, Dale Hyatt in the late 1970s. Clarence "Leo" Fender sold his eponymous company Fender in 1965, he produced instruments for Music Man in the 1970s through his company CLF Research. When relations with Music Man soured, G&L was created to continue operations apart from Music Man; the G&L name comes from George Fullerton and Leo Fender. G&L instruments with some modern innovations, they are built at the same facility on Fender Avenue in Fullerton, California that produced the early Music Man instruments. G&L instruments are not distributed but are regarded by many musicians and collectors; the small scale of production further allows for more custom options that are not possible on larger production lines. After the death of Leo Fender in 1991, Fender's wife, Phyllis Fender, passed the management of G&L to John C. McLaren of BBE Sound. George Fullerton remained a permanent consultant until his death on July 4, 2009, Leo's wife Phyllis remains as Honorary Chairperson of G&L.
In a print advertisement for G&L, Leo Fender claimed the G&L line of instruments were "the best instruments I have made." Leo Fender and George Fullerton created improved designs over the years, with the most advanced being featured in G&L instruments.: The Magnetic Field Design pickups use a ceramic bar magnet in combination with soft iron pole pieces with adjustable height, instead of the traditional Alnico magnet, allow a player to set the pickup output per string, as opposed to the entire pickup as a whole in traditional single-coil pickup designs. MFDs are known for their distinctive tone, which combines clarity, high fidelity and power with an airy "sweetness"; the Dual-Fulcrum Vibrato has two pivot points. The design aims to improve tuning stability, according to some has a sound, more mellow than a traditional bridge, it allows the player to bend notes up as well as down. See Tremolo arm; the G&L Saddle-Lock bridge utilizes a small Allen screw on the side of the bridge, to reduce side-to-side movement of the individual string saddles.
The design, the bridge's beefy dimensions, aim to prevent loss of sustain due to this sideways motion by locking the saddles together. The Tilt Neck Mechanism patented by George Fullerton; this feature is no longer used, was a carryover from Music Man production. The Bi-cut neck design involved cutting the neck lengthwise perpendicular to where the fretboard is installed, routing a channel for the truss rod gluing the two neck pieces back together; as G&L moved production to CNC machines, this method was phased out. In 2003, G&L introduced the Tribute series to the US market as a more affordable alternative to the USA built products. Tribute G&L's were made in Korea by Cort Guitars using foreign-made hardware, though some original parts were used on select models; the pickups used are all made by G&L in Fullerton, California. Production of the guitars has since moved to a Cort facility in Indonesia. Before 2003, Tribute guitars were produced in Japan for non-US markets, shifting to South Korea.
The Tribute series is offered in many of the same body shapes as their original creations although many use hardware and pickups designed by G&L but sourced in Asia. The Tribute SB-2 was offered but was discontinued, however, it was reintroduced late 2006/early 2007; the JB-2 was introduced to the Tribute series at the same time. Tom Hamilton Ben Gibbard Jerry Cantrell Elliot Easton Marissa Paternoster Jake Cinninger Fender Musical Instruments Corporation Music Man Official G&L Guitars website G&L guitar registry
Fullerton Union High School
Fullerton Union High School is a public high school located in the Orange County, California city of Fullerton, United States operated by the Fullerton Joint Union High School District. In 1893 a special election was held to create Fullerton Union High School; the school's first classroom, a rented room on the second floor of the Fullerton Elementary School building, was adequate to house the eight pupils, which constituted the first year's enrollment and the 32 books which made up the library. The high school was the second in Orange County. In 1908, FUHS's enrollment was increasing at the rate of 18 percent a year. To accommodate the growth, the school was moved to new quarters on West Commonwealth Avenue, an area now known as Amerige Park. School enrollment continued to grow and within two years a new polytechnic building was built to ease the overcrowding, but on November 17, 1910, the day before it could be occupied, the older FUHS building burned to the ground. FUHS was housed in four tents that year.
After the fire, the school's trustees debated the best location for rebuilding. The district owned the ground on which the polytechnic building stood, but the campus was small, school work was disrupted by the numerous Santa Fe trains that roared by each day. In 1911, the present site was purchased one block east of Harbor Boulevard. A walnut orchard was removed prior to building, the former site was sold to the City of Fullerton for use as a park; the school's facilities have changed over the years to meet educational and community needs. Plummer Auditorium was built in 1930-32 and its original ironwork, made by students on the campus, was kept when Plummer was refurbished and remodeled to meet earthquake standards in 1972. Since the stadium, locker rooms, the agriculture complex have been rebuilt; the latest replacement was the science building. In 2009 a new building housing many new classrooms including several new computer driven classrooms was opened. Renovations of Plummer Auditorium were completed in 1993.
It included new lighting and dressing room upgrades. Air conditioning and an orchestra lift was added as well; the Charles Kassler fresco "Pastoral California" was uncovered and restored in 1997. The school provides opportunities for students to be involved in Honors, Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate courses. Fullerton's sports teams are known as the Indians, are members of the California Interscholastic Federation's Southern Section. Many of Fullerton's notable alumni are listed on the FUHS Wall of Fame. Fullerton Union High School official website
Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s. The term was used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, drums, one or more saxophones, sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships and aspirations; the term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, it was applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music.
In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands. Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B", it combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop, electronic music. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Prince, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Chaka Khan, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey. In the 21st century, R&B has remained a popular genre becoming more pop orientated and alternatively influenced with successful artists including Usher, Bruno Mars, Chris Brown, Justin Timberlake, The Weeknd, Frank Ocean and Khalid. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943.
It replaced the term "race music", which came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans", he has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.
Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass and saxophone. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow and hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are engaged with the lyrics intensely so, they remain cool, in control; the bands dressed in suits, uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics seemed fatalistic, the music followed predictable patterns of chords and structure; the migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz and related genres of music.
These genres of music were performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, T-Bone Walker. There was increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Jordan's band, the Tympany Five, consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano and drums. Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat".
Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, is now referred to as jump blues. Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blu