Pordenone listen is the main comune of Pordenone province of northeast Italy in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. The name comes from Latin Portus Naonis, meaning'port on the Noncello River'. Pordenone was created in the High Middle Ages as a river port on the Noncello, with the name Portus Naonis. In the area, there were villas and agricultural settlements in the Roman age. In 1278, after having been administrated by several feudatories, the city was handed over to the Habsburg family, forming an Austrian enclave within the territory of the Patriarchal State of Friuli. In the 14th century, Pordenone grew due to the flourishing river trades, gaining the status of city in December 1314. In 1514, it was acquired by the Republic of Venice if until 1537 the town was ruled by the feudal family d'Alviano. Under Venice a new port was built and the manufacturers improved. After the Napoleonic period, Pordenone was included in the Austrian possessions in Italy; the railway connection, including Pordenone railway station, the construction of the Pontebbana road brought on the decline of the port, but spurred substantial industrial development.
Pordenone was annexed to Italy in 1866. The cotton sector decayed after the damage of World War I and failed after the 1929 crisis. After World War II, the local Zanussi firm became a world giant of household appliances, in 1968, Pordenone became capital of the province with the same name, including territory belonging to Udine. After World War II, Pordenone, as well as the rest of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, became a garrison for many military units, in order to prevent a Soviet invasion from the east; the heavy military presence boosted the economy of the once-depressed area. Pordenone is as now garrison of the 132nd Armored Brigade "Ariete"; the territory of Pordenone is located in the lowlands of the Po-Venetian Valley, south of Venetian Alps and the Alpine foothills of Friuli. The lowlands of Pordenone is characterized by an abundance of water and by the "phenomenon" of resurgence. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb".
In ancient times, the Friulian language was spoken in Pordenone. Under the Venetian rule the Venetian language – closer to modern standard Italian – was subsequently introduced in a form which developed into the modern days Pordenone dialect; the town is surrounded by Friulian-speaking communities. However, Friulian is protected in town in accordance with the Regional Law of December 18, 2007, n. 29, "Norms for the protection and enhancement of the Friulian language". Foreign citizens living in Pordenone amount to 7,025 units, making out 13.7% of the town population. The ten largest ethnic minorities are listed as follows: Cathedral of St. Mark was built from 1363 in Romanesque-Gothic style and restored in the 16th and 18th centuries, it houses a famous fresco of San Rocco and an altarpiece depicting the Virgin of Mercy by the native Renaissance painter Giovanni Antonio de' Sacchis. Inside the church are preserved the baptistery and the font by Giovanni Antonio Pilacorte, some fragments of frescoes of the circle of Gentile da Fabriano and a painting by Tintoretto.
It has a 79-metre bell tower. Church of St. Mary of the Angels known as Church of the wooden Christ; the church was built in 1309 and it is characterized by an entrance portal in Istrian stone by Giovanni Antonio Pilacorte. Inside the sacred building they are kept a crucifix dating from the 1466 of Johannes Teutonicus and remains of a cycle of fourteenth-century frescoes, they are worthy of mention: the Saint Barbara by Gianfrancesco da Tolmezzo and the Our Lady of Sorrows, fresco from the first half of the fourteenth century. On the left wall of the church it is possible to admire a Madonna of humility Parish Church of San George. Neoclassical church, characterized by the nineteenth-century bell tower, column Doric; the church of the Santissima Trinità, alongside the Noncello river. It frescoes by Giovanni Maria Calderari, pupil of Il Pordenone. Church of Blessed Odoric of Pordenone, built by architect Mario Botta in 1990–1992. Church of S. Ulderico, located in Villanova suburb. Contains frescoes by Il Pordenone and the font and baptistery are by Giovanni Antonio Pilacorte.
Parish Church of St. Lawrence Martyr, in the frazione of Roraigrande, contains the baptismal font of Renaissance sculptors Donato and Alvise Casella. Inside it is possible to admire a cycle of frescoes by Giovanni Antonio de'Sacchis The town has many mansions and palaces, in particular along the ancient "Greater Contrada", today Corso Vittorio Emanuele II. Below is a list of the most important in terms of artistic; the Gothic Communal Palace. The clock-tower of the loggia, designed by painter Pomponio Amalteo, was added in the 16th century to the main building. Palazzo Ricchieri: Built in the 13th century as a house fortress with a tower, it was rebuilt to house the Ricchieri family, it now houses the Civic Art Museum. Palazzo Polacco – Barbarich – Scaramuzza. Palazzo Rorario – Spelladi – Silvestri, headquarters of the municipal gallery "Harry Bertoia". Palazzo Mantica – Cattaneo. Palazzo Mantica. Palazzo Gregoris. Casa Gregoris – Bassani. Palazzo Varmo
House Un-American Activities Committee
The House Un-American Activities Committee was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. The HUAC was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, those organizations suspected of having Fascist or Communist ties. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security"; when the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee. The committee's anti-communist investigations are compared with those of Joseph McCarthy who, as a U. S. Senator, had no direct involvement with this House committee. McCarthy was the chairman of the Government Operations Committee and its Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U. S. Senate, not the House; the Overman Committee was a subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary chaired by North Carolina Democratic Senator Lee Slater Overman that operated from September 1918 to June 1919.
The subcommittee investigated German as well as Bolshevik elements in the United States. This committee was concerned with investigating pro-German sentiments in the American liquor industry. After World War I ended in November 1918, the German threat lessened, the committee began investigating Bolshevism, which had appeared as a threat during the First Red Scare after the Russian Revolution in 1917; the committee's hearing into Bolshevik propaganda, conducted February 11 to March 10, 1919, had a decisive role in constructing an image of a radical threat to the United States during the first Red Scare. Congressman Hamilton Fish III, a fervent anti-communist, introduced, on May 5, 1930, House Resolution 180, which proposed to establish a committee to investigate communist activities in the United States; the resulting committee known as the Fish Committee, undertook extensive investigations of people and organizations suspected of being involved with or supporting communist activities in the United States.
Among the committee's targets were the American Civil Liberties Union and communist presidential candidate William Z. Foster; the committee recommended granting the United States Department of Justice more authority to investigate communists, strengthening of immigration and deportation laws to keep communists out of the United States. From 1934 to 1937, the Special Committee on Un-American Activities Authorized to Investigate Nazi Propaganda and Certain Other Propaganda Activities, chaired by John William McCormack and Samuel Dickstein, held public and private hearings and collected testimony filling 4,300 pages; the committee was known as the McCormack–Dickstein committee. Its mandate was to get "information on how foreign subversive propaganda entered the U. S. and the organizations that were spreading it", it was replaced with a similar committee that focused on pursuing communists. Its records are held by the National Archives and Records Administration as records related to HUAC; the committee investigated allegations of a fascist plot to seize the White House, known as the "business plot".
Although the plot was reported as a hoax, the committee confirmed some details of the accusations. It has been reported that while Dickstein served on this committee and the subsequent Special investigation Committee, he was paid $1,250 a month by the Soviet NKVD, which hoped to get secret congressional information on anti-communists and pro-fascists, it is unclear whether he passed on any information. On May 26, 1938, the House Committee on Un-American Activities was established as a special investigating committee, reorganized from its previous incarnations as the Fish Committee and the McCormack-Dickstein Committee, to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, those organizations suspected of having communist or fascist ties, it was therefore known as the Dies Committee. Its records are held by the National Archives and Records Administration as records related to HUAC. In 1938, Hallie Flanagan, the head of the Federal Theatre Project, was subpoenaed to appear before the committee to answer the charge the project was overrun with communists.
Flanagan was called to testify for only a part of one day, while a clerk from the project was called in for two entire days. It was during this investigation that one of the committee members, Joe Starnes, famously asked Flanagan whether the Elizabethan era playwright Christopher Marlowe was a member of the Communist Party, mused "Mr. Euripides" preached class warfare. In 1939, the committee investigated leaders of the American Youth Congress, a Communist International affiliate organization; the committee put together an argument for the internment of Japanese Americans known as the "Yellow Report". Organized in response to rumors of Japanese Americans being coddled by the War Relocation Authority and news that some former inmates would be allowed to leave camp and Nisei soldiers to return to the West Coast, the committee investigated charges of fifth column activity in the camps. A number of anti-WRA arguments were presented in subsequent hearings, but Director Dillon Myer debunked the more inflammatory claims.
The investigation was presented to the 77th Congress, alleged that certain cultural traits – Japanese loyalty to the Emperor, the number of Japanese fishermen in the US, the Buddhist faith – were evidence for Japanese espionage. With the exception of Rep. Herman Eberharter, the members of the committee seemed to support internment, its recommendations to expedite the impending se
W. C. Fields
William Claude Dukenfield, better known as W. C. Fields, was an American comedian, actor and writer. Fields' comic persona was a misanthropic and hard-drinking egotist, who remained a sympathetic character despite his snarling contempt for children, his career in show business began in vaudeville, where he attained international success as a silent juggler. He incorporated comedy into his act and was a featured comedian in the Ziegfeld Follies for several years, he became a star in the Broadway musical comedy Poppy, in which he played a colorful small-time con man. His subsequent stage and film roles were similar scoundrels or henpecked everyman characters. Among his recognizable trademarks were his raspy grandiloquent vocabulary; the characterization he portrayed in films and on radio was so strong it was identified with Fields himself. It was maintained by the publicity departments at Fields' studios and was further established by Robert Lewis Taylor's biography, W. C. Fields, His Follies and Fortunes.
Beginning in 1973, with the publication of Fields' letters and personal notes in grandson Ronald Fields' book W. C. Fields by Himself, it was shown that Fields was married, financially supported their son and loved his grandchildren. Fields was born William Claude Dukenfield in Darby, the oldest child of a working-class family, his father, James Lydon Dukenfield, was from an English family that emigrated from Sheffield, England in 1854. James Dukenfield served in Company M of the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment in the American Civil War and was wounded in 1863. Fields' mother, Kate Spangler Felton, was a Protestant of British ancestry; the 1876 Philadelphia City Directory lists James Dukenfield as a clerk. After marrying, he worked as a part-time hotel-keeper. Claude Dukenfield had a volatile relationship with his short-tempered father, he ran away from home beginning at the age of nine to stay with his grandmother or an uncle. His education was sporadic, did not progress beyond grade school.
At age twelve, he worked with his father selling produce from a wagon, until the two had a fight that resulted in Fields running away once again. In 1893, he worked at the Strawbridge and Clothier department store, in an oyster house. Fields embellished stories of his childhood, depicting himself as a runaway who lived by his wits on the streets of Philadelphia from an early age, but his home life seems to have been reasonably happy, he had discovered in himself a facility for juggling, a performance he witnessed at a local theater inspired him to dedicate substantial time to perfecting his juggling. At age 17, he was performing a juggling act at church and theater shows. In 1904 Fields' father visited him for two months in England while he was performing there in music halls. Fields enabled his father to retire, purchased him a summer home, encouraged his parents and siblings to learn to read and write, so they could communicate with him by letter. Inspired by the success of the "Original Tramp Juggler", James Edward Harrigan, Fields adopted a similar costume of scruffy beard and shabby tuxedo and entered vaudeville as a genteel "tramp juggler" in 1898, using the name W. C.
Fields. His family supported his ambitions for the stage and saw him off on the train for his first stage tour. To conceal a stutter, Fields did not speak onstage. In 1900, seeking to distinguish himself from the many "tramp" acts in vaudeville, he changed his costume and makeup, began touring as "The Eccentric Juggler", he manipulated cigar boxes and other objects in what appears to have been a unique and fresh act, parts of which are reproduced in some of his films, notably in The Old Fashioned Way. By the early 1900s, while touring, he was called the world's greatest juggler, he became a headliner in North America and Europe, toured Australia and South Africa in 1903. When Fields played for English-speaking audiences, he found he could get more laughs by adding muttered patter and sarcastic asides to his routines. According to W. Buchanan-Taylor, a performer who saw Fields' performance in an English music hall, Fields would "reprimand a particular ball which had not come to his hand accurately", "mutter weird and unintelligible expletives to his cigar when it missed his mouth".
In 1905 Fields made his Broadway debut in The Ham Tree. His role in the show required him to deliver lines of dialogue, which he had never before done onstage, he said, "I wanted to become a real comedian, there I was and pigeonholed as a comedy juggler." In 1913 he performed on a bill with Sarah Bernhardt first at the New York Palace, in England in a royal performance for George V and Queen Mary. He continued touring in vaudeville until 1915. Beginning in 1915, he appeared on Broadway in Florenz Ziegfeld's Ziegfeld Follies revue, delighting audiences with a wild billiards skit, complete with bizarrely shaped cues and a custom-built table used for a number of hilarious gags and surprising trick shots, his pool game is reproduced, in some of his films, notably in Six of a Kind. The act was a success, Fields starred in the Follies from 1916 to 1922, not as a juggler but as a comedian in ensemble sketches. In addition to multiple editions of the Follies, Fields starred in the Broadway musical comedy Poppy, wherein he perfected his persona as a colorful small-time con man.
His stage costume fr
The Marx Brothers were an American family comedy act, successful in vaudeville, on Broadway, in motion pictures from 1905 to 1949. Five of the Marx Brothers' thirteen feature films were selected by the American Film Institute as among the top 100 comedy films, with two of them in the top twelve, they are considered by critics and fans to be among the greatest and most influential comedians of the 20th century. The brothers were included in AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars list of the 25 greatest male stars of Classical Hollywood cinema, the only performers to be inducted collectively. The group is universally known today by their stage names: Chico, Groucho and Zeppo. There was the first born, named Manfred, who died aged seven months; the core of the act was the three elder brothers: Chico and Groucho, each of whom developed a distinctive stage persona. After the group disbanded in 1950, Groucho went on to begin a successful second career in television, while Harpo and Chico appeared less prominently.
The two younger brothers and Zeppo, never developed their stage characters to the same extent as the elder three. They each left the act to pursue business careers at which they were successful, for a time ran a large theatrical agency through which they represented their brothers and others. Gummo was not in any of the movies; the early performing lives of the brothers owed much to their mother Minnie Marx, who acted as their manager until her death in 1929. The Marx Brothers were born in the sons of Jewish immigrants from Germany and France, their mother Miene "Minnie" Schoenberg was from Dornum in East Frisia, their father Samuel Marx was a native of Alsace and worked as a tailor. The family lived in the poor Yorkville section of New York City's Upper East Side, centered in the Irish and Italian quarters; the brothers are best known by their stage names: Another brother, the first-born son of Sam and Minnie, was born in 1886 and died in infancy: Family lore told of the firstborn son, born in 1886 but surviving for only three months, carried off by tuberculosis.
Some members of the Marx family wondered if he was pure myth. But Manfred can be verified. A death certificate of the Borough of Manhattan reveals that he died, aged seven months, on 17 July 1886, of enterocolitis, with "asthenia" contributing, i.e. a victim of influenza. He is buried at New York's Washington Cemetery, beside his grandmother, Fanny Sophie Schönberg, who died on 10 April 1901; the Marx Brothers had an older sister a cousin, born in January 1885, adopted by Minnie and Frenchie. Her name was Pauline, or "Polly". Groucho talked about her in his 1972 Carnegie Hall concert. Minnie Marx came from a family of performers, her mother was her father a ventriloquist. Around 1880, the family emigrated to New York City, where Minnie married Sam in 1884. During the early 20th century, Minnie helped her younger brother Abraham Elieser Adolf Schönberg to enter show business. Minnie acted as the brothers' manager, using the name Minnie Palmer so that agents did not realize that she was their mother.
All the brothers confirmed that Minnie Marx had been the head of the family and the driving force in getting the troupe launched, the only person who could keep them in order. Gummo and Zeppo both became successful businessmen: Gummo gained success through his agency activities and a raincoat business, Zeppo became a multi-millionaire through his engineering business; the brothers were from a family of artists, their musical talent was encouraged from an early age. Harpo was talented, learning to play an estimated six different instruments throughout his career, he became a dedicated harpist. Chico was an excellent pianist, Groucho a guitarist and singer, Zeppo a vocalist, they got their start in vaudeville, where their uncle Albert Schönberg performed as Al Shean of Gallagher and Shean. Groucho's debut was in 1905 as a singer. By 1907, he and Gummo were singing together as "The Three Nightingales" with Mabel O'Donnell; the next year, Harpo became the fourth Nightingale and by 1910, the group expanded to include their mother Minnie and their Aunt Hannah.
The troupe was renamed "The Six Mascots". One evening in 1912, a performance at the Opera House in Nacogdoches, was interrupted by shouts from outside about a runaway mule; the audience hurried out to see what was happening. Groucho was angered by the interruption and, when the audience returned, he made snide comments at their expense, including "Nacogdoches is full of roaches" and "the jackass is the flower of Tex-ass". Instead of becoming angry, the audience laughed; the family realized that it had potential as a comic troupe. (However, in his autobiography Harpo Speaks, Harpo Marx stated that the runaway mule incident occurred in Ada, Oklahoma. A 1930 article in the San Antonio Express newspaper stated that the incide
Mary Jane "Mae" West was an American actress, playwright, screenwriter and sex symbol whose entertainment career spanned seven decades, known for her lighthearted bawdy double entendres and breezy sexual independence. West was active in vaudeville and on the stage in New York City before moving to Hollywood to become a comedian and writer in the motion picture industry, as well as appearing on radio and television; the American Film Institute named her 15th among the greatest female stars of classic American cinema. Using a husky contralto voice, West was one of the more controversial movie stars of her day and encountered many problems censorship, she bucked the system, making comedy out of conventional mores, the Depression-era audience admired her for it. When her cinematic career ended, she wrote books and plays and continued to perform in Las Vegas, in the United Kingdom, on radio and television and to record rock and roll albums, she was once asked about the various efforts to impede her career, to which she replied: "I believe in censorship.
I made a fortune out of it." Mary Jane West was born on August 1893, in Kings County, New York. She was delivered at home by an aunt, a midwife, she was the eldest surviving child of Mathilde "Tillie" Delker. Tillie and her five siblings emigrated with their parents and Christiana Doelger from Bavaria in 1886. West's parents married on January 18, 1889, in Brooklyn, to the pleasure of the groom's parents and the displeasure of the bride's parents and raised their children as Protestants, although John West was of mixed Catholic–Protestant descent and Tillie was of at least partial Jewish descent. West's father was a prizefighter known as "Battlin' Jack West" who worked as a "special policeman" and had his own private investigations agency, her mother was a former fashion model. Her paternal grandmother, Mary Jane, for whom she was named, was of Irish Catholic descent and West's paternal grandfather, John Edwin West, was of English–Scots descent and a ship's rigger, her eldest sibling, died in infancy.
Her other siblings were Mildred Katherine West known as Beverly, John Edwin West II. During her childhood, West's family moved to various parts of Woodhaven, as well as the Williamsburg and Greenpoint neighborhoods of Brooklyn. In Woodhaven, at Neir's Social Hall, West first performed professionally. West was five when she first entertained a crowd at a church social, she started appearing in amateur shows at the age of seven, she won prizes at local talent contests. She began performing professionally in vaudeville in the Hal Clarendon Stock Company in 1907 at the age of 14. West first performed under the stage name "Baby Mae", tried various personas, including a male impersonator, she used the alias "Jane Mast" early in her career. Her trademark walk was said to have been inspired or influenced by female impersonators Bert Savoy and Julian Eltinge, who were famous during the Pansy Craze, her first appearance in a Broadway show was in a 1911 revue A La Broadway put on by her former dancing teacher, Ned Wayburn.
The show folded after eight performances, but at age 18, West was singled out and discovered by The New York Times. The Times reviewer wrote that a "girl named Mae West, hitherto unknown, pleased by her grotesquerie and snappy way of singing and dancing". West next appeared in a show called Vera Violetta. In 1912, she appeared in the opening performance of A Winsome Widow as a "baby vamp" named La Petite Daffy, she was encouraged as a performer by her mother, according to West, always thought that anything Mae did was fantastic. Other family members were less encouraging, including her paternal grandmother, they are all reported as having disapproved of her choices. In 1918, after exiting several high-profile revues, West got her break in the Shubert Brothers revue Sometime, opposite Ed Wynn, her character Mayme danced the shimmy and her photograph appeared on an edition of the sheet music for the popular number "Ev'rybody Shimmies Now". She began writing her own risqué plays using the pen name Jane Mast.
Her first starring role on Broadway was in a 1926 play she entitled Sex, which she wrote and directed. Although conservative critics panned the show, ticket sales were strong; the production did not go over well with city officials, who had received complaints from some religious groups, the theater was raided, with West arrested along with the cast. She was taken to the Jefferson Market Court House, where she was prosecuted on morals charges, on April 19, 1927, was sentenced to 10 days for "corrupting the morals of youth". Though West could have paid a fine and been let off, she chose the jail sentence for the publicity it would garner. While incarcerated on Welfare Island, she dined with his wife. West got great mileage from this jail stint, she served eight days with two days off for "good behavior". Media attention surrounding the incident enhanced her career, by crowning her the darling "bad girl" who "had climbed the ladder of success wrong by wrong", her next play, Th
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone
My Son John
My Son John is a 1952 American drama film, directed by Leo McCarey, starring Robert Walker as a suspected Communist spy. The anti-Communist film, produced during the height of McCarthyism, received an Oscar nomination for Best Writing, Motion Picture Story; the nomination was viewed as a possible attempt by the motion picture industry to signal its loyalty to the anti-Communist campaign underway. In uniform and Ben Jefferson, strapping blonds who played high school football, attend Sunday Mass with their parents before leaving for army service in Korea, their older brother, John sends regrets that he can not join their farewell dinner because of his work for the federal government in Washington. A week John visits his parents, his devoutly Catholic mother Lucille and American Legionnaire father Dan. In conversation with them and their parish priest, John uses humor to make provocative statements and his attitude is resented, he spends hours with one of his college professors leaving his parents feeling short-changed.
John makes his father questions his loyalty. After a visit from the FBI, John assures his mother of his loyalty by swearing on her Bible, but John and his father argue, his mother tells John to "think with your heart, not your head". When John leaves a key behind when he returns to his job in Washington, DC, his mother, while trying to return the key to him, learns it is for the apartment of a female spy. Mother confronts John, who confesses to having an affair, she refuses to accept his assurances of loyalty and begs him to confess, declares that he deserves to be punished. The FBI agent tells him he should "use whatever free. Give up. Name names." John escapes, repents his actions, decides to turn himself in, but is killed by Communist agents before he can do so. The FBI play it at his college's commencement exercises. Helen Hayes as Lucille Jefferson Van Heflin as Stedman, FBI agent Dean Jagger as Dan Jefferson Robert Walker as John Jefferson, son of Dan and Lucille Minor Watson as Dr. Carver Frank McHugh as Father O'Dowd Richard Jaeckel as Chuck Jefferson, younger brother to John Jefferson James Young as Ben Jefferson, younger brother to John Jefferson The film was based on an idea by Leo McCarey, developed into a script by John Lee Mahin.
Paramount built interest in the project by reporting the casting of each role, beginning with the news in December 1950 that Helen Hayes was considering it for her return to motion pictures after more than 15 years away from the film industry. The details of the story were kept secret while it was first described in one news report as "a contemporary drama about the relationship between a mother and son, described by McCarey as'highly emotional but with much humor'". Despite McCarey's "close-mouthed silence" for two months and a public warning to Hayes not to discuss the plot, it was reported that "word has gotten around Hollywood with the authority such wisps of information always have that the son... is a traitor to his country–an agent of Communist espionage." Daily Variety reported that Hayes, mirroring certain current events, would shoot her son in the film and be tried for his murder. Hayes called it "a human part" where she didn't have to worry about her appearance. In February 1951 Robert Walker was borrowed from MGM to play the title role.
The same month Dean Jagger signed. Hedda Hopper reported the script "has gotten raves from everyone who's read it."Van Heflin signed in April 1951. Ten days into shooting, the plot's unknown elements continued to garner press coverage. McCarey denied it was the Alger Hiss story and said it had a "happy ending", he offered this: It's about a mother and father who struggled and slaved. They had no education, they put all their money into higher education for their sons. But one of the kids gets too bright, it poses the problem–how bright can you get? He takes up a lot of things including atheism; the mother knows only two books -- her cookbook. But who's brighter in the end-- the mother or the son? It's such a fragile little point. It's not bad sometimes to get the most out of it. Hayes denied that the film's "message" attracted her to the project: "I just like the character and the story. I am deadly, but I do feel the picture is a exciting comment on a certain phase of our living today". It was the last film role of Robert Walker.
It was reported that he died less than a week after completing work on the film, though in fact McCarey had to alter the film's ending because of Walker's unfilmed sequences and insert a shot of Walker from Alfred Hitchcock's Strangers on a Train. Filming took place in Washington, DC, Manassas and Hollywood. Bosley Crowther wrote in his review for The New York Times that the film represented its time in that it "corresponds with the present public ferment of angry resentment and fear", that it is "a picture so dedicated to the purpose of the American anti-Communist purge that it seethes with the sort of emotionalism and illogic, characteristic of so much thinking these days", he wrote that allowing a mother to condemn her son based on flimsy evidence shows the film's "hot emotional nature" and that its endorsement of bigotry and argument for religious conformity would "cause a thoughtful person to feel a shudder of apprehension". While praising all the actors, he regretted the film's "snide anti-intellectual stance".
Other critics underscored the cultural attitudes behind the film's politics. In the New York Herald Tribune, Ogden Reid a Congressman, wrote: "McCarey's picture of how America ought to be is so frightening, so speciously a