Leo VI the Wise

Leo VI Sophos, called the Wise or the Philosopher, was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912. The second ruler of the Macedonian dynasty, he was well-read, leading to his epithet. During his reign, the renaissance of letters, begun by his predecessor Basil I, continued, his reign witnessed the formal discontinuation of several ancient Roman institutions, such as the Roman consul and Senate, which continued to exist in name only and lost much of their original functions and powers. Born on 19 September 866 to the empress Eudokia Ingerina, Leo was either the illegitimate son of Emperor Michael III or the second son of Michael's successor, Basil I the Macedonian. Eudokia was both Basil's wife. In 867, Michael was assassinated by Basil; as the second eldest son of the Emperor, Leo was associated on the throne in 870 and became the direct heir on the death of his older half-brother Constantine in 879. However and Basil did not like each other. Basil married Zoe off to an insignificant official, almost had Leo blinded when he was accused of conspiring against him.

On 29 August 886, Basil died in a hunting accident, though he claimed on his deathbed that there was an assassination attempt in which Leo was involved. One of the first actions of Leo VI after his succession was the reburial, with great ceremony, of the remains of Michael III in the imperial mausoleum within the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople; this contributed to the suspicion. Seeking political reconciliation, the new Emperor secured the support of the officials in the capital, surrounded himself with bureaucrats like Stylianos Zaoutzes and the eunuch Samonas, an Arab defector whom Leo raised to the rank of patrikios and who stood in as godfather to Leo’s son, Constantine VII, his attempts to control the great aristocratic families led to serious conflicts, the most significant being the revolt of Andronikos Doukas in 906. Leo attempted to involve himself in the church through his arbitrary interference with the patriarchate. Using Pope John VIII's excommunication of Photius, he dismissed the Patriarch Photios, his tutor, replaced him with his own 19-year-old brother Stephen in December 886.

On Stephen's death in 893, Leo replaced him with Zaoutzes' nominee, Antony II Kauleas, who died in 901. Leo promoted his own Imperial secretary Nicholas, but suspicions that he was involved in the failed assassination attempt against Leo in 903 as well as his opposition to Leo’s fourth marriage saw Nicholas replaced with Leo’s spiritual father Euthymios in 907; the magnificent Church of Ayios Lazaros in Larnaca was constructed during the rule of Leo VI in the late 9th century, it was built after the relics of St. Lazaros were transported from Crete to Constantinople; the church is one of the best examples of Byzantine architecture. Leo completed work on the Basilika, the Greek translation and update of the law code issued by Justinian I, started during the reign of Basil. Bishop Liutprand of Cremona gives an account similar to those about Caliph Harun al-Rashid, to the effect that Leo would sometimes disguise himself and go about Constantinople looking for injustice or corruption. According to one story, he was captured by the city guards during one of his investigations.

Late in the evening, he was disguised. Though he bribed two patrols with 12 nomismata and moved on, a third city patrol arrested him; when a terrified guardian recognized the jailed ruler in the morning, the arresting officer was rewarded for doing his duty, while the other patrols were dismissed and punished severely. Leo VI's fortune in war was more mixed. In indulging his chief counselor Stylianos Zaoutzes, Leo provoked a war with Simeon I of Bulgaria in 894, but he was defeated. Bribing the Magyars to attack the Bulgarians from the north, Leo scored an indirect success in 895. However, deprived of his new allies, he lost the major Battle of Boulgarophygon in 896 and had to make the required commercial concessions and to pay annual tribute. Although he won a victory in 900 against the Emirate of Tarsus, in which the Arab army was destroyed and the Emir himself captured, in the west the Emirate of Sicily took Taormina, the last Byzantine outpost on the island of Sicily, in 902. Leo continued to apply pressure on his eastern frontier through the creation of the new thema of Mesopotamia, a Byzantine invasion of Armenia in 902, the sacking of Theodosiopolis, as well as successful raids in the Arab Thughur.

In 904 the renegade Leo of Tripolis sacked Thessalonica with his pirates – an event described in The Capture of Thessalonica by John Kaminiates – while a large-scale expedition to recover Crete under Himerios in 911–912 failed disastrously. The same period saw the establishment of the important frontier provinces of Lykandos and Leontokome on territory taken from the Arabs. In 907 Constantinople was attacked by the Kievan Rus' under Oleg of Novgorod, seeking favourable trading rights with the empire. Leo paid them off, but they attacked again in 911, a trade treaty was sig

Rocky Neck State Park

Rocky Neck State Park is a public recreation area on Long Island Sound in the town of East Lyme, United States. The state park's 708 acres include a tidal river, a broad salt marsh, white sand beaches, rocky shores, a large stone pavilion dating from the 1930s, it is managed by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. During the 19th century, various fertilizer operations occupied the site; the park traces its beginnings to 1931, when conservationists purchased the land and held it until the state legislature authorized state purchase. During the Great Depression, a 356-foot, timber-and-granite pavilion was constructed by federal relief workers. PavilionThe Ellie Mitchell Pavilion is a Rustic-style building completed in 1936 by the Works Progress Administration; the curved masonry building stands more than 350 feet 80 feet wide. It is the largest Depression-era structure in the state. Construction began in the early 1930s as part of an effort to ease crowding at Hammonasset State Park.

Much of its timber and granite were drawn from local suppliers and quarries and from an abandoned fish fertilizer plant on the grounds. Supporting pillars were fashioned from trees cut from each of the state forests; the pavilion was opened as the Ellie Mitchell Pavilion. Visitors could purchase food, eat in the dining areas, warm themselves by eight fireplaces during cooler months. In 1986, the pavilion and its surrounding 6.5 acres were listed on the National Register of Historic Places. FootbridgeThe park is crossed by the Northeast Corridor, Amtrak's main line from New York to Boston, on a right-of-way first chartered in 1848 by the New Haven and New London Railroad. A 1934 footbridge carries pedestrians over the tracks between its parking lot; the 36-foot arched steel bridge has been documented by the Historic American Engineering Record, which describes it as "an unusual surviving example of a railroad footbridge." Access roadThe park has its own exit on the Connecticut portion of Interstate 95.

This exit is for the Rocky Neck connector, designated as the unsigned Connecticut Special Service Road 449. The park offers picnicking, saltwater fishing, saltwater swimming, a campground with 160 sites, interpretive programs. Hiking trails lead to a salt marsh, Baker's Cave, Tony's Nose and other points of interest. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Connecticut National Register of Historic Places listings in New London County, Connecticut Rocky Neck State Park Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Rocky Neck State Park Map Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Historic American Engineering Record No. CT-165, "Rocky Neck Park Trail Bridge, Foot trail over New Haven Railroad, Old Lyme, New London County, CT", 6 photos, 5 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Aerial view ca. 1935

New Zealand Warriors

The New Zealand Warriors are a professional rugby league football club based in Auckland, New Zealand that competes in the National Rugby League premiership and is the League's only team from outside Australia. They were formed in 1995 as the Auckland Warriors, are known as the Vodafone Warriors for sponsorship reasons; the Warriors are captained by Roger Tuivasa-Sheck. They are based at Mt Smart Stadium in the Auckland suburb of Penrose. For the 1995 season the newly-formed Auckland Warriors became the first club from outside Australia to be admitted to the Australian Rugby League's premiership when it expanded from 16 to 20 teams; as a result of the Super League war in the mid-1990s, Auckland left the ARL to compete in the Super League competition of 1997, before joining the re-unified NRL the following year. They re-branded themselves the New Zealand Warriors in 2001; the club has yet to win a premiership as of 2019, but has won one minor premiership, reached two grand finals, reached the play-offs eight times, have never won the wooden spoon, provided the majority of the New Zealand national team's players.

Rugby league was centred around Auckland since the New Zealand Rugby League was founded in 1909. Auckland produced the bulk of the international squad for many years, most of these players headed to either Australia or Great Britain to play; the Auckland representative side was providing top opposition to touring teams. An Auckland team was admitted into the mid-week ARL Amco Cup competition in 1978. In their first year they made the semi-finals, were defeated by the overall competition winners, Eastern Suburbs, they remained into the competition until the early 1980s. In 1987, an Auckland side toured Great Britain and claimed wins over powerhouse clubs Leeds and Wigan. In 1988, serious investigation into an Auckland team entering the New South Wales Rugby League premiership commenced, encouraged by the Mt Albert club. On 17 May 1992, the announcement stating an Auckland-based team's entry into the Australian Rugby League competition, the Winfield Cup in 1995, was made; this followed good turnouts to a number of NSWRL club games played in Auckland.

The new team was to be called the Auckland Warriors and run by the Auckland Rugby League organisation. The original colours selected were blue, white and green. Blue and white are recognised as the colours of Auckland, while red and green were the colours of the Warriors' original sponsor, DB Bitter; the original logo was designed by Francis Allan, of Colenso. The coach of the new team would be Wigan coach John Monie. A number of senior players were signed, such as Andy Platt. Captain Dean Bell was a high-performing signing. Former Rugby union players such as John Kirwan and Marc Ellis were brought in, in years; the Warriors' first year in the Australian Rugby League was 1995. Their debut match was against the Brisbane Broncos on 10 March 1995 in front of 30,000 people at a newly refurbished Mt Smart Stadium; the Warriors led 22–10 at one point in the second half of the match, however the Broncos defeated the new club 25–22. A home crowd attendance record of 32,174 was set at Ericsson Stadium in Round 6 of the 1995 ARL season, a record, not topped until Round 1 of the 2011 NRL season.

The Warriors were deducted two competition points for an interchange error. In a match against Western Suburbs, the Warriors used five interchange players instead of the allowed four; the Warriors won the match comfortably, 46–12. This error had disastrous consequences for the club, as they missed the finals by two competition points; the season saw the debut of future star, Stacey Jones, who scored a try on debut in a 40–4 rout of Parramatta in Sydney. The biggest issue with the season was the lack of consistency, evident with the Warriors today, despite a six match winning streak late in the season, it was observed. The Australian Rugby League season 1996 could have been regarded as a better one for the Warriors; the Warriors found themselves siding with the Super League during the Super League War when the New Zealand Rugby League signed up to the rebel competition. They claimed their first'victory' over the Broncos in round one of the competition that year, after all Super League clubs agreed to boycott the first round of the competition in protest.

The Warriors won the two points when they travelled to Brisbane with a squad of players that were unsigned to Super League, forcing the Broncos to forfeit the match. With four rounds remaining the Warriors were in sixth place in the competition headed for a finals berth, they proceeded to lose. The only positives were that young New Zealand talents Stacey Jones and Joe Vagana had superb seasons; the Warriors spent 1997 in the breakaway Super League Telstra Cup competition. Despite the reduced number of teams, they failed to make an impression on the competition. Monie was replaced by Frank Endacott as coach midway through the 1997 season; the only positive was the team's performance in the World Club Challenge. The Warriors hammered United Kingdom powerhouses Wigan and St Helens, comfortably handled Warrington; the Warriors were knocked out in the semi-finals by eventual winners Brisbane, going down 16–22. The first season of the reformed competition was a year, it was apparent that the club needed a new approach and attitude.

For them, they were in a better position than the other two clubs that joined the competition in 1995. Former Kiwi Mark Graham took over as coach in 1999; the club was sold off to