The State Hermitage Museum is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The second-largest art museum in the world, it was founded in 1764 when Empress Catherine the Great acquired an impressive collection of paintings from the Berlin merchant Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky; the museum celebrates the anniversary of its founding each year on 7 December, Saint Catherine's Day. It has been open to the public since 1852, its collections, of which only a small part is on permanent display, comprise over three million items, including the largest collection of paintings in the world. The collections occupy a large complex of six historic buildings along Palace Embankment, including the Winter Palace, a former residence of Russian emperors. Apart from them, the Menshikov Palace, Museum of Porcelain, Storage Facility at Staraya Derevnya, the eastern wing of the General Staff Building are part of the museum; the museum has several exhibition centers abroad. The Hermitage is a federal state property.
Since July 1992, the director of the museum has been Mikhail Piotrovsky. Of the six buildings in the main museum complex, five—namely the Winter Palace, Small Hermitage, Old Hermitage, New Hermitage, Hermitage Theatre—are open to the public; the entrance ticket for foreign tourists costs more than the fee paid by citizens of Russia and Belarus. However, entrance is free of charge the third Thursday of every month for all visitors, free daily for students and children; the museum is closed on Mondays. The entrance for individual visitors is located in the Winter Palace, accessible from the Courtyard. A hermitage is the dwelling of a recluse; the word derives from Old French hermit, ermit "hermit, recluse", from Late Latin eremita, from Greek eremites "people who live alone", in turn derived from ἐρημός, "desert". The building was given this name because of its exclusivity - in its early days, only few people were allowed to visit; the only building housing the collection was the "Small Hermitage".
Today, the Hermitage Museum encompasses many buildings on the Palace Embankment and its neighbourhoods. Apart from the Small Hermitage, the museum now includes the "Old Hermitage", the "New Hermitage", the "Hermitage Theatre", the "Winter Palace", the former main residence of the Russian tsars. In recent years, the Hermitage has expanded to the General Staff Building on the Palace Square facing the Winter Palace, the Menshikov Palace; the Western European Art collection includes European paintings and applied art from the 13th to the 20th centuries. It is displayed, on the first and second floor of the four main buildings. Drawings and prints are displayed in temporary exhibitions. Since 1940, the Egyptian collection, dating back to 1852 and including the former Castiglione Collection, has occupied a large hall on the ground floor in the eastern part of the Winter Palace, it serves as a passage to the exhibition of Classical Antiquities. A modest collection of the culture of Ancient Mesopotamia, including a number of Assyrian reliefs from Babylon, Dur-Sharrukin and Nimrud, is located in the same part of the building.
The collection of classical antiquities occupies most of the ground floor of the Old and New Hermitage buildings. The interiors of the ground floor were designed by German architect Leo von Klenze in the Greek revival style in the early 1850s, using painted polished stucco and columns of natural marble and granite. One of the largest and most notable interiors of the first floor is the Hall of Twenty Columns, divided into three parts by two rows of grey monolithic columns of Serdobol granite, intended for the display of Graeco-Etruscan vases, its floor is made of a modern marble mosaic imitating ancient tradition, while the stucco walls and ceiling are covered in painting. The Room of the Great Vase in the western wing features the 2.57 m high Kolyvan Vase, weighing 19 t, made of jasper in 1843 and installed before the walls were erected. While the western wing was designed for exhibitions, the rooms on the ground floor in the eastern wing of the New Hermitage, now hosting exhibitions, were intended for libraries.
The floor of the Athena Room in the south-eastern corner of the building, one of the original libraries, is decorated with an authentic 4th-century mosaic excavated in an early Christian basilica in Chersonesos in 1854. The collection of classical antiquities features Greek artifacts from the third millennium – fifth century BC, ancient Greek pottery, items from the Greek cities of the North Pontic Greek colonies, Hellenistic sculpture and jewellery, including engraved gems and cameos, such as the famous Gonzaga Cameo, Italic art from the 9th to second century BC, Roman marble and bronze sculpture and applied art from the first century BC - fourth century AD, including copies of Classical and Hellenistic Greek sculptures. One of the highlights of the collection is the Tauride Venus, according to latest research, is an original Hellenistic Greek sculpture rather than a Roman copy as it was thought before. There are, only a few pieces of authentic Classical Greek sculpture and sepulchral monuments.
On the ground floor in the western wing of the Winter Palace the collections of prehistoric artifacts and the culture and art of the Caucasus are located, as well as the second treasure gallery. The prehistoric artifacts date from the Paleolithic to the Iron Age and were excavated all over Russia and other parts of the former Soviet Union and Russian Empire. Among them is a renowned collection of the art and culture
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
The Odeonsplatz is a large square in central Munich, developed in the early 19th century by Leo von Klenze and is at the southern end of the Ludwigstraße, developed at the same time. The square is named for the Odeon, on its northwestern side; the name Odeonsplatz has come to be extended to the parvis of the Residenz, in front of the Theatine Church and terminated by the Feldherrnhalle, which lies to the south of it. The square was the scene of a fatal gun battle which ended the march on the Feldherrnhalle during the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch; the Odeonsplatz is located north of the Old Town, on the border between Altstadt-Lehel and Maxvorstadt. On the west side, set back from the line of the Ludwigstraße, are the building of the Odeon and the identical Palais Leuchtenberg, both modelled on the Palazzo Farnese in Rome. On the east side is Klenze's Bazaar Building, including the Café Tambosi. Between the two buildings on the west side, an unnamed street leads to the Palais Ludwig Ferdinand. Both this street and the Brienner Straße, which begins at the south end of the square, lead to the adjacent Wittelsbacherplatz designed by Klenze.
The Feldherrnhalle is a copy of the famous Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence. The Odeonsplatz is served by the U Bahn station of the same name and by the Museenlinie of the Munich bus system. Since 1972, the southern end of the square has been part of the central Munich pedestrian zone; as early as 1790, plans were made in connection with the removal of the old city walls to replace the Schwabing Gate with a new square and to make the beginning of the route from the Residenz to Nymphenburg Palace more impressive. The current form of the square and the parvis to the south of it was determined by King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who in 1816, while still Crown Prince, commissioned Klenze to lay out the whole of the Ludwigstraße, including the square at its southern end; the Italianate neo-classical style of the first building, the Palais Leuchtenberg, set the tone, unlike earlier plans by Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell which had featured buildings surrounded by a parklike setting, Klenze created an enclosed urban square to better fit with the adjacent Old Town.
However, the Feldherrnhalle, erected to close the view at the southern end on the site of the demolished gate, was commissioned from Klenze's rival Friedrich von Gärtner in 1840–41. As the building of the square continued, the project expanded to include the new Ludwigstraße; as a result, the obelisk in memory of the Bavarian troops who had died fighting with Napoleon in his Russian campaign was instead erected in the Karolinenplatz in 1833. In 1862 an equestrian statue of Ludwig I was added at the mouth of the street between the Odeon and the Palais Leuchtenberg; the Odeonsplatz has traditionally been an important site of parades and public events, including funeral processions, victory parades, which proceeded down the Ludwigstraße to the Feldherrnhalle, with the VIP rostrum being located at the statue of Ludwig I. The annual parade to the Oktoberfest still follows this route. According to many historians, this traditional function was the reason for the Nazi march on the Feldherrnhalle on 9 November 1923 in the course of the Beer Hall Putsch, which ended in a gunfight in which four state police officers and 16 Nazis were killed.
During the Third Reich, the annual memorial march passed through the square and continued to the Königsplatz, where the Nazi fallen had been interred. A memorial was erected for them to the east of the Feldherrnhalle, which all passersby were required to honour with the Hitler salute; the Odeonsplatz was the subject of at least one painting by Hitler. Together with the Marienplatz, the Odeonsplatz remains an important site for both civic events and demonstrations. Odeonsplatz City Panorama Odeonsplatz during the Nazi era and today Susanna Rieger, "Der Münchner Odeonsplatz und seine Gebäude" Odeonsplatz - video
The Alte Pinakothek is an art museum located in the Kunstareal area in Munich, Germany. It is one of the oldest galleries in the world and houses a significant collection of Old Master paintings; the name Alte Pinakothek refers to the time period covered by the collection—from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century. The Neue Pinakothek, re-built in 1981, covers nineteenth-century art, Pinakothek der Moderne, opened in 2002, exhibits modern art. All three galleries are part of the Bavarian State Painting Collections, an organization of the Free state of Bavaria. King Ludwig I of Bavaria ordered Leo von Klenze to erect a new building for the gallery for the Wittelsbach collection in 1826; the Alte Pinakothek was the largest museum in the world and structurally and conceptually well advanced through the convenient accommodation of skylights for the cabinets. The Neo-Renaissance exterior of the Pinakothek stands out from the castle-like museum type common in the early 19th century, it is associated with the function and structure of the building as a museum.
Modern in its day, the building became exemplary for museum buildings in Germany and in Europe after its inauguration in 1836, thus became a model for new galleries like the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, galleries in Rome and Kassel. The museum building was damaged by bombing in World War II but was reconstructed and reopened to the public on 7 June 1957, with President Theodor Heuss attending. Director Ernst Buckner oversaw the rebuilding project, ensuring that the building remained true to its original architecture; the ornate, pre-war interior including the large loggia facing the south façade in the upper floor were not restored. A new wall covering was created in 2008 for the rooms on the upper floor of the Alte Pinakothek with a woven and dyed silk from Lyon; the new color scheme of green and red draws on the design of the rooms, dates back to the time of construction of the Alte Pinakothek and was predominant until the 20th Century. For King Ludwig I and his architect Leo von Klenze the use of a wall covering alternately in red and green, showed the continuation of a tradition that dates back to the exhibition of the old masters of the late 16th Century in many of the major art galleries in Europe and there exists to this day.
The Wittelsbach collection was begun by Duke Wilhelm IV who ordered important contemporary painters to create several history paintings, including The Battle of Alexander at Issus of Albrecht Altdorfer. Elector Maximilian I commissioned in 1616 four hunt paintings from Peter Paul Rubens and acquired many other paintings the work of Albrecht Dürer, he obtained The Four Apostles in the year 1627 due to pressure on the Nuremberg city fathers. A few years however 21 paintings were confiscated and moved to Sweden during the occupation of Munich in the Thirty Years war. Maximilian's grandson Maximilian II Emanuel purchased a large number of Dutch and Flemish paintings when he was Governor of the Spanish Netherlands. So he bought for example in 1698 in Antwerp from Gisbert van Colen 12 pictures of Peter Paul Rubens and 13 of Van Dyck, with the pictures of Rubens from the personal estate of the artist which were therefore not intended for sale. Under Max Emanuel's successors, the purchases were discontinued due to the tight budget.
Max Emanuel's cousin Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine collected Netherlandish paintings. He ordered from Peter Paul Rubens The Big Last Judgment and received Raphael's Canigiani Holy Family as a dowry of his wife. Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria had a strong preference for Netherlandish paintings as well, among other paintings he acquired Rembrandt's The Holy Family. By the late 18th century a large number of the paintings were displayed in Schleissheim Palace, accessible to the public. After the reunion of Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate in 1777, the galleries of Mannheim, Düsseldorf and Zweibrücken were moved to Munich, in part to protect the collections during the wars which followed the French revolution. Though 72 paintings including The Battle of Alexander at Issus were taken to Paris in 1800 by the invading armies of Napoleon I, a noted admirer of Alexander the Great; the Louvre held it until 1804, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor of France and took it for his own use.
When the Prussians captured the Château de Saint-Cloud in 1814 as part of the War of the Sixth Coalition, they found the painting hanging in Napoleon's bathroom. Most of the paintings have not been returned. With the secularisation many paintings from churches and former monasteries entered into state hands. King Ludwig I of Bavaria collected Early German and Early Dutch paintings but masterpieces of the Italian renaissance. In 1827 he acquired the collection Boisserée with 216 Old Dutch masters. In 1838 Johann Georg von Dillis issued the first catalogue. After the times of King Ludwig I the acquisitions ended. Only from 1875 the directors Franz von Reber and Hugo von Tschudi secured important new acquisitions, such as the Madonna of the Carnation of Leonardo da Vinci and The Disrobing of Christ of El Greco; the predilection of the Wittelsbach rulers for some painters made the collection quite strong in those areas but neglected others. Since the 1960s the Pinakothek has filled some of these gaps: for example, a deficit of 18th-century paintings was addressed by the integration into the collection of wor
The Residenz in central Munich is the former royal palace of the Wittelsbach monarchs of Bavaria. The Residenz is the largest city palace in Germany and is today open to visitors for its architecture, room decorations, displays from the former royal collections; the complex of buildings displays 130 rooms. The three main parts are the Alte Residenz and the Festsaalbau. A wing of the Festsaalbau contains the Cuvilliés Theatre since the reconstruction of the Residenz after World War II, it houses the Herkulessaal, the primary concert venue for the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. The Byzantine Court Church of All Saints at the east side is facing the Marstall, the building for the former Court Riding School and the royal stables; the first buildings at this site were erected in the year 1385 and were financed by the township of Munich as a sanction for a failed uprising against Stephen III and his younger brothers. The Silver Tower, as the strongest bastion, was situated next to the inner walls protecting the castle against the city.
This sturdy new castle, surrounded by wide moats and located at the north eastern corner of the new double ring of town walls, replaced the difficult to defend Alter Hof located in the middle of the town as residence of the Wittelsbach rulers. For the Dukes of the divided country had felt the need to keep some distance from the rebellious city dwellers at the one hand and for some defence against their warlike relatives at the other; as a result, they sought to build themselves a shelter impregnable and easy to leave at the same time. Around 1470, under Albert IV, the fortress walls and the gate in the north were buil, followed by the construction of two turrets; the gothic foundation walls and the basement vaults of the old castle including the round pillars of the so-called ballroom cellar are today the oldest surviving parts of the palace. The Residenz's development over the centuries didn't only take place out of its main centre, the Neuveste, but in addition grew out of several single parts and extensions, the first of which used to be the Antiquarium.
After more than four centuries of development, the giant palace had replaced a whole former city quarter with barracks, a monastery and gardens. It assembles the styles of the late Renaissance, as well as of Baroque and Neo-Classicism. With the order of William IV to expand the Neuveste with the so-called Rundstubenbau and to set up the first Court Garden, began the history of the Munich Residenz as a representative palace. To the history cycle of this garden pavilion belonged once the Battle of Issus of Albrecht Altdorfer. Under Albert V Wilhelm Egkl built next to a banqueting hall of the Neuveste an art chamber in the building of the former ducal stables, many collections in Munich originate from there. Since there was not enough space for the extensive collection of sculptures, the building for the Antiquarium was created 1568–1571, it had to be built outside the castle. William V ordered the construction of the Witwenstock for the dowager Duchess Anna and in 1581–1586 the four wings of the Grottenhof.
Friedrich Sustris was the architect. Around 1590 the construction of the Black Hall was begun to the southeast on the Antiquarium. Under direction of Sustris the Erbprinzentrakt, north of the Witwenstock was added. Maximilian I commissioned what is now called the Maximilian Residenz, the west wing of the palace; until the 19th century, it was the only publicly visible facade and it still is preserved. The portals are guarded by two lions and a statue of the Virgin Mary as patroness of Bavaria in a wall niche between the portals on the west side of the residence complex. Maximilian had connected the existing buildings. In addition, Maximilian I had from 1612 large parts of the south and west wings of the Neuveste with the Silver Tower demolished. Between 1611 and 1619, the wing at the large Emperor's Courtyard was created to the north of the complex, it documents the high political claims of Maximilian. Its large dimensions satisfied Maximilian's successors up to 19th century, who contented themselves with interior upgrading and smaller extensions such as the wing for the Grüne Galerie and the Residenz Theatre.
Ten courtyards can be found inside the large complex: The Grotto Courtyard with the Perseus Fountain was built between 1581–1586 under William V by Friedrich Sustris as the leading architect, takes its name from the grotto on the western façade of the Antiquarium. The octagonal Brunnenhof served as a place for tournaments before the large Wittelsbach Fountain was erected in the middle of the courtyard in 1610; the buildings around the Kaiserhof with the Residenz Tower as clock tower, were erected from 1612 to 1618, in the reign of Maximilian I. Both courtyards are decorated with optical illusions on the facade, the same as the facade of the Alte Residenz; the Königsbauhof replaced a garden. At its eastern side the rococo facade of the Grüne Galerie is situated, designed by François Cuvilliés the Elder in of 1731–33. Other courtyards are the Kapellenhof, the large Apothekenhof behind the Fes
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
The Alter Südfriedhof known as "Alter Südlicher Friedhof" is a cemetery in Munich, Germany. It was founded by Duke Albrecht V as a plague cemetery in 1563 about half a kilometer south of the Sendlinger Gate between Thalkirchner and Pestalozzistraße; the cemetery was established in 1563, during the reign of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, for victims of the plague and located outside the city gates. It was the burial ground of the dead from the Sendling uprising of 1705, in which over 1100 were killed after they had surrendered to the troops of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. From 1788 to 1867 it was the single collective burial ground for the dead of the city. From 1788 to 1868 it was the only cemetery for the whole metropolitan area of Munich, why it contains the graves of several prominent Munich figures of that period. Max Emanuel Ainmiller - painter, 1807–1870 Franz Xaver von Baader - philosopher, 1765–1841 Jakob Bauer - first mayor, 1787–1854 Theodor von Bischoff - anatomist and physician, 1807–1882 Gottlieb Bodmer - painter and lithographer, 1804-1837 Roman Anton Boos - sculptor, 1730–1810 Friedrich Bürklein - architect, 1813–1872 Adolf Christen - theatre director and producer, 1811–1883 Anna Dandler - actress, 1862–1930 Ernst Friedrich Diez - opera singer, 1805–1892 Sophie Diez - opera singer, 1820–1887 Johann Georg von Dillis - landscape painter, 1759–1841 Ignaz von Döllinger - theologian, 1799–1890 Johann Georg Edlinger - painter, 1741–1819 Alexander Eibner - painter and painting tutor, 1862–1935 Kaspar Ett - composer, 1788–1847 Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer - traveller, journalist and historian, 1790–1861 Carl von Fischer - architect, 1782–1820 Ludwig Foltz - architect and illustrator, 1809–1867 Joseph von Fraunhofer - optician and inventor, 1787–1826 Franz Xaver Gabelsberger - shorthand inventor, 1789–1849 Friedrich von Gärtner - architect, 1792–1847 Sebastian Gaigl - founder of the city orphanage, 1799–1871 Joseph Görres - publicist, 1776–1848 Charlotte von Hagn - actress, 1809–1891 Johann von Halbig - sculptor, 1814–1882 August von Hauner - teacher and professor, 1811–1884 Peter von Hess - painter, 1792–1871 Wilhelm von Kaulbach - history painter, 1805–1878 Leo von Klenze - architect, 1784–1864 Franz von Kobell - mineralogist and Bavarian / Palatinate dialect poet, 1803–1882 Alexander von Kotzebue - Russo-German battle-painter, 1815–1889 Ludwig Lange - architect and painter, 1808–1868 Georg Leib - Royal Councillor of Commerce and scaffolding specialist, 1846-1910 Justus Freiherr von Liebig - chemist and natural scientist, 1803–1873 Ferdinand von Miller - member of the Dt.
Reichstag, 1813–1887 Carl Friedrich Neumann - Sinologist, 1793–1870 Eugen Napoleon Neureuther - painter and etcher, 1806–1882 Johann Nepomuk von Nussbaum - surgeon, 1829–1890 Georg Simon Ohm - physicist, 1789–1854 Max von Pettenkofer - important physician, 1818–1901 Ludwig von der Pfordten - Bavaria's Ministerpräsident, 1811–1880 Christian Pram-Henningsen - Danish painter, 1846–1892 Siegmund von Pranckh - general and Defence Minister, 1821–1888 Georg Friedrich von Reichenbach - inventor and engineer, 1772–1826 Josef Gabriel Rheinberger - composer and music teacher from Liechtenstein, 1839–1901 Karl Rottmann - landscape painter, 1798–1830 Eduard Schleich the Elder - painter, 1813–1874 Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell - landscape gardener, 1750–1823 Ludwig Schwanthaler - sculptor, 1802–1848 Moritz von Schwind - painter, 1804–1871 Helene Sedlmayr - symbol of Schönen Münchnerin in the Gallery of Beauties, 1813–1898 Franz von Seitz - painter and costume painter, 1817-1883 Otto Seitz - painter and teacher, 1846–1912 Alois Senefelder - inventor of lithography, 1771–1834 Johann Nepomuk Sepp - historian and politician, 1816–1909 Carl Spitzweg - painter and apothecary, 1808–1885 Carl August von Steinheil - physicist, 1801-1870 Friedrich Wilhelm von Thiersch - "Praeceptor Bavariae", 1784–1860 Gustav Vorherr - architect, 1778–1847 Klara Ziegler - actress and theatre founder, 1844–1909 Anton Zwengauer - landscape painter, 1810-1884 The cemetery today serves as an Art and Cultural history monument, is open to the public as an official Munich park.
Most of the monuments, which suffered from exposure to weather and pollution, have been renovated and cleaned, in a three-year project. The St. Stephan's church has been renovated