Thriller (Michael Jackson album)
Thriller is the sixth studio album by American singer Michael Jackson, released on November 30, 1982, in the United States by Epic Records and internationally by CBS Records. It explores genres similar to Jackson's previous album, Off the Wall, including pop, post-disco and funk. Recording took place from April to November 1982 at Westlake Recording Studios in Los Angeles, with a production budget of $750,000. In just over a year, Thriller became the world's best-selling album, having sold an estimated 66 million copies, it is the second-best-selling album in the United States, behind the Eagles' album Their Greatest Hits, was the first to reach 30x platinum, with 33 million shipped album-equivalent units certified in the US. The album won a record-breaking eight Grammy Awards in 1984, including Album of the Year, it produced seven singles—"The Girl Is Mine", "Billie Jean", "Beat It", "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin' ", "Human Nature", "P. Y. T.", "Thriller"—all of which reached the top 10 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart.
Thriller broke racial barriers in pop music, enabling Jackson's appearances on MTV and meeting with President Ronald Reagan at the White House. The album was one of the first to use music videos as successful promotional tools, the videos for the songs "Thriller", "Billie Jean", "Beat It" all received regular rotation on MTV. In 2001, a special edition reissue was released, which contains additional audio interviews, demo recordings and the song "Someone in the Dark", a Grammy-winning track from the E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial storybook. In 2008, Thriller was reissued again as Thriller 25, containing remixes with contemporary artists unreleased songs, a DVD with three music videos and Jackson's performance of "Billie Jean" from the 1983 television special Motown 25. In the same year, the album was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame along with Off the Wall. In 2012, Slant Magazine named Thriller the best album of the 1980s". In 2003, Rolling Stone placed the album at number 20 on their list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time".
The album was listed by the National Association of Recording Merchandisers at number three on its "Definitive 200" album list. Thriller was included in the Library of Congress' National Recording Registry of culturally significant recordings, the Thriller music video was included in the National Film Preservation Board's National Film Registry of "culturally or aesthetically significant films". Jackson's previous album Off the Wall received critical acclaim and was a commercial success, selling over 20 million copies worldwide; the years between Off the Wall and Thriller were a transitional period for Jackson, a time of increased independence. The period saw him become unhappy. I cry. It's so hard to make friends... I sometimes walk around the neighborhood at night, but I just end up coming home."When Jackson turned 21 in August 1979, he hired John Branca as his manager. Jackson told Branca that he wanted to be the wealthiest star in showbusiness, he was upset about what he perceived as the underperformance of Off the Wall, feeling it had deserved the Grammy Award for Record of the Year.
He felt undervalued by the music industry. Just wait; some day those magazines are going to be begging me for an interview. Maybe I'll give them one, maybe I won't." Jackson reunited with Off the Wall producer Quincy Jones to record his sixth studio album, his second under the Epic label. They worked together on 30 songs. Thriller was recorded at Westlake Recording Studios in Los Angeles, with a production budget of $750,000; the recording commenced on April 14, 1982 at noon with Jackson and Paul McCartney recording "The Girl Is Mine". Several members of the band Toto were involved in the album's production. Jackson wrote four songs for the record: "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'", "The Girl Is Mine", "Beat It" and "Billie Jean". Unlike many artists, Jackson did not write these songs on paper. Instead, he dictated into a sound recorder; the relationship between Jackson and Jones became strained during the recording. Jackson spent much of his time rehearsing dance steps alone; when the album was completed, both Jones and Jackson were unhappy with the result and remixed every song, spending a week on each.
Jackson was inspired to create an album where "every song was a killer" and developed Thriller with that in mind. Jones and songwriter Rod Temperton gave detailed accounts of what occurred for the 2001 reissue of the album. Jones discussed "Billie Jean" and why it was so personal to Jackson, who struggled with obsessed fans. Jones wanted to shorten the long introduction, but Jackson insisted that it remain because it made him want to dance; the ongoing backlash against disco made it necessary to move in a different musical direction from the disco-heavy Off the Wall. Jones and Jackson were determined to make a rock song that would appeal to all tastes and spent weeks looking for a suitable guitarist for the song "Beat It", they found Steve Lukather of Toto to play the rhythm guitar parts and Eddie Van Halen of the rock band Van Halen to play the solo. When Rod Temperton wrote the song "Thriller", he wanted to call it "Starlight" or "Midnight Man", but settled on "Thriller" because he felt the name had merchandising potential.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
Shreveport is a city in the U. S. state of Louisiana. It is the most populous city in the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area. Shreveport ranks third in population in Louisiana after New Orleans and Baton Rouge and 126th in the U. S; the bulk of Shreveport is in Caddo Parish. Shreveport extends along the west bank of the Red River into neighboring Bossier Parish; the population of Shreveport was 199,311 as of the 2010 U. S. Census; the United States Census Bureau's 2017 estimate for the city's population decreased to 192,036. Shreveport was founded in 1836 by the Shreve Town Company, a corporation established to develop a town at the juncture of the newly navigable Red River and the Texas Trail, an overland route into the newly independent Republic of Texas. Prior to Texas becoming independent, this trail entered Mexico; the city grew throughout the 20th century and, after the discovery of oil in Louisiana, became a national center for the oil industry. Standard Oil of Louisiana and United Gas Corporation were headquartered in the city until the 1960s and 1980s.
After the loss of jobs in the oil industry, the close of Shreveport Operations, other economic problems the city struggled with a declining population, poverty and violent crime. Since Cedric Glover's tenure as mayor of Shreveport, the city has revitalized its neighborhoods and roads to end its population decline, revive the economy through diversification, lower crime. Shreveport is the educational and cultural center of the Ark-La-Tex region, where Arkansas and Texas meet, it is the location of Centenary College of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Louisiana Tech University Shreveport, Southern University at Shreveport, Louisiana Baptist University. Its neighboring city Bossier is the location of Bossier Parish Community College; the city forms part of the I-20 Cyber Corridor linking Shreveport, Bossier and Monroe to Dallas and Tyler and Atlanta, Georgia. Companies with significant operations or headquarters in Shreveport are AT&T, Chase Bank, Capital One, Regions Financial Corporation, SWEPCO, UPS, General Electric, UOP LLC, Calumet Specialty Products Partners, APS Payroll.
Shreveport was established to launch a town at the meeting point of the Brown Bricks and the Texas Trail. The Red River was made navigable by Captain Henry Miller Shreve, who led the United States Army Corps of Engineers effort to clear the Red River. A 180-mile-long natural log jam, the Great Raft, had obstructed passage to shipping. Shreve used the Heliopolis, to remove the log jam; the company and the village of Shreve Town were named in Shreve's honor. Shreve Town was contained within the boundaries of a section of land sold to the company in 1835 by the indigenous Caddo Indians. In 1838 Caddo Parish was created from the large Natchitoches Parish, Shreve Town became its parish seat. On March 20, 1839, the town was incorporated as Shreveport; the town consisted of 64 city blocks, created by eight streets running west from the Red River and eight streets running south from Cross Bayou, one of its tributaries. Shreveport soon became a center of steamboat commerce, carrying cotton and agricultural crops from the plantations of Caddo Parish.
Shreveport had a slave market, though slave trading was not as widespread as in other parts of the state. Steamboats plied the Red River, stevedores loaded and unloaded cargo. By 1860, Shreveport had a population of 1,300 slaves within the city limits. During the American Civil War, Shreveport was the capital of Louisiana from 1863 to 1865, having succeeded Baton Rouge and Opelousas after each fell under Union control; the city was a Confederate stronghold throughout the war and was the site of the headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederate Army. Fort Albert Sidney Johnston was built on a ridge northwest of the city; because of limited development in that area, the site is undisturbed in the 21st century. Isolated from events in the east, the Civil War continued in the Trans-Mississippi theater for several weeks after Robert E. Lee's surrender in April 1865, the Trans-Mississippi was the last Confederate command to surrender, on May 26, 1865. "The period May 13-21, 1865, was filled with great uncertainly after soldiers learned of the surrenders of Lee and Johnston, the Good Friday assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and the rapid departure of their own generals."
In the confusion there was a breakdown of military rioting by soldiers. They destroyed buildings containing service records, a loss that made it difficult for many to gain Confederate pensions from state governments. Throughout the war, women in Shreveport did much to assist the soldiers fighting far to the east. Historian John D. Winters writes of them in The Civil War in Louisiana: "The women of Shreveport and vicinity labored long hours over their sewing machines to provide their men with adequate underclothing and uniforms. After the excitement of Fort Sumter, there was a great rush to get the volunteer companies ready and off to New Orleans... Forming a Military Aid Society, the ladies of Shreveport requested donations of wool and cotton yarn for knitting socks. Joined by others, the Society collected blankets for the wounded and gave concerts and tableaux to raise funds. Tickets were sold for a diamond ring given by the mercantile house of Hyams and Brothers..."A Confederate minstrel show gave two performances to raise mon
Frederick Dewayne Hubbard was an American jazz trumpeter. He was known for playing in the bebop, hard bop, post-bop styles from the early 1960s onwards, his unmistakable and influential tone contributed to new perspectives for modern bebop. Hubbard started playing the mellophone and trumpet in his school band at Arsenal Technical High School in Indianapolis, Indiana. Trumpeter Lee Katzman, former sideman with Stan Kenton, recommended that he begin studying at the Arthur Jordan Conservatory of Music with Max Woodbury, the principal trumpeter of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra. In his teens Hubbard worked locally with brothers Wes and Monk Montgomery and worked with bassist Larry Ridley and saxophonist James Spaulding. In 1958, at the age of 20, he moved to New York, began playing with some of the best jazz players of the era, including Philly Joe Jones, Sonny Rollins, Slide Hampton, Eric Dolphy, J. J. Johnson, Quincy Jones. On 19 June 1960 Hubbard made his first record as a leader, Open Sesame at the beginning of his contract with Blue Note Records, with saxophonist Tina Brooks, pianist McCoy Tyner, bassist Sam Jones, drummer Clifford Jarvis.
Six days he returned the favor to Brooks, recorded with him on True Blue. In December 1960, Hubbard was invited to play on Ornette Coleman's Free Jazz after Coleman had heard him performing with Don Cherry. In May 1961, Hubbard played on Olé Coltrane, John Coltrane's final recording session for Atlantic Records. Together with Eric Dolphy and Art Davis, Hubbard was the only sideman who appeared on both Olé and Africa/Brass, Coltrane's first album with Impulse!. In August 1961, Hubbard recorded Ready for Freddie, his first collaboration with saxophonist Wayne Shorter. Hubbard joined Shorter in 1961 when he replaced Lee Morgan in Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, he played on several Blakey recordings, including Caravan, Ugetsu and Free for All. In all, during the 1960s, he recorded eight studio albums as a bandleader for Blue Note, more than two dozen as a sideman. Hubbard remained with Blakey until 1966, leaving to form the first of several small groups of his own, which featured, among others, his Blue note associate James Spaulding, pianist Kenny Barron and drummer Louis Hayes.
This group recorded for Atlantic. It was during this time that he began to develop his own sound, distancing himself from the early influences of Clifford Brown and Morgan, won the DownBeat jazz magazine "New Star" award on trumpet. Throughout the 1960s Hubbard played as a sideman on some of the most important albums from that era, including Oliver Nelson's The Blues and the Abstract Truth, Eric Dolphy's Out to Lunch!, Herbie Hancock's Maiden Voyage, Wayne Shorter's Speak No Evil. Hubbard was described as "the most brilliant trumpeter of a generation of musicians who stand with one foot in'tonal' jazz and the other in the atonal camp". Though he never embraced the free jazz of the 1960s, he appeared on two of its landmark albums: Coleman's Free Jazz and Coltrane's Ascension, as well as on Sonny Rollins' 1966 "New Thing" track "East Broadway Run Down" with Elvin Jones and Jimmy Garrison. Hubbard achieved his greatest popular success in the 1970s with a series of albums for Creed Taylor and his record label CTI Records, overshadowing Stanley Turrentine, Hubert Laws, George Benson.
Although his early 1970s jazz albums Red Clay, First Light, Straight Life, Sky Dive were well received and considered among his best work, the albums he recorded in the decade were attacked by critics for their commercialism. First Light won a 1972 Grammy Award and included pianists Herbie Hancock and Richard Wyands, guitarists Eric Gale and George Benson, bassist Ron Carter, drummer Jack DeJohnette, percussionist Airto Moreira. In 1994, collaborating with Chicago jazz vocalist/co-writer Catherine Whitney, had lyrics set to the music of First Light. In 1977 Hubbard joined with Herbie Hancock, Tony Williams, Ron Carter and Wayne Shorter, members of the mid-sixties Miles Davis Quintet, for a series of performances. Several live recordings of this group were released as V. S. O. P, V. S. O. P; the Quintet, V. S. O. P. Tempest in the Colosseum and V. S. O. P. Live Under the Sky. Hubbard's trumpet playing was featured on the track "Zanzibar", on the 1978 Billy Joel album 52nd Street; the track ends with a fade during Hubbard's performance.
An "unfaded" version was released on the 2004 Billy Joel box set My Lives. In the 1980s Hubbard was again leading his own jazz group – this time with Billy Childs and Larry Klein, among others, as members – attracting favorable reviews, playing at concerts and festivals in the US and Europe in the company of Joe Henderson, playing a repertory of hard bop and modal jazz pieces. Hubbard played at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1980 and in 1989, he played with Woody Shaw, recording with him in 1985, two years recorded Stardust with Benny Golson. In 1988 he teamed up once more with Blakey at an engagement in the Netherlands, from which came Feel the Wind. In 1988, Hubbard played with Elton John, contributing trumpet and flugelhorn and trumpet solos on the track "Mona Lisas and Mad Hatters" for John's Reg Strikes Back album. In 1990 he appeared in Japan headlining an American-Japanese concert package which featured Elvin Jones, Sonny Fortune, pianists George Duke and Benny Green, bass players Ron Carter, Rufus Reid, with jazz and vocalist Salena Jones.
He performed at the Warsaw Jazz Festival, at which Live at the Warsaw Jazz Festival was recorded. Following a long setback of health problems and a seriou
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers of all time, he was known for his unorthodox lifestyle, residing in a private amusement park he called Neverland Ranch, becoming the focus of tabloid scrutiny. Jackson's contributions to music and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades; the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, in the early 1980s, became a dominant figure in popular music, his music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", "Thriller" from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool.
Their popularity helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Bad was the first album to produce five US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, he continued to innovate throughout the 1990s with videos such as "Black or White" and forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized complicated dance techniques such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name, his sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. Jackson is one of the best-selling music artist of all time, with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide, his other albums, including Off the Wall, HIStory rank among the world's best-selling. He won hundreds of awards, has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, is the only pop or rock artist to have been inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame, his other achievements include Guinness world records, 15 Grammy Awards, 26 American Music Awards, 13 number-one US singles. Jackson was the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.
In the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy due to his changing appearance and behavior. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend; the case led to an investigation and was settled out of court for $25 million in 1994. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. In 2009, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of propofol and benzodiazepine given to him by his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Jackson's fans around the world expressed their grief, his public memorial service was broadcast live. In 2019, the documentary Leaving Neverland detailed renewed allegations of child sexual abuse and led to an international backlash against Jackson. Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, near Chicago, on August 29, 1958, he was the eighth of ten children in the Jackson family, a working-class African-American family living in a two-bedroom house on Jackson Street.
His mother, Katherine Esther Jackson, played clarinet and piano, had aspired to be a country-and-western performer, worked part-time at Sears. His father, Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson, a former boxer, was a crane operator at U. S. Steel and played guitar with a local rhythm and blues band, the Falcons, to supplement the family's income, his father's great-grandfather, July "Jack" Gale, was a Native American medicine man and US Army scout. Michael grew up with five brothers. A sixth brother, Marlon's twin Brandon, died shortly after birth. Joe acknowledged that he whipped Michael, he recalled that Joe sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, ready to physically punish any mistakes. Katherine Jackson stated that although whipping is considered abuse in more modern times, it was a common way to discipline children when Michael was growing up. Jackie, Tito and Marlon have said that their father was not abusive and that the whippings, which were harder on Michael because he was younger, kept them disciplined and out of trouble.
In an interview with Oprah Winfrey in 1993, Jackson said that his youth had been lonely and isolating. In 1964, Michael and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by their father which included Jackie and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine. In 1965, Michael began sharing lead vocals with Jermaine, the group's name was changed to the Jackson 5; the following year, the group won a talent show. From 1966 to 1968 they toured the Midwest; the Jackson 5 performed at clubs and cocktail lounges, where striptease shows were featured, at local auditoriums a
George M. Duke was an American keyboardist, singer-songwriter and record producer, he worked with numerous artists as arranger, music director, writer and co-writer, record producer and as a professor of music. He first made a name for himself with the album The Jean-Luc Ponty Experience with the George Duke Trio, he was known for thirty-odd solo albums, of which A Brazilian Love Affair from 1979 was his most popular, as well as for his collaborations with other musicians Frank Zappa. George Duke was born in San Rafael and raised in Marin City. At four years old he became interested in the piano, his mother told him about this experience. "I don't remember it too well. I ran around saying'Get me a piano, get me a piano!'" He began his formal piano studies at the age of 7 at a local Baptist church. He attended Tamalpais High School in Mill Valley before earning a bachelor's degree in trombone and composition with a minor in contrabass from the San Francisco Conservatory of Music in 1967, he earned a master's degree in composition from San Francisco State University in 1975.
Although Duke started playing classical music, he credited his cousin Charles Burrell for convincing him to switch to jazz. He explained that he "wanted to be free" and Burrell "more or less made the decision for me" by convincing him to "improvise and do what you want to do", he taught a course on American culture at Merritt College in Oakland. Duke recorded his first album in 1966, his second was with whom he performed in San Francisco. After Frank Zappa and Cannonball Adderley heard him play, they invited him to join their bands, he spent two years with Zappa as a member of The Mothers of Invention, two years with Adderley returned to Zappa. Zappa played guitar solos on his album Feel, he recorded I Love the Blues She Heard My Cry with Zappa's bandmates Ruth Underwood, Tom Fowler, Bruce Fowler and jazz guitarist Lee Ritenour. In 1975, Duke fused jazz with pop and soul music on his album From Me to You. Three years his album Reach for It entered the pop charts, his audiences increased. During the 1980s his career moved to a second phase as he spent much of his time as a record producer.
He produced pop and R&B hits for A Taste of Honey, Jeffrey Osborne, Deniece Williams. His clients included Anita Baker, Rachelle Ferrell, Everette Harp, Gladys Knight, Melissa Manchester, Barry Manilow, The Pointer Sisters, Smokey Robinson, Take 6. Duke worked as musical director at the Nelson Mandela tribute concert at Wembley Stadium in London in 1988. In 1989, he temporarily replaced Marcus Miller as musical director of NBC's late-night music performance program Sunday Night during its first season, he was a judge for the second annual Independent Music Awards. He died on August 2013 in Los Angeles at the age of 67 from chronic lymphocytic leukemia; the Grammy Awards are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Duke has received two awards out of nine nominations, he was inducted into The SoulMusic Hall of Fame at SoulMusic.comAl Jarreau recorded the tribute album My Old Friend: Celebrating George Duke with songs written by Duke. Appearing the album were Gerald Albright, Stanley Clarke, Dr. John, Lalah Hathaway, Boney James, Marcus Miller, Jeffrey Osborne, Kelly Price, Dianne Reeves, Patrice Rushen.
The album received the 2015 NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Jazz Album. The George Duke Quartet Save the Country Solus The Inner Source Faces in Reflection Feel The Aura Will Prevail I Love the Blues, She Heard My Cry Liberated Fantasies From Me to You Reach for It The 1976 Solo Keyboard Album Don't Let Go Follow the Rainbow Master of the Game A Brazilian Love Affair Dream On Guardian of the Light Rendezvous Thief in the Night George Duke Night After Night Snapshot Illusions Is Love Enough? After Hours Cool Face the Music Duke In a Mellow Tone Dukey Treats Déjà Vu DreamWeaver Official website George Duke on IMDb George Duke at NPR Music George Duke interview at allaboutjazz.com "New album, more treats". George Duke interview at allaboutjazz.com "Deja Vu". George Duke 2012 Interview Part 1 at Soulinterviews.com. George Duke 2012 Interview Part 2 at Soulinterviews.com. George Duke at Find a Grave Interview with George Duke - NAMM Oral History Library, July 20, 2010
Robert Hutcherson was an American jazz vibraphone and marimba player. "Little B's Poem", from the 1966 Blue Note album Components, is one of his best-known compositions. Hutcherson influenced younger vibraphonists including Steve Nelson, Joe Locke, Stefon Harris. Bobby Hutcherson was born in Los Angeles, California, to Eli, a master mason, Esther, a hairdresser. Hutcherson was exposed to jazz by his brother Teddy, who listened to Art Blakey records in the family home with his friend Dexter Gordon, his older sister Peggy was a singer in Gerald Wilson's orchestra. Hutcherson went on to record on a number of Gerald Wilson's Pacific Jazz recordings as well as play in his orchestra. Hutcherson's sister introduced Hutcherson to Eric Dolphy and Billy Mitchell. Hutcherson was inspired to take up the vibraphone when at about the age of 12 he heard Milt Jackson with Thelonious Monk, Percy Heath and Kenny Clarke and Miles Davis playing "Bemsha Swing" on the Miles Davis All Stars, Volume 2 album. Still in his teens, Hutcherson began his professional career in the late 1950s working with tenor saxophonist Curtis Amy and trumpeter Carmell Jones, as well as with Dolphy and tenor saxophonist Charles Lloyd at Pandora's Box on the Sunset Strip.
He made his recording debut on August 3, 1960, cutting two songs for a 7-inch single with the Les McCann trio for Pacific Jazz, followed by the LP Groovin' Blue with the Curtis Amy-Frank Butler sextet on December 10. In January 1962, Hutcherson joined the Billy Mitchell–Al Grey group for dates at The Jazz Workshop in San Francisco and Birdland in New York City. After touring with the Mitchell–Grey group for a year, Hutcherson settled in New York City where he worked part-time as a taxi driver, before entering the jazz scene via his childhood friend, bassist Herbie Lewis. Lewis was working with The hosted jam sessions at his apartment. After hearing Hutcherson play at one of Lewis' events and Jackie McLean band member Grachan Moncur III felt that Hutcherson would be a good fit for McLean's group, which led to Hutcherson's first recording for Blue Note Records on April 30, 1963, McLean's One Step Beyond; this was followed by sessions for Blue Note with Moncur, Gordon, Andrew Hill, Tony Williams and Grant Green in 1963 and 1964 followed by sessions with Joe Henderson, John Patton, Duke Pearson and Lee Morgan.
In spite of the numerous post-bop, avant-garde, free jazz recordings made during this period, Hutcherson's first session for Blue Note as leader, The Kicker, demonstrated his background in hard bop and the blues, as did Idle Moments with Grant Green. Hutcherson won the "Talent Deserving of Wider Recognition" award in the 1964 Down Beat readers' poll, Blue Note released Hutcherson's Dialogue in 1965; the 1966 record Stick-Up!, featuring Joe Henderson, Herbie Lewis, Billy Higgins, was the first of many recorded sessions Hutcherson made with McCoy Tyner throughout their careers. Stick-Up! was the only album out of ten Hutcherson recorded as leader for Blue Note between 1965 and 1969 which did not feature drummer Joe Chambers or any of Chambers' compositions. Spanning the years 1963 to 1977, Hutcherson had one of the longest recording careers with Blue Note, second only to Horace Silver's. Hutcherson lost his cabaret card and taxi driver's license in 1967 after he and Joe Chambers were arrested for marijuana possession in Central Park, so he moved back to California, but continued to record for Blue Note.
This return to the West Coast resulted in an important partnership with Harold Land, with whom Hutcherson recorded seven albums for Blue Note, featuring a rotating lineup of pianists such as Chick Corea, Stanley Cowell, Joe Sample, Chambers on drums. The Hutcherson-Land group broke up in 1971, that same year Hutcherson won the title of "World's Best Vibist" in the International Jazz Critics Poll. After the release of Knucklebean in 1977, Hutcherson recorded three albums for Columbia Records in the late 1970s. Land and Hutcherson reunited in the early 1980s for several recordings as the "Timeless All Stars," a sextet featuring Curtis Fuller, Cedar Walton, Buster Williams, Billy Higgins which recorded four albums for the Dutch label Timeless Records. After switching between several labels in the early 1980s for his solo material, Hutcherson recorded eight albums for Landmark Records from the 1980s into the early 1990s, continued to work as a sideman during this time, his recorded output slowed somewhat during the past few decades, although he did release albums for Atlantic and Verve in the 1990s, three for the Swiss-based label Kind of Blue in the 21st century, continued to tour.
In 2004, Hutcherson became an inaugural member of the SFJAZZ Collective, featuring Joshua Redman, Miguel Zenón, Nicholas Payton, Renee Rosnes, Eric Harland, among others. He toured with them for four years, made an appearance at the SFJAZZ Center's grand opening in 2013, his 2007 quartet included Dwayne Burno on bass and Al Foster on drums. His 2008 quartet included Glenn Richman on bass and Eddie Marshall on drums. In 2010 he received the lifetime Jazz Master Fellowship Award from the National Endowment for the Arts and performed at Birdland in a quintet featuring Gilman, Burno and Peter Bernstein. 2014 saw Hutcherson return to Blue Note Records with Enjoy the View, recorded at Ocean Way Studios in Hollywood with Joey DeFrancesco, David Sanborn, Billy Hart. The quartet performed four sold-out shows at the SFJAZZ Center in February, prior to the album's release. Hutcher