Leon Trotsky was a Soviet revolutionary, Marxist theorist, politician whose particular strain of Marxist thought is known as Trotskyism. Trotsky took part in the 1917 October Revolution becoming a leader within the Communist Party, he was one of the seven members of the first Politburo. He was a prominent figure in the early People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and as the founder and commander of the Red Army. After the rise of Joseph Stalin, Trotsky was removed from his positions and expelled from the Soviet Union in February 1929, he spent the rest of his life in exile, was assassinated in 1940 in Mexico City by Ramón Mercader, a Soviet agent. Trotsky's ideas developed the basis of Trotskyism, a prime school of Marxist thought that opposes the theories of Stalinism, he was written out of the history books under Stalin and was one of the few Soviet political personalities, not rehabilitated by the Soviet administration under Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s. Leon Trotsky was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein on 7 November 1879, the fifth child of a Ukrainian-Jewish family of wealthy farmers in Yanovka or Yanivka, in the Kherson governorate of the Russian Empire, a small village 24 kilometres from the nearest post office.
His parents were his wife Anna Lvovna. Trotsky's father lived in Poltava, moved to Bereslavka, as it had a large Jewish community; the language spoken at home was a mixture of Ukrainian. Trotsky's younger sister, who grew up to be a Bolshevik and a Soviet politician, married the prominent Bolshevik Lev Kamenev; some authors, notably Robert Service, have claimed that Trotsky's childhood first name was the Yiddish Leiba. The American Trotskyist David North said that this was an assumption based on Trotsky's Jewish birth, contrary to Service's claims, there is no documentary evidence to support his using a Yiddish name, when that language was not spoken by his family. Both North and Walter Laqueur in their books say that Trotsky's childhood name was Lyova, a standard Russian diminutive of the name Lev. North has compared the speculation on Trotsky's given name to the undue emphasis given to his having a Jewish surname; when Trotsky was eight, his father sent him to Odessa to be educated. He was enrolled in a German-language school, which became Russified during his years in Odessa as a result of the Imperial government's policy of Russification.
As Isaac Deutscher notes in his biography of Trotsky, Odessa was a bustling cosmopolitan port city unlike the typical Russian city of the time. This environment contributed to the development of the young man's international outlook. Although Trotsky spoke French and German to a good standard, he said in his autobiography My Life that he was never fluent in any language but Russian and Ukrainian. Raymond Molinier wrote. Trotsky became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896 after moving to the harbor town of Nikolayev on the Ukrainian coast of the Black Sea. At first a narodnik, he opposed Marxism but was won over to Marxism that year by his future first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya. Instead of pursuing a mathematics degree, Trotsky helped organize the South Russian Workers' Union in Nikolayev in early 1897. Using the name "Lvov", he wrote and printed leaflets and proclamations, distributed revolutionary pamphlets, popularized socialist ideas among industrial workers and revolutionary students.
In January 1898, more than 200 members of the union, including Trotsky, were arrested. He was held for the next two years in prison awaiting trial, first in Nikolayev Kherson Odessa, in Moscow. In the Moscow prison, he came into contact with other revolutionaries, heard about Lenin and read Lenin's book, The Development of Capitalism in Russia. Two months into his imprisonment, on 1–3 March 1898, the first Congress of the newly formed Russian Social Democratic Labor Party was held. From on Trotsky identified as a member of the party. While in the prison in Moscow, in the summer of 1899, Trotsky married Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, a fellow Marxist; the wedding ceremony was performed by a Jewish chaplain. In 1900, he was sentenced to four years in exile in Siberia; because of their marriage and his wife were allowed to be exiled to the same location in Siberia. They were exiled to the Verkholensk in the Baikal Lake region of Siberia, they had two daughters and Nina, both born in Siberia. In Siberia, Trotsky studied philosophy.
He became aware of the differences within the party, decimated by arrests in 1898 and 1899. Some social democrats known as "economists" argued that the party should focus on helping industrial workers improve their lot in life and were not so worried about changing the government, they believed that societal reforms would grow out of the worker's struggle for higher pay and better working conditions. Others argued that overthrowing the monarchy was more important and that a well-organized and disciplined revolutionary party was essential; the latter position was expressed by the London-based newspaper Iskra, founded in 1900. Trotsky sided with the Iskra position and began writing for the paper. In the summer of 1902, at the urging of his wife Aleksandra, Trotsky escaped from Siberia hidden in a load of hay on a wagon. Aleksandra escaped from Siberia with their daughters. Both daughters married, Zina
Gonçalo Mabunda was born on January 1, 1975 in Maputo, Mozambique. He is an anti-war activist. Mabunda has exhibited in important museums such as the Center Pompidou in Paris, the Venice Biennale, the Museum of Art and Design in New York, Gangwon International Biennale, South Korea, the Museum Kunst Palast in Düsseldorf, the Hayward Gallery in London, the Mori Art Museum in Tokyo, the Johannesburg Art Gallery, the Tropen Museum, Norway Army Museum, Netherlands Army Museum, Sweden Army Museum and many more. Mabunda started his work in the context of a project implemented since 1995, by the Christian Council of Mozambique, scouring the country and collecting weapons from individuals and communities after a civil war that lasted twenty years. In this project some weapons are destroyed while others are deactivated and given to men and women like Mabunda, to sculpt into art; some 800,000 weapons have been collected since the CCM launched this project, called Transforming Guns into Hopes. The name, is inspired by a Bible verse from the book of Micah:'They will hammer their swords into ploughshares and their spears into pruning hooks'.
Mabunda is a partner artist of the African Artists for Development, an organisation that backs community development projects associated with works by contemporary artists. Gonçalo Mabunda uses Kalashnikovs, rockets and shell casing in order to make anthropomorphic figures out of the deconstructed weapons. By turning weapons into lifelike figures, Mabunda turns death into life; the figurines are representative of the over 1 million people killed during his country's civil war. Mabunda has lost relatives during the war, which makes working with and deconstructing weapons used during the 16-year war more important for him, he makes masks out of these deactivated weapons used during the Mozambique Civil War. The masks are based on traditional Sub-Saharan African masks, the original twist on the art form by creating them out of weapons is unique to Mabunda. Representing power, Mabunda's thrones mock. By using weapons, Mabunda's work carries the message of how further violence can be prevented, that destroying the weapons of war can be done in an aesthetic and artistic way.
Mabunda's art directly challenges the absurdity of war. His work has been compared to the work of Braque and Picasso. Gonçalo Mabunda's artwork has been followed by the international press, French Newspaper Le Monde, huffingtonPost from the UK are among medias that followed Mabunda's work effect on his local community. In 2014, Mabunda was one of 20 African artists to figure in French art collector André Magning publication African Stories. In 2015, Mabunda's works were the main subject of CNN show Inside Africa, a TV series highlighting different economic and cultural personalities in Africa. Former US President Bill Clinton, a fan of Mabunda's work, commissioned the artist to create trophies for his philanthropic organisation the Clinton Global Initiative. In July 2017, his pieces were shown in the European Parliament in an exhibition organized by the European Centre for Electoral Support at the occasion of the launch of a handbook produced in the context of a project funded by the European Union on "Preventing Electoral Conflicts and Violence in the countries of the Southern African Development Communities" that includes Mozambique.
The launching seminar in the European Parliament was chaired by the Member of the European Parliament, Judith Sargentini, former Chief Observer to the EU election observation mission in Mozambique and Tanzania and co-chaired by Alojz Peterle, Member of the European Parliament, former Chief Observer to the EU election observation mission in Kenya. Http://www.wcc-coe.org/wcc/what/international/mozam.html http://www.ecfa.com/goncalo-mabunda http://ames.afrique.free.fr/mabunda/index.html http://www.magnin-a.com/cspdocs/press/files/2016_11_17_lefigaromagazine_ventepiasa_hazoume_mabunda.pdf http://www.lumieresdafriques.com/fr/artist/goncalo-mabunda-2/
Branko Manoilovski born in 2 August 1941, in Kičinica, Upper Reka is a Macedonian politician of Albanian Orthodox descent. In the 2016 parliamentary elections he was a candidate for the Democratic Union for Integration and was elected in Macedonian parliament, he migrated to USA early but returned to Macedonia to promote the Albanian identity among the assimilated Albanian Orthodox population. Branko was born to Manojl Manoilovski, he finished his elementary education in Beličica, his middle school education in Gostivar and his high school education in Tetovo. In 1967 he went to university in Zagreb for Agricultural Engineering. In 1969 he migrated to USA but after entering retirement he would visit Macedonia and decided to return, he has declared that he supports LGBT rights, but after a backlash from his own political party he stressed out that those were only his personal views