Ike & Tina Turner
Ike & Tina Turner were an American musical duo, active during the 1960s and early 1970s, composed of the husband-and-wife team of Ike Turner and Tina Turner. They performed live as the Ike & Tina Turner Revue, supported by Ike Turner's rhythm and blues and soul group, the Kings of Rhythm and backing singers, the Ikettes; the Ike & Tina Turner Revue was regarded as "one of the most potent live acts on the R&B circuit". The duo's early works, including "A Fool in Love", "It's Gonna Work Out Fine", "I Idolize You" and "River Deep – Mountain High", became high points in the development of soul music, their works were noted for wildly interpretive re-arrangements of rock songs such as "I Want to Take You Higher" and "Proud Mary", the latter of which won a Grammy Award in 1971. Their live performances were a musical spectacle in the style of the Famous Flames; the duo's professional and personal relationship ended in 1976, their divorce was finalized in 1978. Ike & Tina Turner were inducted to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 1991.
In 1954, blues musician Ike Turner had moved to St. Louis from Memphis to find work for him and his band, the Kings of Rhythm. By 1956, Ike and his band had become one of the most popular live performing attractions to the St. Louis and neighboring East St. Louis club scene. Prior to the move to St. Louis, Ike worked as a talent scout for R&B labels such as Modern and RPM Records. Around this time, a young high school student from Nutbush, Tennessee who had moved to St. Louis from Brownsville named Anna Mae Bullock, began attending the predominantly African American nightclub, Club Manhattan, where she saw the Kings of Rhythm for the first time writing that the band's performance "put her in a trance". Bullock got to know Ike and his band and dated Kings of Rhythm saxophonist Raymond Hill, with whom she had her first child, Craig, in 1958. In 1957, who had tried to convince Ike to let her perform onstage with him, was given a microphone from the band's drummer Eugene Washington, the boyfriend of Bullock's sister Alline, a bartender there.
Ike was playing the B. B. King R&B ballad, "You Know. Impressed by her strong vocal delivery, Ike asked Bullock. By the end of the night, Bullock had led the Kings of Rhythm on vocals with Ike on guitar. After convincing her mother to let her perform with his band, Ike had Bullock and the Kings of Rhythm perform in all of the clubs in the St. Louis and East St. Louis areas. Bullock was one of many other singers male, who would front the band at times. Inspired by her skinny, long-legged frame, her dramatic soulful vocals, Ike gave Bullock the first stage name of "Little Ann". In 1958, Bullock added her vocals on an Ike Turner record, titled "Box Top,", released on the St. Louis label, Tune Town Records. Bullock moved into Ike's home in East St. Louis where she was trained by Ike on vocal control and performance. Though Bullock insisted on recording more vocals, Ike was resistant after he began working with singers such as Billy Gayles and Art Lassiter. Despite their eight-year age difference and Bullock developed a close friendship, acted more like "brother and sister."
By 1959, their friendship turned into a relationship and by early 1960, Bullock was pregnant with Ike's child. In March 1960, R&B singer Art Lassiter became the new front man for the Kings of Rhythm and hired Lassiter's background vocalists, a girl group named The Artettes. Ike had written a song for Lassiter and the Artettes titled "A Fool in Love". On the day Lassiter was to show up to Technosound Studios in St. Louis to record his vocal, the singer was a no-show. Having booked expensive studio time, Ike allowed the 20-year-old Bullock, still going by "Little Ann", to record the song as a dummy track for Lassiter. After recording Bullock and the Artettes, Ike sent the song to a St. Louis radio disk jockey, so impressed by the song that he convinced Ike to send the record to Juggy Murray, the president of the New York-based R&B label, Sue Records. Murray was impressed by Bullock's vocal delivery on the song, calling it "raw and funky" and that it "sounded like raw dirt". Murray bought the rights to the song and gave Ike a $20,000 advance, convincing Ike to not erase Bullock's vocals and "make her the star".
Prior to this move and the recording of "A Fool in Love", Ike had conversations with Bullock about singers in his band that would leave his group only to find bigger success elsewhere, Bullock said she convinced Ike that if they had a hit together that she "wouldn't leave him" if they became successful. Paranoid that Bullock could leave him for a solo career, Ike changed her stage name from "Little Ann" to "Tina Turner". Though small and skinny, Ike felt Bullock could be his "wonder woman" and imagined Bullock like his favorite TV show characters such as Nagoya, he named her Tina after another of his favorite characters, Queen of the Jungle. To assert control, Ike added his name, making the act "Ike and Tina Turner", though the young couple weren't married. Ike trademarked the name. In case Bullock left, he could hire another female artist and have her perform under the moniker of "Tina Turner". Ike completed the transformation by adding one of the Artettes, Robbie Montgomery, two other backing singers he hired, Venetta Fields and Jessie Smith, renaming them The Ikettes, inspired by Ray Charles' Raelettes.
When "A Fool in Love" was released in the summer of 1960, Ike booked his entire band under the name, "The Ike & Tina Turner Revue" venturing into a grueling series of one-nighters. "A Fool in Love" became an immediate hit after its release in the summe
Stax Records is an American record label based in Memphis, Tennessee. Founded in 1957 as Satellite Records, the label changed its name to Stax Records in 1961, it was influential in the creation of Southern soul and Memphis soul music. Stax released gospel and blues recordings. Renowned for its output of blues music, the label was founded by two siblings and business partners, Jim Stewart and his sister Estelle Axton, it featured several popular ethnically integrated bands and a racially integrated team of staff and artists unprecedented in that time of racial strife and tension in Memphis and the South. According to ethnomusicologist Rob Bowman, the label's use of "one studio, one equipment set-up, the same set of musicians and a small group of songwriters led to a identifiable sound, it was a sound based in black gospel, blues and earlier forms of rhythm and blues. It became known as southern soul music."Following the death of Stax's biggest star, Otis Redding, in 1967, the severance of the label's distribution deal with Atlantic Records in 1968, Stax continued under the supervision of a new co-owner, Al Bell.
Over the next five years, Bell expanded the label's operations in order to compete with Stax's main rival, Motown Records in Detroit. During the mid-1970s, a number of factors, including a problematic distribution deal with CBS Records, caused the label to slide into insolvency, resulting in its forced closure in late 1975. In 1977, Fantasy Records acquired selected pre-1968 recordings. Beginning in 1978, Stax began signing new acts and issuing new material, as well as reissuing recorded Stax material. However, by the early 1980s, no new material was being issued on the label, for the next two decades, Stax was a reissue label. After Concord Records acquired Fantasy in 2004, the Stax label was reactivated, is today used to issue both the 1968–1975 catalog material and new recordings by current R&B and soul performers. Atlantic Records continues to hold the rights to the vast majority of the 1959–1968 Stax material. Stax Records named Satellite Records, was founded in Memphis in 1957 by Jim Stewart operating in a garage.
Satellite's early releases were country music, rockabilly records or straight pop numbers, reflecting the tastes of Stewart at the time. In 1958, Stewart's sister Estelle Axton began her financial interest in the company. Taking a considerable financial risk, she mortgaged her family home to invest $2500 in the company, enabling Satellite to purchase an Ampex 350 mono console tape recorder; the company set up a small recording studio in Brunswick, Tennessee, in 1959. Around this time, Stewart was introduced to blues music by staff producer Chips Moman. In the summer of that year, Satellite released its first record by a rhythm and blues act, "Fool in Love", by the Veltones, soon picked up for national distribution by Mercury Records. However, Satellite remained a country and pop label for the next year or so. While promoting "Fool in Love," Stewart met with Memphis disc jockey and R&B singer Rufus Thomas, both parties were impressed by the other. Around the same time, at the urging of Chips Moman, Stewart moved the company back to Memphis and into an old movie theater, the former Capitol Theatre, at 926 East McLemore Avenue in South Memphis.
In the summer of 1960, Rufus Thomas and his daughter Carla were the first artists to make a recording in this new facility. It went on to sell between thirty and forty thousand copies, becoming Satellite's biggest hit to that time. With the success of "Cause I Love You", Stewart made a distribution deal giving Atlantic first choice on releasing Satellite recordings. From this point on, Stewart focused more on recording and promoting rhythm and blues acts. Not having known anything about the R&B genre prior to having recorded acts such as the Veltones and Rufus & Carla, Stewart likened the situation to that of "a blind man who gained his sight." From 1961 on all of the output of Satellite Records would be in the R&B/southern soul style. As part of the deal with Atlantic, Satellite agreed to continue recording Carla Thomas but allowed her recordings to be released on the Atlantic label, her first hit, "Gee Whiz", was issued as Satellite 104, but it was reissued as Atlantic 2086, becoming a hit in early 1961.
Her recordings would continue to be issued on Atlantic through mid-1965, though much of her work was recorded in the studios at Satellite or in Nashville under the supervision of the Stax staff. In June 1961, Satellite signed the Royal Spades. Changing their name to the Mar-Keys, the band recorded and issued the single "Last Night", which shot to #3 on the US pop charts and #2 on the R&B charts. "Last Night" was the first single to be nationally distributed on the Satellite label. This led to a complaint from another company named Satellite Records, in operation in California for some years but was unaware of the Memphis-based Satellite label. Accordingly, in September 1961, Satellite permanently changed its name to "Stax Records," a portmanteau of the names of the two owners of the company: Jim Stewart and Estelle Axton. By 1962, the pieces w
Got to Be There
Got to Be There is the debut studio album by Michael Jackson, released by Motown on January 24, 1972. It includes the song of the same name, released on October 7, 1971, as Jackson's debut solo single, it sold 900,000 copies over 3.2 million copies worldwide. The album was remastered and reissued in 2009 as part of the 3-disc compilation Hello World: The Motown Solo Collection; the title track and "Rockin' Robin" were commercially successful. Those two hits were back-to-back on the Hot 100 at Nos. 5 and 6 on April 8, 1972. Jackson's "I Wanna Be Where You Are" reached No. 27 on the U. S. chart on June 24, 1972. The album included remakes of Bill Withers' "Ain't No Sunshine", Carole King's "You've Got a Friend" and The Supremes' "Love Is Here and Now You're Gone"; the album's songs have a tempo ranging from 74 beats per minute on "Ain't No Sunshine", to 170 on "Rockin' Robin". The album was arranged by The Corporation, Eddy Manson, James Anthony Carmichael, Gene Page, Dave Blumberg. Berry Gordy was the executive producer and Jim Britt was credited for photography.
Rolling Stone - "..slick and every bit as good as the regular Jackson 5 product...a sweetly touching voice...innocence and utter professionalism...fascinating and irresistible.." Got to Be There peaked at No. 14 on the Billboard Pop Albums Chart and No. 3 on the Billboard R&B Albums. On August 2, 2013, the album was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America for sales of over 500,000 copies. To date, the album has sold 900,000 copies in the U. S. and 3.2 million copies worldwide
Motown Records is an American record label owned by Universal Music Group. It was founded by Berry Gordy Jr. as Tamla Records on January 12, 1959, was incorporated as Motown Record Corporation on April 14, 1960. Its name, a portmanteau of motor and town, has become a nickname for Detroit, where the label was headquartered. Motown played an important role in the racial integration of popular music as an African American–owned label that achieved significant crossover success. In the 1960s, Motown and its subsidiary labels were the most successful proponents of what came to be known as the Motown Sound, a style of soul music with a distinct pop influence. Motown was the most successful record label of soul music, with a net worth totaling $61 million. During the 1960s, Motown achieved spectacular success for a small label: 79 records in the top-ten of the Billboard Hot 100 between 1960 and 1969. Following the events of the Detroit Riots of 1967 and the loss of key songwriting/production team Holland-Dozier-Holland the same year over pay disputes, Gordy began relocating Motown to Los Angeles, California.
The move was completed in 1972, Motown expanded into film and television production, remaining an independent company until 1994, when it was sold to PolyGram before being sold again to MCA Records' successor Universal Music Group when it acquired PolyGram in 1999. Motown spent much of the 2000s headquartered in New York City as a part of the UMG subsidiaries Universal Motown and Universal Motown Republic Group. From 2011 to 2014, it was a part of The Island Def Jam Music Group division of Universal Music. In 2014, however, UMG announced the dissolution of Island Def Jam, Motown relocated back to Los Angeles to operate under the Capitol Music Group, now operating out of the landmark Capitol Tower. In 2018, Motown was inducted into Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame class at the Charles H. Wright Museum, Motown legend Martha Reeves received the award for the label. Berry Gordy got his start as a songwriter for local Detroit acts such as Jackie Wilson and the Matadors. Wilson's single "Lonely Teardrops", written by Gordy, became a huge success, but Gordy did not feel he made as much money as he deserved from this and other singles he wrote for Wilson.
He realized that the more lucrative end of the business was in producing records and owning the publishing. In 1959, Billy Davis and Berry Gordy's sisters Gwen and Anna started Anna Records. Davis and Gwen Gordy wanted Berry to be the company president, but Berry wanted to strike out on his own. On January 12, 1959, he started Tamla Records, with an $800 loan from his family and royalties earned writing for Jackie Wilson. Gordy wanted to name the label Tammy Records, after the hit song popularized by Debbie Reynolds from the 1957 film Tammy and the Bachelor, in which Reynolds starred; when he found the name was in use, Berry decided on Tamla instead. Tamla's first release, in the Detroit area, was Marv Johnson's "Come to Me" in 1959, its first hit was Barrett Strong's "Money". Gordy's first signed act was the Matadors, who changed their name to the Miracles in order to avoid confusion with the Matadors who recorded for Sue, their first release, "Got a Job", was an answer record to the Silhouettes' "Get a Job".
The Miracles' first, minor hit was their fourth single, 1959's "Bad Girl", released in Detroit as the debut record on the Motown imprint, nationally on the Chess label. Miracles lead. Several of Gordy's family members, including his father Berry Sr. brothers Robert and George, sister Esther, were given key roles in the company. By the middle of the decade and Anna Gordy had joined the label in administrative positions as well. Gordy's partner at the time, Raynoma Liles played a key role in the early days of Motown, leading the company's first session group, The Rayber Voices, overseeing the label's publishing arm, Jobete. In 1959, Gordy purchased the property that would become Motown's Hitsville U. S. A. studio. The photography studio located in the back of the property was modified into a small recording studio, the Gordys moved into the second-floor living quarters. Within seven years, Motown would occupy seven additional neighboring houses: Hitsville U. S. A. 1959 – administrative office, tape library, control room, Studio A.
Early Tamla/Motown artists included Eddie Holland and Mary Wells. "Shop Around", the Miracles
Minnie Julia Riperton-Rudolph, known professionally as Minnie Riperton, was an American singer-songwriter best known for her 1975 single "Lovin' You" and her four-octave coloratura soprano. She is widely known for her use of the whistle register and has been referred to by the media as the "Queen of the whistle register". Born in 1947, Riperton grew up in Chicago's Bronzeville neighborhood on the South Side; as a child, she studied music and dance at Chicago's Lincoln Center. In her teen years, she sang lead vocals for the Chicago-based girl group the Gems, her early affiliation with the legendary Chicago-based Chess Records afforded her the opportunity to sing backup for various established artists such as Etta James, Fontella Bass, Ramsey Lewis, Bo Diddley, Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters. While at Chess, Riperton sang lead for the experimental rock/soul group Rotary Connection, from 1967 to 1971. On April 5, 1975, Riperton reached the apex of her career with her No. 1 single "Lovin' You". The single was the last release from her 1974 gold album titled Perfect Angel.
In January 1976, Riperton was diagnosed with breast cancer and, in April, she underwent a radical mastectomy. By the time of diagnosis, the cancer had metastasized and she was given about six months to live. Despite the grim prognosis, she continued touring, she was one of the first celebrities to go public with her breast cancer diagnosis but did not disclose she was terminally ill. In 1977, she became a spokesperson for the American Cancer Society. In 1978, she received the American Cancer Society's Courage Award, presented to her at the White House by President Jimmy Carter. Riperton died of cancer on July 12, 1979 at age 31. Riperton was born in the daughter of Thelma Inez and Salleh Riperton, a Pullman porter; the youngest of eight children in a musical family, she embraced the arts early. Although she began with ballet and modern dance, her parents recognized her vocal and musical abilities and encouraged her to pursue music and voice. At Chicago's Lincoln Center, she received operatic vocal training from Marion Jeffery.
She practiced phrasing, with particular emphasis on diction. Jeffery trained Riperton to use her full range. While studying under Jeffery, she sang operettas and show tunes, in preparation for a career in opera. Jeffery was so convinced of her pupil's abilities that she pushed her to further study the classics at Chicago's Junior Lyric Opera; the young Riperton was, becoming interested in soul and blues, rock. After graduating from Hyde Park High School, she enrolled at Loop College and became a member of Zeta Phi Beta sorority, she dropped out of college to pursue her music career. Riperton's first professional singing engagement was with The Gems, when she was 15. Raynard Miner, a blind pianist, heard her singing during her stint with Hyde Park's A Cappella Choir and became her musical patron; the Gems had limited commercial success, but proved to be a good outlet for Riperton's talent. The group became a session group known as Studio Three and it was during this period that they provided the backing vocals on the classic 1965 Fontella Bass hit "Rescue Me".
In 1964, The Gems released a local hit, I Can't Help Myself, their last single, He Makes Me Feel So Good, was released in 1965. The Gems released records under numerous names—most notably 1966's Baby I Want You by the Girls Three and 1967's My Baby's Real by the Starlets; the latter remains a favorite. It was a Motown-style song reminiscent of Tammi Terrell. In 1968, Watered Down was released as a follow-up, under the name The Starlets, it was the last release of Riperton's former girl group. While a part of Studio Three, Riperton met her mentor, producer Billy Davis, who wrote her first local hit, "Lonely Girl", as well as "You Gave Me Soul". In honor of Davis, she used the pseudonym Andrea Davis for the release of those two singles; some months after her Andrea Davis singles hit radio, Riperton joined Rotary Connection, a funky rock-soul group creation of Marshall Chess, the son of Chess Records founder Leonard Chess. Rotary Connection consisted of Riperton, Judy Hauff, Sidney Barnes, Charles Stepney.
They released their debut in 1967 and five more albums: 1968's Aladdin. In 1969 Riperton, along with Rotary Connection, played in the first Catholic Rock Mass at the Liturgical Conference National Convention, Milwaukee Arena, Milwaukee, WI, produced by James F. Colaianni. Riperton's debut solo album entitled Come to My Garden was produced, arranged, as well as orchestrated by Charles Stepney and released in 1970 by GRT Records, she was presented as a solo artist by Ramsey Lewis on Saturday, December 26, 1970 at Chicago's famed London House. Riperton went on to perform several numbers from the album while accompanied by Stepney. Although commercially unsuccessful, Come to My Garden is now considered a masterpiece by music critics and many others in the music industry. In 1973, a college intern for Epic Records found Riperton in semi-retirement, she had become a mother of two in Gainesville, Florida. After he heard a demo of the song "Seeing You This Way", the rep took the tape to Don Ellis, VP of A&R for Epic.
Riperton signed with Epic Records, the family moved to Los Angeles, California. The subsequent record, Perfect Angel, turned out to be one of Riperton's best-selling albums. Included were the rock-soul anthem "Reasons".
Berry Gordy III is an American record executive, record producer, film producer and television producer. He is best known as the founder of the Motown record label and its subsidiaries, the highest-earning African-American business for decades. Berry Gordy III was born on November 28, 1929 in Detroit, to the middle-class family of Berry Gordy II, who had relocated to Detroit from Oconee in Washington County, Georgia, in 1922; the first Berry Gordy was the son of a white plantation owner, James Gordy, in Georgia and his female slave. His half-brother, was the grandfather of President Jimmy Carter. Berry Gordy II was lured to Detroit by the job opportunities for black people offered by the booming automotive businesses. Gordy Jr. developed his interest in music by writing songs and opening the 3-D Record Mart, a record store featuring jazz music and 3-D glasses. The store was unsuccessful, Gordy sought work at the Lincoln-Mercury plant, but his family connections put him in touch with Al Green, owner of the Flame Show Bar Talent Club, where he met the singer Jackie Wilson.
In 1957 Wilson recorded "Reet Petite", a song Gordy had co-written with his sister Gwen and writer-producer Billy Davis. It became a modest hit, but had more success internationally in the UK, where it reached the Top 10 and later topped the chart on re-issue in 1986. Wilson recorded six more songs co-written by Gordy over the next two years, including "Lonely Teardrops", which topped the R&B charts and got to number 7 in the pop chart; the Gordy siblings and Davis wrote "All I Could Do Was Cry" for Etta James at Chess Records. Gordy reinvested the profits from his songwriting success into producing. In 1957, he began building a portfolio of successful artists. In 1959, with the encouragement of Miracles leader Smokey Robinson, Gordy borrowed $800 from his family to create an R&B record company. Gordy wanted to name the new label Tammy Records, after the song recorded by Debbie Reynolds. However, that name was taken, he chose the name Tamla Records; the company began operating on January 12, 1959.
"Come to Me" by Marv Johnson was issued as Tamla 101. United Artists Records picked up "Come to Me" for national distribution, as well as Johnson's more successful follow-up records such as "You Got What It Takes", co-produced by Gordy, who received a co-writer credit, though the song was written and recorded by guitarist Bobby Parker for Vee Jay records a year and a half earlier. Gordy's next release was the only 45 issued on his Rayber label, featuring Wade Jones with an unnamed female backup group; the record is now one of the rarest issues from the Motown stable. Berry's third release was "Bad Girl" by the first release on the Motown record label. "Bad Girl" was a solid hit in 1959. Barrett Strong's "Money" appeared on Tamla and charted on Gordy's sister's label, Anna Records, in February 1960, it was The Miracles who gave the label its first million-selling hit single, with the 1960 Grammy Hall of Fame smash, "Shop Around" and this song, its follow up hits,"You've Really Got a Hold on Me", "Mickey's Monkey","What's So Good About Goodbye", "I'll Try Something New", made The Miracles the label's first stars.
The Tamla and Motown labels were merged into a new company, Motown Record Corporation, incorporated on April 14, 1960. In 1960, Gordy signed an unknown singer, Mary Wells, who became the fledgling label's second star, with Smokey Robinson penning her hits "You Beat Me to the Punch", "Two Lovers", "My Guy"; the Miracles' hit "Shop Around" peaked at No. 1 on the national R&B charts in late 1960 and at No. 2 on the Billboard pop charts on January 16, 1961, which established Motown as an independent company worthy of notice. In 1961, the Marvelettes' "Please Mr. Postman" made it to the top of both charts. Gordy's gift for identifying and bringing together musical talent, along with the careful management of his artists' public image, made Motown a major national and international success. Over the next decade, he signed such artists as the Supremes, Marvin Gaye, the Temptations, Jimmy Ruffin, the Contours, the Four Tops, Gladys Knight & the Pips, the Commodores, the Velvelettes and the Vandellas, Stevie Wonder and the Jackson 5.
Though he signed various white acts on the label, he promoted African-American artists but controlled their public image, dress and choreography for across-the-board appeal. In 1972, Gordy relocated to Los Angeles, where he produced the commercially successful biographical drama film on Billie Holiday, Lady Sings the Blues, starring Diana Ross, Richard Pryor, Billy Dee Williams; the studio, over Gordy's objections, rejected Williams after several screen tests. However, known for his tenacity prevailed, the film established Williams as a major movie star. Berry Gordy soon after produced and directed Mahogany starring Ross and Williams. In 1985, he produced the cult martial arts film The Last Dragon, which starred martial artist Taimak and one of Prince's proteges, Vanity. Although Motown continued to produce major hits throughout the 1970s and 1980s by artists including the Jacksons, Rick James, Lionel Richie and long-term signings S
A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument. Keyboards contain keys for playing the twelve notes of the Western musical scale, with a combination of larger, longer keys and smaller, shorter keys that repeats at the interval of an octave. Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine, plucking a string, causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell, or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit. Since the most encountered keyboard instrument is the piano, the keyboard layout is referred to as the piano keyboard; the twelve notes of the Western musical scale are laid out with the lowest note on the left. Because these keys were traditionally covered in ivory they are called the white notes or white keys; the keys for the remaining five notes—which are not part of the C major scale— are raised and shorter. Because these keys receive less wear, they are made of black colored wood and called the black notes or black keys.
The pattern repeats at the interval of an octave. The arrangement of longer keys for C major with intervening, shorter keys for the intermediate semitones dates to the 15th century. Many keyboard instruments dating from before the nineteenth century, such as harpsichords and pipe organs, have a keyboard with the colours of the keys reversed: the white notes are made of ebony and the black notes are covered with softer white bone. A few electric and electronic instruments from the 1960s and subsequent decades have done this; some 1960s electronic organs used reverse colors or gray sharps or naturals to indicate the lower part of a single keyboard divided into two parts, each controlling a different registration or sound. Such keyboards accommodate melody and contrasting accompaniment without the expense of a second manual, were a regular feature in Spanish and some English organs of the renaissance and baroque eras; the break was between middle C and C-sharp, or outside of Iberia between B and C.
Broken keyboards reappeared in 1842 with the harmonium, the split occurring at E4/F4. The reverse-colored keys on Hammond organs such as the B3, C3 and A100 are latch-style radio buttons for selecting pre-set sounds; the chromatic range of keyboard instruments has tended to increase. Harpsichords extended over five octaves in the 18th century, while most pianos manufactured since about 1870 have 88 keys; some modern pianos have more notes. While modern synthesizer keyboards have either 61, 76 or 88 keys, small MIDI controllers are available with 25 notes. Organs have 61 keys per manual, though some spinet models have 44 or 49. An organ pedalboard is a keyboard with long pedals played by the organist's feet. Pedalboards vary in size from 12 to 32 notes. In a typical keyboard layout, black note keys have uniform width, white note keys have uniform width and uniform spacing at the front of the keyboard. In the larger gaps between the black keys, the width of the natural notes C, D and E differ from the width of keys F, G, A and B.
This allows close to uniform spacing of 12 keys per octave while maintaining uniformity of seven "natural" keys per octave. Over the last three hundred years, the octave span distance found on historical keyboard instruments has ranged from as little as 125 mm to as much as 170 mm. Modern piano keyboards ordinarily have an octave span of 164–165 mm. Several reduced-size standards have been marketed. A 15/16 size and the 7/8 DS Standard keyboard developed by Christopher Donison in the 1970s and developed and marketed by Steinbuhler & Company. U. S. pianist Hannah Reimann has promoted piano keyboards with narrower octave spans and has a U. S. patent on the apparatus and methods for modifying existing pianos to provide interchangeable keyboards of different sizes. There have been variations in the design of the keyboard to address musical issues; the earliest designs of keyboards were based on the notes used in Gregorian chant and as such would include B♭ and B♮ both as diatonic "white notes," with the B♮ at the leftmost side of the keyboard and the B♭ at the rightmost.
Thus, an octave would have eight "white keys" and only four "black keys." The emphasis on these eight notes would continue for a few centuries after the "seven and five" system was adopted, in the form of the short octave: the eight aforementioned notes were arranged at the leftmost side of the keyboard, compressed in the keys between E and C. During the sixteenth century, when instruments were tuned in meantone temperament, some harpsichords were constructed with the G♯ and E♭ keys split into two. One portion of the G♯ key operated a string tuned to G♯ and the other operated a string tuned to A♭