Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics. The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to German/Dutch physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and widely regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics and it is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobels death. Through 2016, a total of 203 individuals have been awarded the prize, only two women have won the Nobel Prize in Physics, Marie Curie in 1903, and Maria Goeppert Mayer in 1963. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last one was written a year before he died and was signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his assets,31 million Swedish kronor, to establish.
Due to the level of surrounding the will, it was not until April 26,1897 that it was approved by the Storting. The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, the members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee who were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed, the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, the Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundations newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II, according to Nobels will, The Royal Swedish Academy of sciences were to award the Prize in Physics. A maximum of three Nobel laureates and two different works may be selected for the Nobel Prize in Physics, compared with other Nobel Prizes, the nomination and selection process for the prize in Physics is long and rigorous. This is a key reason why it has grown in importance over the years to become the most important prize in Physics, the Nobel laureates are selected by the Nobel Committee for Physics, a Nobel Committee that consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
In the first stage begins in September, around 3,000 people – selected university professors, Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry. The completed nomination forms arrive at the Nobel Committee no than 31 January of the following year and these nominees are scrutinized and discussed by experts who narrow it to approximately fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations on the candidates into the Academy. The Academy makes the selection of the Laureates in Physics through a majority vote. The names of the nominees are never announced, and neither are they told that they have been considered for the prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years, while posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can be made if the individual died in the months between the decision of the prize committee and the ceremony in December
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from small amounts of matter. The first test of a bomb released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 10 million tons of TNT, a thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can produce an explosive force comparable to the detonation of more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate a city by blast, fire. Nuclear weapons are considered weapons of destruction, and their use. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in nuclear warfare, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II, the bombings resulted in the deaths of approximately 200,000 civilians and military personnel from acute injuries sustained from the explosions.
The ethics of the bombings and their role in Japans surrender remain the subject of scholarly, since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated on over two thousand occasions for the purposes of testing and demonstration. Only a few nations possess such weapons or are suspected of seeking them, israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Turkey and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states, south Africa is the only country to have independently developed and renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons. Modernisation of weapons continues to occur, all existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is exclusively from fission reactions are commonly referred to as bombs or atom bombs. This has long noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom.
The latter approach is considered more sophisticated than the former and only the approach can be used if the fissile material is plutonium. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself. The amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards of 500,000 tons of TNT, all fission reactions necessarily generate fission products, the radioactive remains of the atomic nuclei split by the fission reactions. Many fission products are highly radioactive or moderately radioactive. Fission products are the radioactive component of nuclear fallout
James Franck was a German physicist who won the 1925 Nobel Prize for Physics with Gustav Hertz for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom. He served as a volunteer in the German Army during World War I and he was seriously injured in 1917 in a gas attack and was awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class. Franck became the Head of the Physics Division of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft for Physical Chemistry, in 1920, Franck became professor ordinarius of experimental physics and Director of the Second Institute for Experimental Physics at the University of Göttingen. While there he worked on quantum physics with Max Born, who was Director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics and his work included the Franck–Hertz experiment, an important confirmation of the Bohr model of the atom. He promoted the careers of women in physics, notably Lise Meitner, Hertha Sponer, after the NSDAP came to power in Germany in 1933, Franck resigned his post in protest against the dismissal of fellow academics.
He assisted Frederick Lindemann in helping dismissed Jewish scientists find work overseas, after a year at the Niels Bohr Institute in Denmark, he moved to the United States, where he worked at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and the University of Chicago. During this period he became interested in photosynthesis, Franck participated in the Manhattan Project during World War II as Director of the Chemistry Division of the Metallurgical Laboratory. James Franck was born in Hamburg, Germany, on 26 August 1882, the child and first son of Jacob Franck, a banker. He had a sister, and a younger brother. His father was a devout and religious man, while his mother came from a family of rabbis, Franck attended primary school in Hamburg. Starting in 1891 he attended the Wilhelm-Gymnasium, which was a boys-only school, Hamburg had no university then, so prospective students had to attend one of the 22 universities elsewhere in Germany. Intending to study law and economics, Franck entered the University of Heidelberg in 1901 and he attended lectures on law, but was far more interested in those on science.
While there, he met Max Born, who would become a lifelong friend, with Borns help, he was able to persuade his parents to allow him to switch to studying physics and chemistry. Franck attended mathematics lectures by Leo Königsberger and Georg Cantor, but Heidelberg was not strong on the physical sciences, at Berlin, Franck attended lectures by Max Planck and Emil Warburg. On 28 July 1904 he saved a pair of children from drowning in the Spree River, for his Doctor of Philosophy under Warburgs supervision, Warburg suggested that he study corona discharges. Franck found this topic too complex, so he changed the focus of his thesis, entitled Über der Beweglichkeit Ladungsträger der Spitzenentladung, it would subsequently be published in the Annalen der Physik. With his thesis completed, Franck had to perform his military service. He was called up on 1 October 1906 and joined the 1st Telegraph Battalion and he suffered a minor horse riding accident in December and was discharged as unfit for duty
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is a colorless, odorless gas found in the Earths atmosphere in trace amounts. Although generally unreactive, xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps, and as a general anesthetic. The first excimer laser used a xenon dimer molecule as the lasing medium. Xenon is used to search for hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles, naturally occurring xenon consists of eight stable isotopes. More than 40 unstable xenon isotopes undergo radioactive decay, and the ratios of xenon are an important tool for studying the early history of the Solar System. Radioactive xenon-135 is produced by beta decay from iodine-135, and is the most significant neutron absorber in nuclear reactors, Xenon was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in September 1898, shortly after their discovery of the elements krypton and neon.
They found xenon in the left over from evaporating components of liquid air. Ramsay suggested the name xenon for this gas from the Greek word ξένον, neuter singular form of ξένος, meaning foreign, strange, in 1902, Ramsay estimated the proportion of xenon in the Earths atmosphere to be one part in 20 million. During the 1930s, American engineer Harold Edgerton began exploring strobe light technology for high speed photography and this led him to the invention of the xenon flash lamp in which light is generated by passing brief electric current through a tube filled with xenon gas. In 1934, Edgerton was able to generate flashes as brief as one microsecond with this method, in 1939, American physician Albert R. Behnke Jr. began exploring the causes of drunkenness in deep-sea divers. He tested the effects of varying the breathing mixtures on his subjects, from his results, he deduced that xenon gas could serve as an anesthetic. Xenon was first used as an anesthetic in 1951 by American anesthesiologist Stuart C.
Cullen, who used it with two patients. Xenon and the noble gases were for a long time considered to be completely chemically inert. Since O2 and xenon have almost the same first ionization potential, on March 23,1962, he mixed the two gases and produced the first known compound of a noble gas, xenon hexafluoroplatinate. Bartlett thought its composition to be Xe+−, but revealed that it was probably a mixture of various xenon-containing salts. By 1971, more than 80 xenon compounds were known, in November 1989, IBM scientists demonstrated a technology capable of manipulating individual atoms
New York University
New York University is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City. Founded in 1831, NYU is considered one of the worlds most influential research universities, University rankings compiled by Times Higher Education, U. S. News & World Report, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities all rank NYU amongst the top 32 universities in the world. NYU is a part of the creativity and vibrancy that is Manhattan, located with its core in Greenwich Village. Among its faculty and alumni are 37 Nobel Laureates, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, over 30 Academy Award winners, alumni include heads of state, eminent mathematicians, media figures, Olympic medalists, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, and astronauts. NYU alumni are among the wealthiest in the world, according to The Princeton Review, NYU is consistently considered by students and parents as a Top Dream College. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish in this immense, a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all.
A three-day-long literary and scientific convention held in City Hall in 1830 and these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18,1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the merchants, bankers. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institutions first president, the university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was officially renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, in 1835, the School of Law, NYUs first professional school, was established. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU and it became one of the nations largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding, the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus.
NYU had a desire to follow New York Citys development further uptown, NYUs move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken. The University Heights campus was far more spacious than its predecessor was, as a result, most of the universitys operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYUs administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead and this extension would become a fully independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the citys institutions, including NYU
University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. It holds top-ten positions in national and international rankings and measures. The university currently enrolls approximately 5,700 students in the College, Chicagos physics department helped develop the worlds first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of universitys Stagg Field. The university is home to the University of Chicago Press. With an estimated date of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university. Both Harper and future president Robert Maynard Hutchins advocated for Chicagos curriculum to be based upon theoretical and perennial issues rather than on applied sciences, the University of Chicago has many prominent alumni. 92 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, faculty, or staff, similarly,34 faculty members and 16 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur “Genius Grant”. Rockefeller on land donated by Marshall Field, while the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings.
The original physical campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B, Cobb who provided the funds for the campus first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, and matched Marshall Fields pledge of $100,000. Organized as an independent institution legally, it replaced the first Baptist university of the same name, william Rainey Harper became the modern universitys first president on July 1,1891, and the university opened for classes on October 1,1892. The business school was founded thereafter in 1898, and the law school was founded in 1902, Harper died in 1906, and was replaced by a succession of three presidents whose tenures lasted until 1929. During this period, the Oriental Institute was founded to support, in 1896, the university affiliated with Shimer College in Mount Carroll, Illinois. The agreement provided that either party could terminate the affiliation on proper notice, several University of Chicago professors disliked the program, as it involved uncompensated additional labor on their part, and they believed it cheapened the academic reputation of the university.
The program passed into history by 1910, in 1929, the universitys fifth president, Robert Maynard Hutchins, took office, the university underwent many changes during his 24-year tenure. In 1933, Hutchins proposed a plan to merge the University of Chicago. During his term, the University of Chicago Hospitals finished construction, the Committee on Social Thought, an institution distinctive of the university, was created. Money that had been raised during the 1920s and financial backing from the Rockefeller Foundation helped the school to survive through the Great Depression, during World War II, the university made important contributions to the Manhattan Project. The university was the site of the first isolation of plutonium and of the creation of the first artificial, in the early 1950s, student applications declined as a result of increasing crime and poverty in the Hyde Park neighborhood
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football.
The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball.
An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time. Climate change may refer to a change in weather conditions. Climate change is caused by such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics. Certain human activities have identified as significant causes of recent climate change. Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations, more recent data are provided by the instrumental record. The most general definition of change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, the term climate change is often used to refer specifically to anthropogenic climate change. Anthropogenic climate change is caused by activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earths natural processes.
In this sense, especially in the context of environmental policy, within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect. A related term is climatic change, in 1966, the World Meteorological Organization proposed the term climatic change to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, regardless of cause. Change was a given and climatic was used as an adjective to describe this kind of change, when it was realized that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate, the term climate change replaced climatic change as the dominant term to reflect an anthropogenic cause. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate change, used as a noun, became an issue rather than the technical description of changing weather. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and this energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.
Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or forcing mechanisms, there are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing. Some parts of the system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more slowly in reaction to climate forcings. There are key factors which when exceeded can produce rapid change. Forcing mechanisms can be internal or external. Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the system itself
Princeton, New Jersey
As of the 2010 United States Census, the municipalitys population was 28,572, reflecting the former townships population of 16,265, along with the 12,307 in the former borough. Princeton was founded before the American Revolution and is best known as the location of Princeton University, Princeton is roughly equidistant from New York City and Philadelphia. It is close to major highways that serve both cities, and receives major television and radio broadcasts from each. It is close to Trenton, New Jerseys capital city, the governor of New Jerseys official residence has been in Princeton since 1945, when Morven in the borough became the first Governors mansion. It was replaced by the larger Drumthwacket, a mansion located in the former Township. Morven became a property of the New Jersey Historical Society. Princeton was ranked 15th of the top 100 towns in the United States to Live, although residents of Princeton traditionally have a strong community-wide identity, the community had been composed of two separate municipalities, a township and a borough.
The central borough was completely surrounded by the township, the Borough contained Nassau Street, the main commercial street, most of the University campus, and incorporated most of the urban area until the postwar suburbanization. The Borough and Township had roughly equal populations, the Lenni Lenape Native Americans were the earliest identifiable inhabitants of the Princeton area. Europeans founded their settlement in the part of the 17th century. The first European to find his home in the boundaries of the town was Henry Greenland. He built his house in 1683 along with a tavern, in this drinking hole representatives of West Jersey and East Jersey met to set boundaries for the location of the township. Originally, Princeton was known only as part of nearby Stony Brook, James Leonard first referred to the town as Princetown, when describing the location of his large estate in his diary. The town bore a variety of names subsequently, Princetown, Princes Town, although there is no official documentary backing, the town is considered to be named after King William III, Prince William of Orange of the House of Nassau.
Another theory suggests that the name came from a large land-owner named Henry Prince, a royal prince seems a more likely eponym for the settlement, as three nearby towns had similar names, Kingston and Princessville. When Richard Stockton, one of the founders of the township, died in 1709 he left his estate to his sons, who helped to expand property, based on the 1880 United States Census, the population of the town comprised 3,209 persons. Local population has expanded from the nineteenth century, according to the 2010 Census, Princeton Borough had 12,307 inhabitants, while Princeton Township had 16,265. Aside from housing the university of the name, the settlement suffered the revolutionary Battle of Princeton on its soil
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions, therefore, it is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite or more correctly highly oriented pyrolytic graphite refers to graphite with a spread between the graphite sheets of less than 1°. The name graphite fiber is sometimes used to refer to carbon fibers or carbon fiber-reinforced polymer. Graphite occurs in rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds during metamorphism. It occurs in rocks and in meteorites. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz, calcite and tourmaline, in meteorites it occurs with troilite and silicate minerals. Small graphitic crystals in meteoritic iron are called cliftonite, Graphite is not mined in the United States, but U. S. production of synthetic graphite in 2010 was 134 kt valued at $1.07 billion.
Graphite has a layered, planar structure, the individual layers are called graphene. In each layer, the atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice with separation of 0.142 nm. Atoms in the plane are bonded covalently, with three of the four potential bonding sites satisfied. The fourth electron is free to migrate in the plane, making graphite electrically conductive, however, it does not conduct in a direction at right angles to the plane. Bonding between layers is via weak van der Waals bonds, which allows layers of graphite to be easily separated, the two known forms of graphite and beta, have very similar physical properties, except for that the graphene layers stack slightly differently. The alpha graphite may be flat or buckled. The alpha form can be converted to the form through mechanical treatment. The acoustic and thermal properties of graphite are highly anisotropic, since phonons propagate quickly along the tightly-bound planes, graphites high thermal stability and electrical and thermal conductivity facilitate its widespread use as electrodes and refractories in high temperature material processing applications.
However, in oxygen containing atmospheres graphite readily oxidizes to form CO2 at temperatures of 700 °C, Graphite is an electric conductor, useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. It can conduct electricity due to the vast electron delocalization within the carbon layers and these valence electrons are free to move, so are able to conduct electricity
University of Colorado Boulder
The University of Colorado Boulder is a public research university located in Boulder, United States. It is the university of the University of Colorado system and was founded five months before Colorado was admitted to the Union in 1876. In 2015, the university consisted of nine colleges and schools and offered over 150 academic programs, twelve Nobel Laureates, nine MacArthur Fellows, and 20 astronauts have been affiliated with CU Boulder as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. The university received nearly $454 million in sponsored research in 2010 to fund programs like the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, the Colorado Buffaloes compete in 17 varsity sports and are members of the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference. The Buffaloes have won 28 national championships,20 in skiing, seven total in mens and womens cross country, approximately 1,500 students participate in 34 intercollegiate club sports annually as well. Two cities competed for the site of the University of Colorado, the consolation prize for the losing city was to be home of the new Colorado State Prison.
Cañon City was at a disadvantage as it was already the home of the Colorado Territorial Prison, the cornerstone of the building that became Old Main was laid on September 20,1875. The doors of the university opened on September 5,1877, at the time, there were few high schools in the state that could adequately prepare students for university work, so in addition to the University, a preparatory school was formed on campus. In the fall of 1877, the student body consisted of 15 students in the proper and 50 students in the preparatory school. There were 38 men and 27 women, and their ages ranged from 12–23 years, during World War II, Colorado was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission. The main CU Boulder campus is located south of the Pearl Street Mall and it consists of academic and residential buildings as well as research facilities. The East Campus is about a mile from the main campus and is composed mainly of athletic fields.
CU Boulders distinctive architecture style, known as Tuscan Vernacular Revival, was designed by architect Charles Klauder. A month or so after approval, Klauder updated his design by sketching in a new wrap of rough, textured sandstone walls with sloping, multi-leveled red-tiled roofs and Indiana limestone trim. This formed the basis of a style which was used in the design of fifteen other buildings between 1921 and 1939. The sandstone used in the construction of all the buildings on campus was selected from a variety of front range mountain quarries. In 2011, Travel+Leisure named the Boulder campus as one of the most beautiful campuses in the United States. Currently Freshmen and others attending the University of Colorado Boulder have an option of 24 on-, Residence halls have 17 varieties of room types from singles to four-person rooms and others with apartment style amenities
Enrico Fermi was an Italian physicist, who created the worlds first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the architect of the age and the architect of the atomic bomb. He was one of the few physicists to excel both theoretically and experimentally and he made significant contributions to the development of quantum theory and particle physics, and statistical mechanics. Fermis first major contribution was to statistical mechanics, particles that obey the exclusion principle are called fermions. Later Pauli postulated the existence of an invisible particle emitted along with an electron during beta decay. Fermi took up this idea, developing a model that incorporated the postulated particle and his theory, referred to as Fermis interaction and still as weak interaction, described one of the four fundamental forces of nature. Fermi left Italy in 1938 to escape new Italian Racial Laws that affected his Jewish wife Laura Capon and he emigrated to the United States where he worked on the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Fermi led the team designed and built Chicago Pile-1, which went critical on 2 December 1942. He was on hand when the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge, went critical in 1943, at Los Alamos he headed F Division, part of which worked on Edward Tellers thermonuclear Super bomb. He was present at the Trinity test on 16 July 1945, after the war, Fermi served under J. Robert Oppenheimer on the General Advisory Committee, which advised the Atomic Energy Commission on nuclear matters and policy. Following the detonation of the first Soviet fission bomb in August 1949 and he was among the scientists who testified on Oppenheimers behalf at the 1954 hearing that resulted in the denial of the latters security clearance. Enrico Fermi was born in Rome, Italy, on 29 September 1901 and he was the third child of Alberto Fermi, a division head in the Ministry of Railways, and Ida de Gattis, an elementary school teacher. His only sister, was two years older than he was, and his brother Giulio was a year older, after the two boys were sent to a rural community to be wet nursed, Enrico rejoined his family in Rome when he was two and a half.
Although he was baptised a Roman Catholic in accordance with his grandparents wishes, his family was not particularly religious, as a young boy he shared the same interests as his brother Giulio, building electric motors and playing with electrical and mechanical toys. Giulio died during the administration of an anesthetic for an operation on a throat abscess in 1915, one of Fermis first sources for his study of physics was a book he found at the local market at Campo de Fiori in Rome. Published in 1840, the 900-page Elementorum physicae mathematicae, was written in Latin by Jesuit Father Andrea Caraffa and it covered mathematics, classical mechanics, astronomy and acoustics, insofar as these disciplines were understood when the book was written. Fermis interest in physics was encouraged by his fathers colleague Adolfo Amidei, who gave him several books on physics and mathematics. Fermi graduated from school in July 1918 and, at Amideis urging