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Leonids

The Leonids are a prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Tempel–Tuttle, which are known for their spectacular meteor storms that occur about every 33 years. The Leonids get their name from the location of their radiant in the constellation Leo: the meteors appear to radiate from that point in the sky, their proper Greek name should be Leontids, but the word was constructed as a Greek/Latin hybrid and it has been used since. They peak in the month of November. Earth moves through the meteoroid stream of particles left from the passages of a comet; the stream comprises solid particles, known as meteoroids, ejected by the comet as its frozen gases evaporate under the heat of the Sun when it is close enough – closer than Jupiter's orbit. The Leonids are a fast moving stream which encounter the path of impact at 72 km/s. Larger Leonids which are about 10 mm across have a mass of half a gram and are known for generating bright meteors. An annual Leonid shower may deposit 13 tons of particles across the entire planet.

The meteoroids left by the comet are organized in trails in orbits similar to—though different from—that of the comet. They are differentially disturbed by the planets, in particular Jupiter and to a lesser extent by radiation pressure from the sun, the Poynting–Robertson effect, the Yarkovsky effect; these trails of meteoroids cause meteor showers. Old trails are spatially not compose the meteor shower with a few meteors per minute. In the case of the Leonids, that tends to peak around November 18, but some are spread through several days on either side and the specific peak changes every year. Conversely, young trails are spatially dense and the cause of meteor outbursts when the Earth enters one; the Leonids produce meteor storms about every 33 years, which exceed 1,000 meteors per hour, in contrast to the sporadic background and the shower background. The Leonids are famous because storms, can be among the most spectacular; because of the storm of 1833 and the recent developments in scientific thought of the time, the Leonids have had a major effect on the development of the scientific study of meteors, thought to be atmospheric phenomena.

Although it has been suggested the Leonid meteor shower and storms have been noted in ancient times, it was the meteor storm of 1833 that broke into people's modern day awareness – it was of superlative strength. One estimate of the peak rate is over one hundred thousand meteors an hour, but another, done as the storm abated, estimated in excess of 240,000 meteors during the nine hours of the storm, over the entire region of North America east of the Rocky Mountains, it was marked by several nations of Native Americans: the Cheyenne established a peace treaty and the Lakota calendar was reset. Abolitionists including Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass as well as slave-owners took note and others; the New York Evening Post carried a series of articles on the event including reports from Canada to Jamaica, it made news in several states beyond New York and though it appeared in North America was talked about in Europe. The journalism of the event tended to rise above the partisan debates of the time and reviewed facts as they could be sought out.

Abraham Lincoln commented on it years later. Near Independence, Missouri, in Clay County, a refugee Mormon community watched the meteor shower on the banks of the Missouri River after having been driven from their homes by local settlers; the founder and first leader of Mormonism, Joseph Smith, afterwards noted in his journal his belief that this event was a literal fulfillment of the word of God and a sure sign that the coming of Christ was close at hand. Though it was noted in the midwest and eastern areas it was noted in the far west. Denison Olmsted explained the event most accurately. After spending the last weeks of 1833 collecting information, he presented his findings in January 1834 to the American Journal of Science and Arts, published in January–April 1834, January 1836, he noted the shower was of short duration and was not seen in Europe, that the meteors radiated from a point in the constellation of Leo and he speculated the meteors had originated from a cloud of particles in space.

Accounts of the 1866 repeat of the Leonids counted hundreds per minute/a few thousand per hr in Europe. The Leonids were again seen in 1867. Another strong appearance of the Leonids in 1868 reached an intensity of 1000 per hour in dark skies, it was in 1866–67 that information on Comet Tempel-Tuttle was gathered pointing it out as the source of the meteor shower. When the storms failed to return in 1899, it was thought that the dust had moved on and storms were a thing of the past. In 1966, a spectacular storm was seen over the Americas. Historical notes were gathered thus noting the Leonids back to 900AD. Radar studies showed the 1966 storm included a high percentage of smaller particles while 1965's lower activity had a much higher proportion of larger particles. In 1981 Donald K. Yeomans of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory reviewed the history of meteor showers for the Leonids and the history of the dynamic orbit of Comet Tempel-Tuttle. A graph from it was re-published in Sky and Telescope, it showed relative positions of the Earth and Tempel-Tuttle and marks where Earth encountered dense dust.

This showed that the meteoroids are behind and outside the path of the comet, but paths of the Earth through the cloud of particles resulting in powerful storms were nea

The Robertson Advocate

The Robertson Advocate was an English language broadsheet newspaper published twice weekly, on Tuesdays and Fridays, in Mittagong, New South Wales, Australia. In 1924 the paper changed its name to The Robertson Mail; the paper is thought to have commenced publication some time before January 1888, it continued under the same title until 28 December 1923. Beneath the title the banner reads: "Kangaloon, Wild's Meadow, Kangaroo Valley Times"; the last issue of the paper under its original title was Vol. 38 No. 101. The paper was subsequently published under the title of The Robertson Mail from January 1924 until 28 February 1930. Both The Robertson Advocate and The Robertson Mail have been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program project of the National Library of Australia. Robertson Advocate at Trove Robertson Mail at Trove

Romeo y Julieta (cigar)

Romeo y Julieta is the name of two brands of premium cigar, one produced on the island of Cuba for Habanos SA, the Cuban state-owned tobacco company, the other produced in La Romana, Dominican Republic for Altadis SA, a division of Imperial Tobacco. The Romeo y Julieta marque was established in 1875 by Manin Garcia; the brand is the Spanish name for Shakespeare's famous tragedy and Juliet. Between 1885 and 1900, the brand won numerous awards at different tasting exhibitions. However, the brand bloomed after it was acquired by Jose "Pepin" Rodriguez Fernandez, former head of the Cabañas factory in Havana, his firm, Rodríguez, Argüelles y Cia, in 1903. Being a cosmopolitan man, Rodriguez travelled across Europe and the Americas promoting his brand, entering his horse, the aptly named Julieta, in racing events across the world; as a result of his salesmanship, the brand became exceptionally popular around the world among wealthy customers, many of whom demanded personalized bands for their cigars.

At its height, as many as 2000 personalized cigar bands were produced for customers. The branded was known at this time for specializing in figurado cigars, such as perfectos and pirámides, with over a thousand such shapes believed to have been in production. Sir Winston Churchill was the brand's most famous devotee; the flagship vitola of the brand is named in his honor, a long 7" by 47 ring gauge cigar known as the Churchill. After Rodriguez's death in 1954, the revolution, the subsequent nationalization of the tobacco industry, the brand was moved to La Romana in the Dominican Republic, where production of a Romeo y Julieta cigar for the American market continues today under the direction of Altadis SA; the Cuban government nationalized the brand and still produces and distributes it worldwide as one of its top-selling global brands. The following list of vitolas de salida within the Romeo y Julieta marque lists their size and ring gauge in Imperial, their vitolas de galera, their common name in American cigar slang.

Hand-Made Vitolas Belicoso - 5​1⁄2" × 52, Campana, a belicoso Belvedere - 4​7⁄8" × 39, Belvedere, a short panetela Cazadores - 6​3⁄8" x 44, a lonsdale Cedro de Luxe No. 1 - 6​1⁄2" × 42, Cervantes, a lonsdale Cedro de Luxe No. 2 - 5​5⁄8" × 42, Corona, a corona Cedro de Luxe No. 3 - 5​1⁄8" × 42, Mareva, a petit corona Churchill - 7" × 47, Julieta No. 2, a churchill Corona - 5​5⁄8" × 42, Corona, a corona Coronita en Cedro - 5​1⁄8" × 40, Petit Cetro, a petit corona Exhibición No. 3 - 5​5⁄8" × 46, Corona Gorda, a grand corona Exhibición No. 4 - 5" × 48, Hermoso No. 4, a corona extra Petit Corona - 5​1⁄8" × 42, Mareva, a petit corona Petit Julieta - 3​7⁄8" × 30, Entreacto, a small panetela Petit Princess - 4" × 40, Perlas, a petit corona Regalía de Londres - 4​5⁄8" × 40, Coronita, a petit corona Romeo No. 1 - 5​1⁄2" × 40, Crema, a corona Romeo No. 2 - 5​1⁄8" × 42, Petit Corona, a petit corona Romeo No. 3 - 4​5⁄8" × 40, Coronita, a petit corona Short Churchill - 4​7⁄8" × 50, Robusto, a robusto Sport Largo - 4​5⁄8" × 35, Sport, a short panetela Wide Churchill - 5​1⁄8" × 55 MontescoEdición Limitada Releases Exhibición No. 2 - 7​5⁄8" × 49, Prominente, a double corona Robusto - 4​7⁄8" × 50, Robusto, a robusto Hermoso No. 1 - 6​1⁄2" × 48, Hermoso No.

1, a grand corona Hermoso No. 2 - 6 1⁄8" × Hermoso No. 2, a grand corona Petit Pirámide - 5" × 50, Petit Pirámide, a petit pyramid Escudo - 5​1⁄2" × 50 Gordito, a robusto extra Duke - 5​1⁄2" × 54 Duke, a robusto extra Cigar brands Romeo y Julieta Gerald Garson, a judge bribed, in part, with Romeo y Julieta cigars Nee, Min Ron - An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Post-Revolution Havana Cigars, ISBN 3-9809308-2-3 Official website of Habanos S. A. Official website of Romeo y Julieta- Altadis The Color and Complexity of Cuba's Cigars CNN, April 9, 2007