Dianthus is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native to Europe and Asia, with a few species extending south to north Africa, one species in arctic North America. Common names include carnation and sweet william; the species are herbaceous perennials, a few are annual or biennial, some are low subshrubs with woody basal stems. The leaves are opposite, simple linear and strongly glaucous grey-green to blue-green; the flowers have five petals with a frilled or pinked margin, are pale to dark pink. One species, D. knappii, has yellow flowers with a purple centre. Some species the perennial pinks, are noted for their strong spicy fragrance. Hybrids include; the color pink may be named after the flower, coming from the frilled edge of the flowers: the verb "to pink" dates from the 14th century and means "to decorate with a perforated or punched pattern". As is demonstrated by the name of "pinking shears", special scissors for cloth that create a zigzag or decorative edge that discourages fraying.
Dianthus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Cabbage Moth, Double-striped Pug, Large Yellow Underwing and The Lychnis. Three species of Coleophora case-bearers feed on Dianthus. Since 1717, dianthus species have been extensively bred and hybridised to produce many thousands of cultivars for garden use and floristry, in all shades of white, pink and red, with a huge variety of flower shapes and markings, they are divided into the following main groups:- Border carnations – hardy, growing to 60 cm, large blooms Perpetual flowering carnations – grown under glass, flowering throughout the year used for exhibition purposes, growing to 150 cm Malmaison carnations – derived from the variety'Souvenir de la Malmaison', growing to 70 cm, grown for their intense "clove" fragrance Old-fashioned pinks – older varieties. In the language of flowers, pink Dianthus symbolize boldness. Dianthus gratianopolitanus – the Cheddar Pink – was chosen as the County flower of Somerset in 2002 following a poll by the wild flora conservation charity Plantlife.
"Dianthus Japonicus" is the official flower of Kanagawa Japan. List of Award of Garden Merit dianthus The Plant List Data related to Dianthus at Wikispecies The dictionary definition of dianthus at Wiktionary
Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann Nielebock, known as Herms Niel, was a German composer of military songs and marches. Upon finishing school in 1902, Niel completed his apprenticeship with the Genthin choirmaster Adolf Büchner. In October 1906, he joined the Imperial German Army and was admitted as a trombonist and oboist in the 1st Infantry Regiment of the Guard in Potsdam. During the First World War, he was bandmaster of the 423rd German Infantry Regiment. In 1919, he was demobilized and worked as an official in the administration until 1927; that same year, he co-founded in Potsdam the Ritterschaftsorchester, where he was composer and lyricist. After the Nazis seized power, Niel, in 1934, joined their party as member 2,171,788, he became a Sturmabteilung troop leader, before receiving a promotion to band leader of the Reicharbeitsdienst training establishment in Potsdam. During the period of National Socialism, he dedicated himself to composing marches and songs, which were popularized by the NSDAP and distributed on all fronts of the Second World War.
At the Nazi party rallies in Nuremberg he was the conductor of all RAD music bands. Niel invented and designed a fanfare trumpet, known as the Herms Neil-Doppelfanfare, in E and B flat, manufactured in 1938 by Ernst Hess Nachf. an accordion factory in Klingenthal. During the postwar era, Niel lived in Lingen, where he died in 1954. "Adlerlied" "Antje, mein blondes Kind" "Das Engellandlied", lyrics: Hermann Löns) "Die ganze Kompanie" "Du Schönste von Städtel, schwarzbraunes Mädel" "Es blitzen die stählernen Schwingen" "Erika" "Es geht ums Vaterland" "Es ist so schön, Soldat zu sein, Rosemarie "Edelweiß-Marsch "Fallschirmjägerlied "Fliegerkuss "Frühmorgens singt die Amsel "Gerda – Ursula – Marie "Hannelore Marschlied "Heut´ sind wir wieder unter uns "Heut’ stechen wir ins blaue Meer "Heute muß ich scheiden "Im Osten pfeift der Wind "In der Heimat steh’n auf Posten "Jawoll, das stimmt, jawoll "Kamerad, wir marschieren gen Westen "Liebchen adé" "Liebling, wenn ich traurig bin…" "Marie - Mara - Maruschkaka!"
"Matrosenlied" "Mein Bismarckland" "Mit Mercedes Benz voran" "Rosalinde" "Rosemarie" "Ruck Zuck" "Stuka über Afrika" "Unsere Flagge" "Veronika - Marie" "Waltraut ist ein schönes Mädchen" "Wenn die Sonne scheint, Annemarie" Brief biography of Herms Niel Herms Niel in postcards, University of Osnabrück List of songs at Deutscheslied.com
Asterales is an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants that includes the large family Asteraceae known for composite flowers made of florets, ten families related to the Asteraceae. The order is a cosmopolite, includes herbaceous species, although a small number of trees and shrubs are present. Asterales are organisms. Asterales share characteristics on biochemical levels. Synapomorphies include the presence in the plants of oligosaccharide inulin, a nutrient storage molecule used instead of starch; the stamens are found around the style, either aggregated densely or fused into a tube an adaptation in association with the plunger pollination, common among the families of the order, wherein pollen is collected and stored on the length of the pistil. The name and order Asterales is botanically venerable, dating back to at least 1926 in the Hutchinson system of plant taxonomy when it contained only five families, of which only two are retained in the APG III classification. Under the Cronquist system of taxonomic classification of flowering plants, Asteraceae was the only family in the group, but newer systems have expanded it to 11.
In the classification system of Dahlgren the Asterales were in the superorder Asteriflorae. The order Asterales includes 11 families, the largest of which are the Asteraceae, with about 25,000 species, the Campanulaceae, with about 2,000 species; the remaining families count together for less than 1500 species. The two large families are cosmopolitan, with many of their species found in the Northern Hemisphere, the smaller families are confined to Australia and the adjacent areas, or sometimes South America. Only the Asteraceae have composite flower heads; the phylogenetic tree according to APG III for the Campanulid clade is as below. The core Asterales are Stylidiaceae, APA clade, MGCA clade, Asteraceae. Other Asterales are Rousseaceae and Pentaphragmataceae. All Asterales families are represented in the Southern Hemisphere. Although most extant species of Asteraceae are herbaceous, the examination of the basal members in the family suggests that the common ancestor of the family was an arborescent plant, a tree or shrub adapted to dry conditions, radiating from South America.
Less can be said about the Asterales themselves with certainty, although since several families in Asterales contain trees, the ancestral member is most to have been a tree or shrub. Because all clades are represented in the southern hemisphere but many not in the northern hemisphere, it is natural to conjecture that there is a common southern origin to them. Asterales are angiosperms; the Asterales order originated in the Cretaceous on the supercontinent Gondwana which broke up from 184 – 80 Mya, forming the area, now Australia, South America, Africa and Antarctica. Asterales contain about 14% of eudicot diversity. From an analysis of relationships and diversities within the Asterales and with their superorders, estimates of the age of the beginning of the Asterales have been made, which range from 116 Mya to 82Mya; however few fossils have been found, of the Menyanthaceae-Asteraceae clade in the Oligocene, about 29 Mya. Fossil evidence of the Asterales is rare and belongs to rather recent epochs, so the precise estimation of the order's age is quite difficult.
An Oligocene pollen is known for Asteraceae and Goodeniaceae, seeds from Oligocene and Miocene are known for Menyanthaceae and Campanulaceae respectively. The Asterales, by dint of being a super-set of the family Asteraceae, include some species grown for food, including the sunflower and chicory. Many are used as spices and traditional medicines. Asterales have many known uses. For example, pyrethrum is a natural insecticide with minimal environmental impact. Wormwood, derived from a genus that includes the sagebrush, is used as a source of flavoring for absinthe, a bitter classical liquor of European origin. W. S. Judd, C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. Pp. 476–486. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-403-0. J. Lindley. Nixus Plantarum, 20. Londini. Smissen, R. D.. Asterales. In: Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London. "Asterales -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/39703/Asterales>. "Asterales - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary." Dictionary and Thesaur
Berthold Auerbach was a German-Jewish poet and author. He was the founder of the German "tendency novel", in which fiction is used as a means of influencing public opinion on social, political and religious questions. Moses Baruch Auerbach was born in Nordstetten in the Kingdom of Württemberg, he attended Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium. He was intended for the ministry, but after studying philosophy at Tübingen and Heidelberg, becoming estranged from Jewish orthodoxy by the study of Spinoza, he devoted himself to literature. While a student in Heidelberg and under the pseudonym “Theobald Chauber,” he produced a Biography of Frederick the Great. Another early publication was entitled Das Judentum und die neueste Litteratur, was to be followed by a series of novels taken from Jewish history. Of this intended series he published, with considerable success and Dichter und Kaufmann, his romance on the life of Spinoza adheres so to fact that it may be read with equal advantage as a novel or as a biography.
In 1841, he did a translation of Spinoza's works. In 1842, he wrote an attempt to popularize philosophical subjects, but real fame and popularity came to him after 1843, when he began to occupy himself with the life of the common people which forms the subject of his best-known works. That year he published Schwarzwälder Dorfgeschichten, his first great success translated, expressing with a sympathetic realism the memories and scenes of youth. In his books, of which Auf der Höhe is the most characteristic, the most famous, he revealed an unrivaled insight into the soul of the Southern German country folk, of the peasants of the Black Forest and the Bavarian Alps, his descriptions are remarkable for graceful style and humour. In addition to these qualities, his last books are marked by great subtlety of psychological analysis. Auf der Höhe was first published at Stuttgart in 1861, has been translated into several languages. Auerbach died at Cannes shortly before his 70th birthday, his life was uneventful, though embittered at the close by the growth of German anti-Semitism.
Schwarzwälder Dorfgeschichten Barfüssele Edelweiss Joseph im Schnee Das Landhaus am Rhein Waldfried draws literary inspiration from German unity and the Franco-Prussian War Nach dreissig Jahren Der Forstmeister Brigitta Briefe an seinen Freund J. Auerbach Jonathan Skolnik, "Writing Jewish History Between Gutzkow and Goethe: Auerbach's Spinoza" in Prooftexts: A Journal of Jewish Literary History Gilman, D. C.. "Auerbach, Berthold". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead; this work in turn cites: Eugen Zabel, Berthold Auerbach Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Auerbach, Berthold". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites Zabel and: Eduard Lasker, Berthold Auerbach, ein Gedenkblatt Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Auerbach, Berthold". Encyclopedia Americana; this work in turn cites Zabel, Lasker and: Anton Bettelheim, B. Auerbach, der Mann, sein Werk Works by Berthold Auerbach at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Berthold Auerbach at Internet Archive Works by Berthold Auerbach at LibriVox
Asteraceae or Compositae is a large and widespread family of flowering plants. The family has 32,913 accepted species names, in 1,911 genera and 13 subfamilies. In terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae.. Nearly all members bear their flowers in dense heads surrounded by involucral bracts; when viewed from a distance, each capitulum may have the appearance of being a single flower. Enlarged outer flowers in the capitula may resemble petals, the involucral bracts may look like a calyx; the name Asteraceae comes from the type genus Aster, from the Ancient Greek ἀστήρ, meaning star, refers to the star-like form of the inflorescence. Compositae is an older name that refers to the "composite" nature of the capitula, which consist of many individual flowers. Most members of Asteraceae are annual or perennial herbs, but a significant number are shrubs, vines, or trees; the family has a worldwide distribution, from the polar regions to the tropics, colonizing a wide variety of habitats.
It is most common in the semiarid regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes. The Asteraceae may represent as much as 10% of autochthonous flora in many regions of the world. Asteraceae is an economically important family, providing products such as cooking oils, sunflower seeds, sweetening agents, coffee substitutes and herbal teas. Several genera are of horticultural importance, including pot marigold, Calendula officinalis, various daisies, chrysanthemums, dahlias and heleniums. Asteraceae are important in herbal medicine, including Grindelia and many others. A number of species are considered invasive, most notably in North America, introduced by European settlers who used the young leaves as a salad green; the study of this family is known as synantherology. The name Asteraceae comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Aster, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy; the genus name comes from the Classical Latin word aster, "star", which came from Ancient Greek ἀστήρ, "star".
Compositae means "composite" and refers to the characteristic inflorescence, a special type of pseudanthium found in only a few other angiosperm families. The vernacular name daisy applied to members of this family, is derived from the Old English name of the daisy: dæġes ēaġe, meaning "day's eye"; this is because the petals close at dusk. Asteraceae species have a cosmopolitan distribution, are found everywhere except Antarctica and the extreme Arctic, they are numerous in tropical and subtropical regions. Compositae, the original name for Asteraceae, were first described in 1792 by the German botanist Paul Dietrich Giseke. Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised: Cichorioideae; the latter has been shown to be extensively paraphyletic, has now been divided into 12 subfamilies, but the former still stands. The phylogenetic tree presented below is based on Panero & Funk updated in 2014, now includes the monotypic Famatinanthoideae; the diamond denotes a poorly supported node, the dot a poorly supported node.
It is noteworthy that the four subfamilies Asteroideae, Cichorioideae and Mutisioideae contain 99% of the species diversity of the whole family. Because of the morphological complexity exhibited by this family, agreeing on generic circumscriptions has been difficult for taxonomists; as a result, several of these genera have required multiple revisions. Members of the Asteraceae are herbaceous plants, but some shrubs and trees do exist, they are easy to distinguish from other plants because of their characteristic inflorescence and other shared characteristics. However, determining genera and species of some groups such as Hieracium is notoriously difficult. Members of the Asteraceae produce taproots, but sometimes they possess fibrous root systems. Stems are herbaceous aerial branched cylindrical with glandular hairs erect but can be prostrate to ascending; some species have underground stems in the form of rhizomes. These can be woody depending on the species; the leaves and the stems often contain secretory canals with resin or latex.
The leaves can be opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are deeply lobed or otherwise incised conduplicate or revolute; the margins can be entire or toothed. In plants of the family Asteraceae, what appears to be a single flower is a cluster of much smaller flowers; the overall appearance of the cluster, as a single flower, functions in attracting pollinators in the same way as the structure of an individual flower in some other plant families. The older family name, comes from the fact that what appears to be a single flower is a composite of smaller flowers; the "petals" or "sunrays" in a sunflower head are individual strap-sha
Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 600,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative provinces of Udine and Gorizia, excluding Trieste. The multiethnic and subsequent multilingual tradition of Friuli means that the name of the region varies according to locality. Besides Friuli from Italian, other local Romance forms include Venetian Friul; the name Friuli originates from the ancient Roman town of Forum Iulii. Friuli is bordered on the west by the Veneto region with the border running along the Livenza river, on the north by the crest of the Carnic Alps between Carnia and Austrian Carinthia, on the east by the Julian Alps, the border with Slovenia and the Timavo river, on the south by the Adriatic Sea; the adjacent Slovene parts of the Soča/Isonzo valley from Gorizia/Nova Gorica up to Mt. Triglav and the Vipava Valley, forming the Goriška region, may be considered part of historic Friuli.
The mountainous northern part of the region belongs to the Southern Limestone Alps. From west to east, the region's highest peaks are, in the Carnic Prealps — the Cima dei Preti, 2,703 metres, Duranno 2,652 metres, Cridola 2,581 metres. Rivers flowing southwards from the mountains are numerous; the Friulian mountains surround the course of the Tagliamento river, which, at the latitude of Gemona del Friuli first crosses the hills that occupy the center of the Friuli flows into a large flood plain. This plain is divided into the High Friulian plain and the Low Friulian plain, whose boundary is the Napoleonic road that connects the cities of Codroipo and Palmanova. To the south of this road is the risorgive zone, where water resurfaces from underground waterways in spring-fed pools throughout the area. South of the plains lie the lagoons of Grado, which are nature reserves. Other important rivers include the Torre, Stella, Isonzo/Soča, Ausa. Friuli covers an area of 8,240 square kilometres, subdivided among the provinces of Udine 4,905 square kilometres, Pordenone 2,178 square kilometres and Gorizia 466 square kilometres.
The historical capital and most important city of is Udine, it was the capital of the medieval Patria del Friuli. Other important towns are Pordenone, Gorizia/Nova Gorica, Codroipo, Cervignano del Friuli, Cividale del Friuli, Gemona del Friuli and Tolmezzo; the climate of the Friulian plain is humid sub-Mediterranean. The climate in this area is suitable for growing white wine grapes, 2.5% of wine produced in Italy comes from this part of the region. The hills, have a continental climate, the mountainous regions have an alpine climate. On the coast the mean annual temperature is 14 °C, while in the inner plains, the average is lowered to 13 to 13.5 °C. Further north, in Tolmezzo, the average temperature is 10.6 °C. The lowest values are recorded in the Alps: 4 °C at Passo di Monte Croce Carnico and between 5.5 and 7 °C in Val Canale, situated 850 metres above sea level. In the coldest month, temperatures vary between 4.5 °C in Monfalcone and nearly −5 °C in Passo di Monte Croce Carnico, with intermediate temperatures of 3 °C in Udine and −2 or −3 °C in Valcanale.
Gorizia, a short distance from Udine, enjoys a milder micro-climate with its approximate annual average of 4 °C. In the warmest month, the temperatures range between 22.5 and 24 °C along the coast and plains and between 14 and 16 °C in Val Canale. Precipitation in Friuli is abundant. Minimum values in the southern part fall between 1,200 and 1,500 mm, whereas the alpine area's maximum annual rainfall is 3,000 mm; the Julian Prealps is one of Italy's rainiest regions: Musi receives about 3,300 mm of annual precipitation, sometimes 5000 mm, can receive 400 mm in a single month. In some areas of Friuli, excessive rainfall has caused the flooding of many rivers. Snow is sparse in the southern plains but falls more further to the north. Friuli has a little under one million people, it must be considered that Mandament of Portogruaro and comune of Sappada belong to Friuli. With these lands, the total population reaches 1,060,000 people. One of the most important demographic phenomena in Friuli was emigration.
It ended in the 1970s. It is estimated that more than a million Friulian people emigrated away over a period of one hundred years. According to the most recent census by AIRE
The Stubai Alps is a mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps of Europe. It derives its name from the Stubaital valley to its east and is located southwest of Innsbruck, Austria. Several peaks form the border between Italy; the range is bounded by the Inn River valley to the north. Important parts of the Stubai Alps show signs of glaciation; the northern part around the Sellrain valley and the Kühtai is now only glaciated and a popular ski touring destination. The High Stubai around the upper Stubai valley is still glaciated and a classic high mountain touring region in the Eastern Alps. Here there is a glacier ski area on the Stubai Glacier. Together with the Ötztal Alps to the west, with which they are linked by the saddle of Timmelsjoch, the Stubai Alps form one of the biggest mountain blocks of the Eastern Alps. In the Alpine Club classification of the Eastern Alps the Stubai are no. 31. Their boundary follows the following line: in the north, it follows the course of the River Inn in the northwest, it follows the Inn from its confluence with the Ötztaler Ache to the confluence with the Gurglbach to the Mieming Chain in the Northern Limestone Alps in the north, it follows the River Inn to Innsbruck, which divides the Stubai Alps from the Karwendel in the Northern Limestone Alps in the east, it is formed by the Wipptal valley: in the northeast it follows the Sill to its confluence with the Schmirnbach near St. Jodok, opposite the Tux Alps in the southeast, it follows the Sill to the Brenner Pass – Eisack to Sterzing, which separates the Stubai Alps from the Zillertal Alps in the south it follows the lower Ridaunbach – Jaufenbach – Jaufen Pass – St. Leonhard in Passeier, a line which divides it from the Sarntal Alps in the west, it follows the line: Passeiertal – Schönauer Alm – Timmelsjoch – Timmelsbach – Gurgler Ache – Ötztaler Ache to its confluence with the Inn, forming the boundary to the Ötztal Alps The Alpine Club guide to the Stubai Alps divides the range into 15 subgroups as follows: Northern Sellrain Mountains, highest peak: Rietzer Grießkogel, 2,884 m Southwestern Sellrain Mountains, highest peak: Gleirscher Fernerkogel, 3,194 m Southeastern Sellrain Mountains, highest peak: Hohe Villerspitze, 3,092 m Larstig Mountains + Bachfallenstock, highest peak: Strahlkogel, 3,295 m Alpein Mountains, highest peak: Schrankogel, 3,497 m Habicht-Elfer-Kamm, highest peak: Habicht, 3,277 m Serleskamm, highest peak: Kirchdachspitze, 2,840 m Sulztalkamm, highest peak: Wilde Leck, 3,361 m Western Main Chain, highest peak: Zuckerhütl, 3,507 m Central Main Chain, highest peak: Wilder Freiger, 3,418 m Eastern Main Chain, highest peak: Pflerscher Tribulaun, 3,097 m Windach-Brunnenkogelkamm, highest peak: Jochköpfl, 3,143 m Botzergruppe + foothills, highest peak: Botzer, 3,250 m Aggls-Rosskopf-Kamm, highest peak: Agglsspitze, 3,196 m Kalkkögel, highest peak: Schlicker Seespitze, 2,804 m The ten highest peaks in the Stubai Alps are: Zuckerhütl, 3,507 m Schrankogel, 3,497 m Pfaffenschneide, 3,498 m Ruderhofspitze, 3,474 m Sonklarspitze, 3,463 m Wilder Pfaff, 3,456 m Wilder Freiger, 3,418 m Östliche Seespitze, 3,416 m Schrandele, 3,393 m Hohes Eis, 3,388 mThere is a total of just under 500 named and surveyed mountains in the Stubai Alps.
Amongst the better known are: Wilde Leck, 3,361 m Stubaier Wildspitze, 3,341 m Schaufelspitze, 3,332 m Lüsener Fernerkogel, 3,298 m Breiter Grießkogel, 3,287 m Habicht, 3,277 m Östlicher Feuerstein, 3,268 m Schneespitze, 3,178 m Pflerscher Tribulaun, 3,097 m Hohe Villerspitze, 3,087 m Weißwandspitze, 3,017 m Sulzkogel, 3,016 m Hochreichkopf, 3,010 m Zischgeles, 3,004 m Roter Kogel, 2,832 m Gamskogel, 2,813 m Schlicker Seespitze, 2,804 m Serles, 2,717 m Hoher Burgstall, 2,611 m Lämpermahdspitze 2,595 m Elferspitze, 2,505 m Gargglerin, 2,470 m Saile, 2,404 m The main mountain passes of the Stubai Alps are: Media related to Stubai Alps at Wikimedia Commons Stubaier Alps on Summitpost