The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army, it is armed with a 120 mm smoothbore cannon, is powered by a V-12 twin-turbo diesel engine. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and 12 other European countries, as well as several non-European nations, including Canada, Indonesia and Turkey; the Leopard 2 was used in Kosovo with the German Army, has seen action in Afghanistan with the Dutch and Canadian contributions to the International Security Assistance Force, as well as seeing action in Syria with the Turkish Armed Forces against ISIS and the YPG. There are two main development batches of the tank: the original models up to Leopard 2A4, which have vertically faced turret armour, the improved batch, namely the Leopard 2A5 and newer versions, which have angled arrow-shaped turret appliqué armour together with other improvements.
All models feature digital fire control systems with laser rangefinders, a stabilised main gun and coaxial machine gun, advanced night vision and sighting equipment. The tank has the ability to engage moving targets while moving over rough terrain; as the Leopard 1 was just entering service, the German military was interested in producing an improved tank in the next decade. This resulted in the start of the MBT-70 development in cooperation with the United States beginning in 1963; however in 1967 it became questionable whether the MBT-70 would enter service at any time in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the German government issued the order to research future upgrade options of the Leopard 1 to the German company Porsche in 1967; this study was named vergoldeter Leopard and focused on incorporating advanced technology into the Leopard design. The projected upgrades added an autoloader, a coaxial autocannon and an independent commander's periscope; the anti-air machine gun could be operated from inside the vehicle and a TV surveillance camera was mounted on an extendable mast.
The shape of the turret and hull was optimised using cast steel armour, while the suspension and the engine exhaust vents were improved. Following the end of Gilded Leopard study in 1967, the West-German government decided to focus on the Experimentalentwicklung as feasibility study and to develop new components for upgrading the Leopard 1 and for use on a future main battle tank programme. At first 25 million DM were invested, but after the industry came to the conclusion that with such a low budget the development of the two projected testbeds was not possible, a total of 30 to 32 million DM was invested; the experimental development was contracted to the company Krauss-Maffei, but with the obligation to cooperate with Porsche for the development of the chassis and with Wegmann for the development of the turret. Two prototypes with differing components were built with the aim to improve the conception of the Leopard 1 in such a way that it would match the firepower requirements of the MBT-70.
A high first-hit probability at ranges of 2,000 metres and the ability to engage targets on the move using a computerised fire control system were the main goals of the experimental development. The resulting vehicles were nicknamed Keiler. Two prototypes of the Keiler were built in 1969 and 1970, both of them being powered by the MB 872 engine; the MBT-70 was a revolutionary design, but after large cost overruns and technological problems, Germany withdrew from the project in 1969. After unsuccessful attempts of saving the MBT-70 by conceptual changes in order to eliminate the biggest issue—the driver being seated in the turret—it became clear in late 1969 that Germany would stop the bi-national development; the assistant secretary of the military procurement division of the German Ministry of Defence suggested reusing as much technologies developed for the MBT-70 as possible in a further programme, nicknamed Eber due to his being named Eberhardt. The Eber used a modified MBT-70 hull, with the driver being seated in the hull.
Only a wooden mock-up was made. One year a choice was made to continue the development based on the earlier Keiler project of the late 1960s, instead of finishing the development of the Eber. In 1971, the name of the design was determined as Leopard 2 with the original Leopard retroactively becoming the Leopard 1, Paul-Werner Krapke became the project officer of the Leopard 2 program. Two versions were projected: the gun-armed Leopard 2K and the Leopard 2FK, which would be armed with the XM150 gun/launcher weapon of the MBT-70; that year 17 prototypes were ordered, but only 16 hulls were built as the production of hull PT12 was cancelled. Ten were ordered before another seven were ordered; the 17 turrets were designated T1 to T17, the hulls were designated PT1 to PT11 and PT13 to PT17. To test a larger number of components and concepts, each prototype was fitted with components not found on the other prototypes. Ten of the turrets were equipped with 105 mm smoothbore guns, the other seven prototypes were equipped with a 120 mm smoothbore gun.
Hulls PT11 and PT17 were fitted with a hydropneumatic suspension based on the MBT-70 design. The running gears of these two hulls had only six road wheels. Different types of APUs were mounted in the prototypes. All turrets were equipped with a machine gun for air defence except the turret mounted on PT11, where a 20 mm remotely operated autocannon was mounted. With the exception of hulls PT07, PT09, PT15 and
Terry Mike Jeffrey is an American singer, multi-instrumentalist, musical director and actor. Born in Paducah, Jeffrey was singing on stage by the age of three. Throughout childhood he mastered the guitar, piano and drums. During high school he made records, TV commercials and played the lead role in his high school senior play, his career includes some international appearances a notch above his high school play. He performs "The Songs of Elvis" with his band and symphony orchestras across the U. S, he is featured monthly on Sirius/XM's Elvis Radio. Jeffrey has been fronting his own band since the early 1970s with live performances in England, Italy, Norway, Holland, Hawaii, the Bahamas, the Caribbean, he performed live shows with such stars as Jewel, Los Lobos, Dixie Chicks, Fats Domino, The Mavericks, Steve Wariner, Ricky Skaggs, Leon Russell, Chet Atkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins and Travis Tritt. He toured the US and Canada, with stops at the Fox Theatres and a Broadway run in the late 1980s, 2001–02 "Stand By Your Man – The Tammy Wynette Story", played Tammy's father and understudied all-male acting and music roles.
Jeffrey has appeared 56 times as a guest on TNN's Music City Tonight with Chase. A regular as a solo vocalist and musician on the show, he shared the stage with the likes of Shania Twain and Eddy Arnold. During this time his country project was released, with Billboard Magazine's declaration that the album was "impressive". Jeffrey's other musical theater adventures have included regional productions of Beehive and You're A Good Man, Charlie Brown, he was featured vocalist with symphony orchestra "pops" series concerts. He was musical director and had a starring role in Elvis – An American Musical, a New York City-produced multi-media show organized by the producers of Grease and Beatlemania. Jeffrey received a 1997 Emmy Award nomination. Jeffrey and his wife, reside in their hometown of Paducah, Kentucky, he was one of many performers to honor the memory of the late Todd Morgan at the University of Memphis Rose Theater in April 2008. Official website
Elaine Anderson was an American paleontologist. She is best known for her work on vertebrate paleontology. Elaine Anderson was born in Salida, Colorado in January 8, 1936, she was the only child of Edith Anderson. She was raised in Colorado. Anderson graduated from the University of Colorado in 1960, she completed her Master's thesis in 1965. For her Ph. D. she opted becoming the first Fulbright Scholar to do so. She studied under the Finnish paleontologist Björn Kurtén one of the most distinguished authorities on studies on prehistoric mammals. Anderson returned to the United States after completing her Ph. D. and worked as a scientific consultant at the Pleistocene Hall at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. She worked at the Idaho Museum of Natural History and the Maryland Academy of Sciences, she had to leave her latter job in order to return to Denver and care for her ailing mother. After her mother's death, she stayed in her childhood home being visited by other paleontologists and naturalists who were passing through.
A frequent visitor of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, she formally became a member of the staff in 1984. She was elected a Research Associate in 1994, she was an adjunct professor of Biology at the Colorado State University. She died in March 2002 in Denver. Anderson specialized in vertebrate paleontology and mammals, her particular interest in the members of Carnivora earned her the affectionate nickname of "The Carnivore Lady". She was an Associate Editor of the journal Mammalian Species, published by the American Society of Mammalogists from 1995 until her death, she was involved in the field of zooarcheology, long before the term was coined. She was active in the conservation efforts on North American mammalian fauna, she was a member of the American Quaternary Association and was elected an Honorary Member of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology in 2000. She is best known for her work Pleistocene Mammals of North America, written in collaboration with Björn Kurtén in 1980. Prehistoric mammal Ice age