Niles is a city in Berrien and Cass counties in the U. S. state of Michigan, near South Bend, Indiana. In 2010, the population was 11,600 according to the 2010 census, it is the larger, by population, of the two principal cities in the Niles-Benton Harbor Metropolitan Statistical Area, an area with 156,813 people. Niles lies on the banks of the St. Joseph River, at the site of the French Fort St. Joseph, first built in 1697 to protect the Jesuit Mission established in 1691. After 1761, it was held by the British and was captured on May 25, 1763, by Native Americans during Pontiac's Rebellion; the British retook the fort but it was not re-garrisoned and served as a trading post. During the American Revolutionary War, the fort was held for a short time by a Spanish force; the occupation of the fort by the four nations of France, Britain and the United States has earned Niles the nickname City of Four Flags. The town was named after editor of the Niles Register, a Baltimore newspaper; the town of Niles as it exists today was settled in 1827.
Between 1820 and 1865, Niles was an integral part of the Underground Railroad, helping slaves escape from as far south as New Orleans through the Heartland, into Canada. The city is situated on the St. Joseph River and is surrounded by Niles Township. Glacial deposits of large boulders and smooth stones mingle with heavy sedimentary deposits, producing rolling hills and steep river banks; the soil is fertile. Crinoida and related fossils are found south of the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.95 square miles, of which 5.79 square miles is land and 0.16 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,600 people, 4,806 households, 2,836 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,003.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,428 housing units at an average density of 937.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.3% White, 12.4% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.7% of the population. There were 4,806 households of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.0% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 36.1 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.1% male and 52.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,204 people, 5,096 households, 3,052 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,109.5 per square mile. There were 5,531 housing units at an average density of 956.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.19% White, 12.36% African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.26% from other races, 2.93% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.97% of the population. There were 5,096 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.1% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,208, the median income for a family was $38,870. Males had a median income of $31,395 versus $22,991 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,584. About 9.9% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
Chapin Mansion, built by Henry A. Chapin and serving as Niles City Hall, is located downtown; the Riverfront Park in Niles stretches about a half of the St. Joseph River; the park and the immediate surrounding down town area is the main stage for many of the city's seasonal cultural events, including the Niles Riverfest, the Bluegrass Festival, the Hunter Ice Festival, the Apple Festival Parade. The park includes the Armed Forces Memorial, public stage, City's free skateboard park and sand volleyball courts. Niles includes two other notable parks; the Saint Joseph River Park, parts of which are now being excavated by archeologists, is south of the French Paper Mill Factory Dam. It includes part of the original Fort St. Joseph. Archaeologists from Western Michigan University have uncovered numerous artifacts at this location. In the summer they host an "Open House" that allows patrons to visit the dig site, see displays of some of the artifacts, see demonstrations of historical reenactments. Niles has a small park, Island Park, on an island in the middle of the St. Joseph River.
The park has been known to become submerged during high flood waters. In 2003, the City of Niles was awarded a MEDC Commu
South Bend, Indiana
South Bend is a city in and the county seat of St. Joseph County, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents. It is the fourth-largest city in Indiana, serving as the economic and cultural hub of Northern Indiana; the ranked University of Notre Dame is located just to the north in unincorporated Notre Dame, Indiana and is an integral contributor to the region's economy. The area was settled in the early 19th century by fur traders and was established as a city in 1865; the St. Joseph River shaped South Bend's economy through the mid-20th century. River access assisted heavy industrial development such as that of the Studebaker Corporation, the Oliver Chilled Plow Company, other large corporations; the population of South Bend declined after 1960, when it had a peak population of 132,445. This was chiefly due to migration to suburban areas as well as the demise of Studebaker and other heavy industry.
Today, the largest industries in South Bend are health care, small business, tourism. Remaining large corporations include Crowe Horwath, AM General; the city population has started to grow for the first time in nearly fifty years. The old Studebaker plant and surrounding area, now called Ignition Park, is being redeveloped as a technology center to attract new industry; the city has been featured in national news coverage for Mayor Pete Buttigieg, who has achieved recognition for his various economic development projects within the city, his position as the youngest mayor to be elected in a city of more than 100,000 residents, his essay in which he came out as the first gay executive in the state of Indiana. The city attracted further attention when Mayor Buttigieg announced he will run for the Democratic nomination for the 2020 presidential election; the St. Joseph Valley was long occupied by Native Americans. One of the earliest known groups to occupy what would become northern Indiana was the Miami tribe.
The Potawatomi moved into the region, utilizing the rich food and natural resources found along the river. The Potawatomi occupied this region of Indiana until most of them were forcibly removed in the 1840s; the South Bend area was so popular because its portage was the shortest overland route from the St. Joseph River to the Kankakee River; this route was used for centuries, first by the Native Americans by French explorers and traders. The French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, the first white European to set foot in what is now South Bend, used this portage between the St. Joseph River and the Kankakee River in December 1679; the first permanent white settlers of South Bend were fur traders who established trading posts in the area. In 1820, Pierre Frieschutz Navarre arrived, representing the American Fur Company of John Jacob Astor, he settled near. Alexis Coquillard, another agent of the AFC, established a trading post known as the Big St. Joseph Station. In 1827, Lathrop Minor Taylor established a post for Samuel Hanna and Company, in whose records the name St. Joseph's, Indiana was used.
By 1829, the town was growing, with Taylor emerging as leaders. They applied for a post office. Taylor was appointed postmaster, the post office was designated as Southold, Allen County, Indiana; the following year, the name was changed to South Bend to ease confusion, as several other communities were named Southold at the time. In 1831, South Bend was laid out as the county seat and as one of the four original townships of St. Joseph County with 128 residents. Soon after, design began on; the town was formally established in 1835 and grew. In 1856, attorney Andrew Anderson founded May Oberfell Lorber, the oldest business in St. Joseph County, he compiled a complete index of South Bend's real estate records. In 1841, Schuyler Colfax was appointed St. Joseph County deputy auditor. Colfax purchased the South Bend Free Press and turned it into the pro-Whig newspaper, the St. Joseph Valley Register, he was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1850 where he opposed the barring of African American migration to Indiana.
He joined the Republican party, like many Whigs of his day, was elected to Congress in 1855 and became Speaker of the House in 1863 under Abraham Lincoln. In 1868, he was elected Vice President under Ulysses S. Grant. Colfax was buried in the City Cemetery. During the late 1830s through the 1850s, much of South Bend's development centered on the industrial complex of factories located on the two races. Several dams were created, factories were built on each side of the river. On October 4, 1851, the first steam locomotive entered South Bend; this led to a general shift of businesses from the river toward the railroad. In 1852, Henry Studebaker set up Studebaker wagon shop becoming the world's largest wagon builder and the only one to succeed as an automobile manufacturer; the Singer Sewing Company and the Oliver Chilled Plow Company were among other companies that made manufacturing the driving force in the South Bend economy until the mid-20th century. Another important economic act was the dredging of the Kankakee River in 1884 to create farmland.
During this time period there was a great immigration of Europeans, such as Polish, Irish, German and Swedish people to South Bend because the rise of area factories. South Bend benefited f
St. Joseph River (Lake Michigan)
The St. Joseph River is a 206 miles long tributary of Lake Michigan flowing westerly through southern Michigan and northern Indiana, United States, to its terminus on the southeast shore of the lake, it drains a rural farming area in the watershed of Lake Michigan. It was enormously important to Native Americans and aided in the colonial exploration and administration of New France and the nascent United States as a canoe route between Lake Michigan and the watershed of the Mississippi River; the St. Joseph River watershed drains 4,685 square miles from 15 counties: Berrien, Calhoun, Hillsdale, Kalamazoo, St. Joseph and Van Buren in Michigan and De Kalb, Kosciusko, LaGrange, Noble, St. Joseph and Steuben in Indiana; the watershed includes 3,742 river miles and flows through and near the Kalamazoo-Portage, Elkhart-Goshen, Mishawaka-South Bend, St. Joseph/Benton Harbor metropolitan areas; the St. Joseph River main stem is 206 miles long, rising in southern Michigan in Hillsdale County near Baw Beese Lake, within 5 miles of the headwaters of the other St. Joseph River of the eastward-flowing Maumee River watershed.
Baw Beese Lake was named for the Potawatomi Chief Baw Beese. The river follows a zigzag route westward across southern Michigan, dipping into northern Indiana. From its headwaters, it flows northwest past Hillsdale into southeastern Calhoun County turns abruptly southwest to flow past Tekonsha, Union City, Sherwood. At Three Rivers it is joined from the north by the Rocky and Portage rivers 3 miles further southwest by the Prairie River from the east; the river continues southward into northern Indiana, flowing west through Elkhart and South Bend, where it turns abruptly to north to re-enter southwestern Michigan in southeastern Berrien County. In southwestern Michigan, it follows a wide meandering route northwest through Niles and past Berrien Springs, it enters Lake Michigan between St. Joseph and Benton Harbor, receiving the Paw Paw River from the north 1 mile from its mouth on Lake Michigan. There are 190 dams in the St. Joseph River watershed, 17 on the river mainstem. Most of these dams block fish passage, although fish ladders constructed on the lower dams allow salmonine passage as far as the Twin Branch Dam in Mishawaka, Indiana.
But, the fish ladders are not adequate for many native species, such as sturgeon, the dams tend to be built on the higher gradient portions of the river, which are the most critical river habitats for fish spawning. Sakiwäsipi, as it was called by the Miami people, was inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous tribes as it served an essential trade avenue in the Great Lakes region; the most recent indigenous inhabitants of the area were the Potawatomi peoples. Two different portages allowed nearly continuous travel by canoe among different watersheds of the region; the first major transfer point was at the headwaters in southwestern Michigan, where travelers could make a portage to the St. Joseph River of the Maumee River watershed, which drained into Lake Erie; the second major transfer point was at South Bend, where a short portage to the nearby Kankakee River allowed access to the Illinois River and subsequently to the Mississippi. Another major access point along river was at Niles, where the Old Sauk Trail, a major east-west Indian trail, crossed the river.
The indigenous trade and navigation networks in the area allowed for extensive trade and movement of people, which allowed early Europeans access to the area in 1675 when Père Jacques Marquette was guided up the Mississippi River via the Illinois River to the Kankakee River and portaged to Sakiwasipi and down to Lake Michigan. On November 1, 1679 René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle sailed southeast across Lake Michigan and built Fort Miami at the mouth of the river. La Salle named the river La Rivière des Miamis. At the end of 1679, La Salle followed indigenous trade routes in the opposite direction of that taken by Marquette. After giving up on the return of his ship, Le Griffon, in April 1680, he became the first European to walk the well traveled indigenous routes east across the Lower Peninsula of Michigan back to the Detroit River and Canada; the French established Fort St. Joseph at the crossroads of Old Sauk Trail and this well-established east-west trail in 1691; the watershed was used as canoe route by early French fur trappers in the Illinois Country.
European American settlement of the St. Joseph river basin area began to increase in earnest after southwestern Michigan was surveyed in 1829. From the early 1830s until 1846, the river bore various commodities from upstream to a busy port at St. Joseph, where they were loaded onto lake boats for shipment to Chicago and elsewhere. On April 11, 1893, a Lake Michigan seiche pushed a wall of water, 3 to 5 feet high, up the river at St. Joseph and Benton Harbor; this raised the level of the river by 4 to 5 feet. The cause of the seiche was unknown, but has been attributed to a sudden squall or change in atmospheric pressure. Factories located in South Bend was because of access to water and power in the West Races; the water rights to what would become the East and West Races were claimed by Alexis Coquillard and Lathrop Taylor in 1831, when the city of South Bend was founded. Although the idea of digging a mill race (man-made ca
Buchanan is a city in Berrien County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 4,456 at the 2010 census; the city is located at the southeast corner of Buchanan Township, about 5 miles west of Niles. The community was named after the 15th President of the United States. Popularly known as "Redbud City" because of the many redbud trees that have lined city streets and the major approaches to the city, Buchanan has long been recognized as a Tree City USA by the National Arbor Day Foundation; the area having been populated by Native Americans in places such as the Moccasin Bluff Site, was first settled in 1833 at the spot where McCoy Creek meets the St. Joseph River; the village of Buchanan was platted in 1842 and incorporated in 1858. In 1941, as part of the Works Progress Administration arts projects, Gertrude Goodrich painted a mural, Production, in the Buchanan post office. Painted over, it is in the process of being restored. On April 12, 1979, farms and mobile homes just north of the city were damaged by an F2 tornado.
No lives were lost but several residences sustained significant damage. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.57 square miles, of which 2.50 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,456 people, 1,901 households, 1,136 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,782.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,139 housing units at an average density of 855.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.6% White, 7.5% African American, 1.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.3% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population. There were 1,901 households of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.1% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.2% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age in the city was 37.6 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the 2000 census, there were 4,681 people, 1,915 households, 1,191 families in the city; the population density was 1,950.8 per square mile. There were 2,098 housing units, for an average density of 874.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.26% White, 10.23% African American, 1.92% multiracial, 0.60% other races, 0.51% Asian, 0.47% Native American. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1.84% of the population. There were 1,915 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.5% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.05.
The age structure of the population was diffuse, with 25.6% under the age of 18, 9.6% aged 18–24, 29.0% aged 25–44, 21.3% aged 45–64, 14.5% 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35. Sex ratio was skewed toward females, with 87.5 males for every 100 females of all ages and 83.1 males for every 100 females 18 years or older. Median income was $43,860 for a family. Males had a median income of $32,950 versus $21,857 for females. Per capita income was $16,600. About 10.9% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.7% of those younger than 18 and 10.7% of those older than 64. Buchanan was known as the headquarters for Clark Equipment Company, a manufacturer of truck axles, fork lift trucks, front-end loaders, other heavy machinery; the company was formed in 1916 out of an acquisition of two other Buchanan companies. Clark left the area in the 1990s, forcing the city to diversify, a number of smaller businesses took over the buildings Clark donated to the city.
Electro-Voice, a manufacturer of high quality audio equipment such as microphones and loudspeakers, was headquartered in Buchanan. Pears Mill, a flour mill using the water power of the swiftly flowing McCoy Creek, was built in 1857 and still stands, it is open during the summer for visitors. The Tin Shop Theatre, located near Pears Mill, is a small theater with performances in the summer; the seasons run into September and a variety of shows for everyone of any age and any occasion are performed there. Many other attractions are located in surrounding Buchanan Township. Buchanan Community Schools consists of two elementary schools and Moccasin, Buchanan Middle School, Buchanan High School. Buchanan is located 1.5 miles north of US 12, 2.3 miles west of US 31, 9.3 miles north of the US 31 interchange on the Indiana Toll Road, 20 miles east of I-94. The nearest rail hubs are the Amtrak stations at Niles and New Buffalo, the South Shore Line station in South Bend, Indiana. Commercial air service is provided by the South Bend International Airport, with flights to larger hubs such as Atlanta, Chicago O’Hare, Cleveland, Las Vegas, Minneapolis-St. Paul, St. Petersburg-Clearwater.
Peggy Cramer, All-American Girls Professio
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Harbor Springs, Michigan
Harbor Springs is a city and resort community in Emmet County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,194 at the 2010 census. Harbor Springs is in a sheltered bay on the north shore of the Little Traverse Bay on Lake Michigan; the Little Traverse Lighthouse is a historic lighthouse on the Harbor Point peninsula, which shelters the deepest natural harbor on the Great Lakes. M-119 connects with US 31 7 miles east and south at Bay View, Petoskey, 4 miles away on the south side of the harbor; the area is known for its historic summer resorts, such as Wequetonsing, founded by Illinois businessmen and lawyers Henry Stryker, III, Henry Brigham McClure. They were both connected with the Jacob Bunn industrial dynasty of Illinois; the European-American settlement started with a mission by French Catholic Jesuits. In 1847, L'Arbre Croche had the largest concentration of Native Americans in Michigan. French traders renamed Little Traverse, when they arrived in the area. After more settlers came to the area from the eastern United States, they changed the name of the village to Harbor Springs, incorporating it in 1880.
The federally recognized Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians are descendants of the numerous Odawa bands that occupied this area. They have their tribal offices in Harbor Springs, a gaming resort in Petoskey, their reservation lands encompasses 336 square miles of land in Charlevoix and Emmet counties. One of the city's more prominent European-American residents was Ephraim Shay, known for his invention of the Shay locomotive; the hexagonal-shaped house he built in downtown Harbor Springs still stands today and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The local elementary school is named after him. Another building of interest is the Douglas House on the shore of Lake Michigan. Designed by noted architect Richard Meier and completed in 1973, this house is one of 150 structures listed in 2007 as America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. Harbor Springs was the location of the Club Ponytail, a famous music hall destroyed by fire in 1969. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.30 square miles, all of it land.
Harbor Springs is a few miles from Michigan, on the other side of the bay. The climate is described as Humid Continental by abbreviated as Dfb; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,194 people, 558 households, 294 families residing in the city. The population density was 918.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,122 housing units at an average density of 863.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.0% White, 0.3% African American, 4.8% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population. There were 558 households of which 19.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.3% were non-families. 43.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.93 and the average family size was 2.66.
The median age in the city was 55.8 years. 15.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 43.8% male and 56.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,567 people, 683 households, 383 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,208.9 per square mile. There were 1,086 housing units at an average density of 837.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.70% White, 0.19% African American, 5.87% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 2.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population. There were 683 households out of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.8% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 22.8% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 23.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,341, the median income for a family was $46,750. Males had a median income of $29,236 versus $27,167 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,876. About 5.3% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over. The nearest airports with scheduled passenger service are in Pellston Regional Airport and Traverse City Cherry Capital Airport. Harbor Springs Municipal Airport is a public general aviation with no scheduled commercial flights. US 31, while not directly serving Harbor Springs, is accessible at the southern end of M-119 four miles southeast near Bay View. M-119 travels around the north side of Little Traverse Bay, through downtown Harbor Springs, to a terminus at Cross Village. C-77 is a north-south rou
Pokagon State Park
Pokagon State Park is an Indiana state park in the northeastern part of the state, near the village of Fremont and 5 miles north of Angola. It was named for the 19th-century Potawatomi chief, Leopold Pokagon, his known son, Simon Pokagon, at Richard Lieber's suggestion; the 1,260-acre park has an inn, camping facilities, a staff of full-time naturalists. The park is bordered by Lake James on Snow Lake on the north. Various wetlands can be seen throughout the park, the Potawatomi Nature Preserve makes up a large portion of its east side. Over 10 miles of hiking trails wind through the park; the Wisconsin Glacier, the last of the Ice Age’s four glaciers that covered Indiana, created the rolling terrain found in Pokagon. Glaciation's influence can be seen in many of the features of the park, including Lake Londiaw, Hell's Point, various glacial erratics; the toboggan run is a popular destination during the winter. Visitors can reach speeds of 35–40 miles an hour on the quarter-mile long track. Pokagon State Park was created in 1925.
Through fundraising efforts, the citizens of the county purchased the first 580 acres, much of it farmland, on the shores of Lake James. The county citizens donated this land to the Department of Conservation, State of Indiana, which added two additional parcels the following year, bringing the park up to 707 acres. In 1927, the newly christened Potawattomi Inn opened its doors. In 1934, Pokagon Boy's Camp opened in, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1995. In 1934, chapter 556 of the Civilian Conservation Corps arrived at Pokagon. During the ensuing eight years, the CCC constructed many of the best-known buildings at Pokagon including the Gate House, the Spring Shelter, the Saddle Barn, the first three incarnations of the toboggan run, not least, the CCC Shelter, a National Register of Historic Places site. Behind the Beach House, the land rises to a bluff overlooking the lake; the CCC planted trees—sometimes in precise lines—and created roads and trails. They published their own newsletter, the Pokagon Chieftain.
The CCC was instrumental in transforming Pokagon into the rustic park it is today. Presently the park contains 1,260 acres. Efforts were made to secure a property across the street from Pokagon, it was transferred in June 2007. It will be called Trine State Recreation Area; the Potawatomi Inn opened in 1927. The Inn contained the dining room and the Lonidaw Lounge. Along the south of the dining room, was an open porch, overlooking Lake James. A room cost $3 for the night. In the 1960s additional rooms were added to the west.. The original rooms were equipped with bathrooms and the long porch on the south was enclosed to create a sunny area overlooking the lake. During the 1980s a swimming pool with an outdoor deck was added on the south side of the new wing. Increased demand allowed for the park to expand in the 1990s and in 1995 the conference center opened with additional guest rooms. ‘’’Potawatomi Nature Preserve’’’ Located across the eastern half of the park, it is accessible from three separate trails.
This is a varied environment of marsh, hardwood forests, pine forest and sand hills.‘’’Beechwood Nature Preserve’’’ Located outside the park on its northeastern corner, the preserve is accessible from Trail 8. A 1.5-mile loop trail covers the old meadows. The area is become covered by gray other pioneer woody plants; the area features yellow birch, red maple, blue beech, skunk cabbage. The remnants of an old apple orchard may still be visible. Access is available from State Road 127; the common fish found in Lake James include: Yellow Perch, Largemouth Bass, Northern Pike, Rock Bass, Spotted gar. The last wild Black Bear in Indiana was recorded in 1850. Prior to that they were common in Indiana. Beavers and foxes can be found in this park. Pokagon and its surrounding lakes are the home for a variety of birds. Common birds such as ducks, geese and purple martins can be found when the lake is not frozen. Migrating birds such as loons and double-crested cormorants can be observed by visitors during autumn.
Hawks and red-headed woodpeckers can be seen year around, as great horned owls. Several bald eagles were sighted on the lake in 2006. Other birds that can be observed by visitors including brown creepers, several types of warblers, Carolina wrens, Baltimore orioles, pileated woodpeckers. Amphibians include: mud puppies and frogs The common reptiles include: the Garter Snake, the Eastern Massasauga, the Hognose Snake, the Northern Water Snake, plus the painted turtle, Snapping Turtle. and the soft shell turtle. All of which are available to see at the nature center. Bicycle Trail Hiking Trails Pokagon Interpretive Center Picnicking Playground Equipment Swimming / Beach Sand Volleyball Court Saddle Barn Fishing Boating Potawatomi Inn Cabins Meeting and Conference Facilities Reservable Shelters Camping - Reservations recommended Electric Hookup 200 sites Non-Electric 73 Sites Youth Tent Areas Group Camp General Store Dumping Station Winter Activities Toboggan Run Cross-country skiing Ice fishing Pontoon boats Paddleboats Rowboats Toboggan Skis Rental Horse-Back Riding List of Indiana state parks Indiana Department of Natural Resources' official Web page Pokagon Google Map Potawatomi Inn - State Park Features - Local Attractio