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Leopoldstadt is the 2nd municipal District of Vienna. There are 103,233 inhabitants over 19.27 km2. It is situated in the heart of the city and, together with Brigittenau, forms a large island surrounded by the Danube Canal and, to the north, the Danube, it is named after Holy Roman Emperor. Due to its high percentage of Jewish inhabitants, Leopoldstadt gained the nickname Mazzesinsel; this context was a significant aspect for the district twinning with the New York City borough Brooklyn in 2007. Places of interest include the Wiener Prater, former imperial hunting grounds to which the public was denied access until 1766; the area of the Prater closest to the city centre contains a large amusement park, known as the Volksprater or Wurstelprater, at its entrance there is the giant Wiener Riesenrad Ferris wheel opened in 1897 which features prominently in the movie The Third Man and which has become one of Vienna's trademarks. The Schweizerhaus, an establishment boasting a huge beer garden, sells the original Czech Budweiser draught beer.

The owners claim. Nearby you can find the "Republic of Kugelmugel", a micronation proclaimed in 1984 that became a landmark of the area. There is a miniature steam railway which, on its track through the woodland parallel to the Hauptallee, passes Vienna's Ernst-Happel-Stadion. Another, park in Leopoldstadt is the topiary-type Augarten, the home of the Vienna Boys' Choir and of a porcelain manufactory, its distinguishing marks are two disused Flak towers built towards the end of the Second World War. For features of this versatile district not listed here, see the bottom-linked Leopoldstadt Category page. In 1625, Rabbi Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller became the rabbi of Vienna. At the time, the Jews of Vienna were scattered throughout the city. Heller obtained for the Jews the right to establish a central Jewish community in Leopoldstadt, then a suburb of Vienna, he was instrumental in reorganizing the community, he drew up its constitution. By the mid-17th century, part of the built-up area was the Jewish ghetto.

At that time the area was called "Im Werd", with the Jewish population living in an area called "Unterer Werd". The hatred that Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor held for the Jews led to the forceful expulsion and destruction of the Jewish community, with the popular support of the local non-Jewish population; as a thanksgiving for the expulsion, the inhabitants renamed the area Leopoldstadt, after the emperor. During the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Jewish immigrants from eastern parts of the realm again flocked to Leopoldstadt, owing to the proximity of the Nordbahnhof railway station, one of the main train stations at which migrants from other parts of the empire arrived in Vienna; the high number of Jewish inhabitants led to the area being called Mazzesinsel. Several important synagogues were located there, including the Schiff Shul, the Leopoldstädter Tempel, the Türkischer Tempel, the Polnische Schul, the Pazmanitentempel, as well as yeshivas. None of the synagogues escaped the destruction during the Kristallnacht pogroms of November 1938 following the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany.

A fragment of a Torah scroll was saved by Heschel Messias from one of the synagogues. The Jewish population was isolated and terrorized and was deported to concentration camps such as Auschwitz, where they worked until their death near the end of the war due to starvation and Typhus; the once thriving communal life was destroyed. Only a handful of survivors were able to hide until the end of the war, from an original population of several thousands. With the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, renewed immigration from Eastern Europe the former Soviet Union, the Jewish population of Leopoldstadt was able to grow again. Today, many members of Vienna's Jewish community live there again, there are a number of shops selling kosher food. Several parts of the old residential areas have been gentrified, resulting in a gentle shift from Leopoldstadt's traditional, predominantly working class roots towards a somewhat wealthier population; the new extension of the U2 metro line, opened in May 2008 in time for the European Football Championship, links Leopoldstadt with the city centre.

The arms of the Leopoldstadt district, since the retirement of Brigittenau from the 2nd District, contains three parts, symbolizing the former independent communities: Saint Leopold in the upper left part part, symbolizes the historical Leopoldstadt, the former Lower Werd, the area between Augarten, Taborstraße and the Danube Canal. He is in a red cloak, trimmed with ermine. In his hands, he holds the banner of the archduchy of Austria below the Enns, a church model that symbolizes the patronage of the parish church; the upper right part of the crest represents the district section Jägerzeile, the area around today's Praterstraße. It shows the stag of St. Hubert in silver on a green meadow. On the head of the stag are 12-point golden antlers, a golden cross in the middle; as a symbol of the hunt, the stag represents the earlier use of the Prater

Polytechnic (Portugal)

The polytechnic is one of the two sub-systems of higher education of Portugal, the other being the university education. The polytechnic higher education provides a more practical training and is profession-oriented, while the university higher education has a strong theoretical basis and is research-oriented. Besides this, the polytechnic institutions only grant licentiate's and master's degrees, with the granting of doctor's degrees being reserved to the university institutions; the polytechnic education focus in programs in the fields of education, technology and agriculture, although programs in other fields, like arts, journalism and nautical science exist. Polytechnics are the sole providers of higher education programs in some fields like nursery and kindergarten educators. By other side, polytechnics do not have programs in law, medicine and other fields which are reserved for the university institutions; the polytechnics emerged in the 1980s, through the transformation of existing non-university higher education schools of teachers and agriculture, at the same time that new schools in other fields were created.

Latter, other higher education schools, like the higher institutes of engineering, the higher institutes of accounting and administration, the higher schools of nursery and the Nautical School were integrated in the polytechnic education. The polytechnic higher education is provided by polytechnic institutes, that can be public or private; the polytechnic institutes are federations of polytechnic schools, each one of these focusing in one or several related subjects areas. These schools are named "higher schools", although some are named "higher institutes". There are some independent polytechnic schools and polytechnic schools that are integrated in universities. There are fifteen public polytechnic institutes in Portugal; each of these, cover a region of responsibility that corresponds to the area of a district. The residents in the regions of have priority in the access to the programs of their respective polytechnics; the programs offered by the polytechnics take their respective regions in consideration, focusing in the specific economic and social needs of the local communities.

Because of these features, the polytechnic institutes can be compared to the community colleges in the United States. The polytechnic institutes have multiple campus, each one having installed one or more of their schools. There are fifteen state-run polytechnical institutes in Portugal and several other private polytechnic institutions; the designation "Institute of Technology" is not applied at all. The polytechnical higher education system provides a more practical training and is profession-oriented, while the university higher education system has a strong theoretical basis and is research-oriented. Many major fields of study like medicine, the natural sciences, or veterinary, are taught only in university institutions, while other vocationally orientated degrees like nursing, accounting technician, health care technician, socio-cultural animation, administrative assistant, preschool teaching, technical engineer, are only offered by the polytechnic institutions. Higher education in Portugal is organized into two subsystems: university and polytechnic, with both kind of institutions operating across the country, since after 2006, with the approval of new legislation and the Bologna Process any polytechnic or university institution of Portugal, is able to provide a first cycle of study, known as licenciatura plus a second cycle which confers the mestrado.

The polytechnic institutions started to offer the first and second cycles after complying with the necessary requirements imposed by the upgrading due to the Bologna process, including a wider budget, proper research activities and a much larger number of doctorates among the teaching staff. Doctorate degrees and extensive independent fundamental research work are still exclusive competences of the universities. However, although with less resources devoted to investigation than the university institutions, since after the Bologna Process which allowed the polytechnical institutions to award master's degrees and required the admission of doctorate-level staff, an large number of Portuguese polytechnical institutions have established and expanded their own research facilities. Polytechnic Schools were created in the 19th century in Lisbon and Porto, were merged into the newly created universities of Lisbon and Porto in 1911. Other than the name, they were not related at all with the current polytechnic subsystem which exists in Portugal since the 1970s, or to any current institution belonging to them.

The current "Polytechnical Institutes" started to open after 1974. Some of them have its origins in the former vocational education "Institutes of Industry and Commerce" like the ones founded in Lisbon and Coimbra. A few polytechnical higher education institutions, though formed as such in the 1980s, have their origin in 19th century educational institutions - this is the case of the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, the Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto and the Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra; the poly

Postal fiscal stamp

A postal fiscal is a revenue stamp, authorised for postal use. Postal fiscals may arise because there is a shortage of postage stamps for a country or out of economy to use up obsolete or excess stocks of revenue stamps. Postal fiscals are to be distinguished from stamps marked "Postage and Revenue" which were always intended for either use, or revenue stamps used postally by accident or because local postal regulations did not prohibit such use. Postal fiscal status may only be identified from the cancels on used stamps or where the stamp is found on cover. Postal fiscals were authorised from 1 June 1881; these stamps were postally valid in British colonies such as Malta which used British stamps at that time and in British post offices abroad in places such as Beirut. From 1 April 1882 revenue stamps became valid for postal vice versa; this continued until the 1960s. New Zealand fiscals overprinted for various Pacific islands were valid for postal purposes, in islands such as Niue and Tokelau they were only used postally and were not valid for fiscal use.

Several other countries have used postal fiscal stamps, including Bechuanaland, Hong Kong, Tobago and Western Australia. Postal tax stamp A postage stamp with a charitable surcharge. Semi-postal A postage stamp with a charitable surcharge

Stan Mark

Stan Mark is an American trumpet player. Mark started his playing career in 1963 with the United States Navy Band in Washington D. C. and played lead trumpet with the band's jazz ensemble, The Commodores, from 1967 to 1970. In 1973 Mark joined the trumpet section of Maynard Ferguson's rock-influenced big band and was promoted to lead trumpet within a few months. Mark was visible within the band by black trumpet. Despite constant personnel changes, Mark remained a fixture with the band until he was fired in 1982, although he maintained a cordial relationship with Ferguson until Ferguson's death in 2006. Following his departure from the Ferguson band in 1982, Mark began leading a big band of his own in Orlando, recording the album Here's Stan Mark on the Progressive Records label; the band backed numerous singers and appeared on tour as the Nelson Riddle Orchestra and the Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra. Mark performed in clinics in high schools and Universities around the world. In early 1993 Stan began touring the United States as lead trumpet player with the Glenn Miller Orchestra.

Mark played lead trumpet with the Sorta Dixie Jazz Band/Gold Coast Orchestra from 1993 to 1996. While in Las Vegas, Mark led a Swing Band, the Sin City SuitZ. In 2002, Mark relocated from Las Vegas to the Rogue Valley of Southern Oregon, leading both a big band and a smaller group called the Rogue Valley SuitZ. Mark retired from the music business in 2005, although he did perform as a soloist and ensemble member at Maynard Ferguson's memorial service in St. Louis, MO on September 20, 2006. 1970: Presents the Commodores 1974: Chameleon Columbia Records 1975: Primal Scream 1976: Conquistador 1977: New Vintage 1978: Carnival 1979: Hot 1980: It's My Time 1981: Hollywood 1982: Storm 1983: Here's Stan Mark and his Big Band 1987: The Joint is Jumpin' 1991: Jubilee 1992: Welcome Aboard 1994: Collector's Edition 1995: Reflections 1997: Rock This Town! 1997: The Best of Stan Mark 1999: These SuitZ Can Swing! 1999: Remembering Harry 2001: Still Swinging! 2003: The Next Generation

Kang In-soo

Kang In-soo is a South Korean singer and actor. Born in Suwon, Gyeonggi Province, he was an aspiring singer in his adolescence and applied to the Department of Theater and Film in high school, but majored in dance following the denial of his initial application. Kang signed to H2 Media, he is a vocalist for the quintet. He performed his first acting role in Shinokubo Story alongside the group. Naked, his first mini-album independent from Myname, was released in Japan in September, he enlisted in the mandatory military service the following month. Kang In-soo was born on March 1988, in Suwon, Gyeonggi Province. An aspiring singer, he unsuccessfully applied to Anyang Arts High School under the Department of Theater and Film, he was accepted. He avoided dancing for the first two years, instead taking music lessons. In order to graduate from high school, he was required to conceive a dance piece. A male dance teacher visited the school to aid in the students' production, when Kang "fell in love" with ballet upon seeing the teacher's moves.

In addition to ballet, he practiced modern dance during his final year in high school. He passed Sejong University's concours and was admitted as a dance major despite not learning how to dance, he graduated from the institution and, for two years, served as a ballet instructor for rhythmic gymnasts Son Yeon-jae and Shin Soo-ji. He attended Korea National Open University. After deliberating between a career in ballet and music, he decided to participate in the second season of the talent television series Superstar K. Following his appearance on the show, he began receiving "love calls" from various entertainment companies, which he rejected for an opportunity to try out for Fly to the Sky's Hwanhee under H2 Media. Upon failing the audition, he sat by a water purifier at the company's entrance and greeted staff for the following seven consecutive days to have them recognize his face, he explained, "I did it because I wanted to show them how eager I was and that I can do it". As a result, he became a trainee under the label.

Kang is a vocalist in the idol group Myname. The group released their debut single "Message" in 2011. Kang made his acting debut along with his group in the film Shinokubo Story, where he played one of five characters seeking to become "stars", he released his first solo mini-album Naked in Japan on September 6, 2017. Kang's musical style was influenced by JYJ's Kim Junsu, Chris Brown and Usher, he held a release event at the Tower Records store in Shibuya the day before Naked's release, drawing in 400 attendees. The mini-album ranked at number 19 on Japan's national Oricon Albums Chart, selling 3,346 copies in its first week. Kang held two solo concerts in late September to promote Naked. Kang enlisted in military service on October 26, 2017, he received military training at the Korea Army Training Center in Nonsan, South Chungcheong Province. Kang's debut solo mini-album Naked encompasses ballads, R&B, rock music, its lead single. Kang has cited Hwanhee and American singer Usher as role models

Amalia Tătăran

Amalia Tătăran is a Romanian épée fencer, team silver medallist at the 2013 European Fencing Championships and team gold medallist at the 2015 European Games. Tătăran took up fencing at the age of 9 in Satu Mare, a Romanian fencing stronghold, under the guidance of coach Francisc Csiszar, she won a bronze medal at the 2010 Cadet World Championships in Baku. She represented Romania at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, finishing fifth. In 2012, she became the youngest member of the Romanian national team; the same year she won the Romanian Cup after defeating in the final Olympic silver medallist Ana Maria Brânză. Tătăran won in 2013 a silver medal at the Junior European Championships in Budapest, followed by a team silver medal at the senior European Championships in Zagreb. For this performance she was named athlete opf the year of Satu Mare County for the third time, after 2010 and 2011. In 2014, she transferred from CS Satu Mare to CS Dinamo București. In the 2014–15 season she won a bronze medal at the U23 European Championships in Vincenza.

She was named a reserve for Romania at the 2015 European Games. In the individual event, she was eliminated in the table of 32 by Great Britain's Corinna Lawrence. In the team event, no. 2 seeded Romania accessed directly the semi-finals. They overcame Estonia in the final to earn the gold medal. Amalia Tătăran at the International Fencing Federation Amalia Tătăran at the European Fencing Confederation