Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms, it is one of the most widespread and recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features; the most apparent is the presence of scales that cover the bodies, a proboscis. The scales are modified, flattened "hairs", give butterflies and moths their wide variety of colors and patterns. All species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults near or on host plants for the larvae.
Like most other insects and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis. The larvae are called caterpillars, are different from their adult moth or butterfly forms, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, three pairs of thoracic legs and from none up to five pairs of prolegs; as they grow, these larvae change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once matured, the larva develops into a pupa. A few butterflies and many moth species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others do not, instead going underground. A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin with no cocoon. Once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges; the Lepidoptera have, over millions of years, evolved a wide range of wing patterns and coloration ranging from drab moths akin to the related order Trichoptera, to the brightly colored and complex-patterned butterflies. Accordingly, this is the most recognized and popular of insect orders with many people involved in the observation, collection, rearing of, commerce in these insects.
A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist. Butterflies and moths play an important role in the natural ecosystem as pollinators and as food in the food chain. In many species, the female may produce from 200 to 600 eggs, while in others, the number may approach 30,000 eggs in one day; the caterpillars hatching from these eggs can cause damage to large quantities of crops. Many moth and butterfly species are of economic interest by virtue of their role as pollinators, the silk they produce, or as pest species; the term was coined by Linnaeus in 1735 and is derived from Greek λεπίς, gen. λεπίδος and πτερόν. Sometimes, the term Rhopalocera is used for the clade of all butterfly species, derived from the Ancient Greek ῥόπαλον and κέρας meaning "club" and "horn" coming from the shape of the antennae of butterflies; the origins of the common names "butterfly" and "moth" are varied and obscure. The English word butterfly is with many variations in spelling. Other than that, the origin is unknown, although it could be derived from the pale yellow color of many species' wings suggesting the color of butter.
The species of Heterocera are called moths. The origins of the English word moth are more clear, deriving from the Old English moððe" from Common Germanic, its origins are related to Old English maða meaning "maggot" or from the root of "midge", which until the 16th century was used to indicate the larva in reference to devouring clothes. The etymological origins of the word "caterpillar", the larval form of butterflies and moths, are from the early 16th century, from Middle English catirpel, catirpeller an alteration of Old North French catepelose: cate, cat + pelose, hairy; the Lepidoptera are among the most successful groups of insects. They are found on all continents, except Antarctica, inhabit all terrestrial habitats ranging from desert to rainforest, from lowland grasslands to mountain plateaus, but always associated with higher plants angiosperms. Among the most northern dwelling species of butterflies and moths is the Arctic Apollo, found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern Yakutia, at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level.
In the Himalayas, various Apollo species such as Parnassius epaphus have been recorded to occur up to an altitude of 6,000 m above sea level. Some lepidopteran species exhibit symbiotic, phoretic, or parasitic lifestyles, inhabiting the bodies of organisms rather than the environment. Coprophagous pyralid moth species, called sloth moths, such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi, are unusual in that they are found inhabiting the fur of sloths, mammals found in Central and South America. Two species of Tinea moths have been recorded as feeding on horny tissue and have been bred from the horns of cattle; the larva of Zenodochium coccivorella is an internal parasite of the coccid Kermes species. Many species have been recorded as breeding in natural materials or refuse such as owl pellets, bat caves, honeycombs or disease
Fanny Talbot Browne was a landowner and philanthropist, a friend and correspondent of the influential art critic John Ruskin. She is noted for donating the first property—4.5 acres of land known as Cliff of Light, at Barmouth, Gwynedd—to the National Trust. Fanny Browne was born in Somerset, in 1824, the daughter of Mary and John Browne. In 1850 she married George Tertius Talbot and they had one son George Quartus Talbot, born in 1854; the couple lived in the household of her parents in Bridgwater. She moved to Ty'n-y-Ffynon, a cottage in Barmouth, North Wales following her husband’s death in 1873 aged 47 and devoted herself to local philanthropic work. At the end of 1874, Talbot made Ruskin an offer, through a mutual friend, for the Guild of St George, of twelve or thirteen cottages and a 4.5-acre area of land at Barmouth. Her generous offer astonished Ruskin and their friendship was established on a note of great cordiality. Talbot’s correspondence with Ruskin continued until 1889. Both played games by correspondence.
Among other subjects they discussed were the Guild of St George and Talbot's son, Quartus, an aspiring artist. Of Talbot, Ruskin wrote: "She's a motherly, black-eyed woman of fifty with a nice married son, a superb chessplayer, she herself is a good one, it's her greatest indulgence to have a written game with me. She's an excellent nurse, curious beyond any magpie that was, but always giving her spoons away instead of stealing them. Clever beyond most women, she donated Dinas Oleu to the National Trust after its foundation in 1895. Oleu is a 4.5 acres stretch of rugged hillside. Talbot lived at Ty'n-y-Ffynon until her death in 1917, she had shared her home with her friend Blanche Atkinson, who died in 1911. The house bears a memorial plaque for Talbot. Fanny Talbot on Barmouth history site Fanny Talbot on Bridgwater history site "The National Trust's First Land Donation", about Dinas Oleu, Barmouth Barmouth walk gallery National Trust Images: Mrs Fanny Talbot
Jannelle So is a journalist and broadcaster known for her work as the creator and producer of "Kababayan Today", a daily show magazine/talk show for and about Filipinos airing on KSCI television. Under her leadership, the show ran for 9 years, as the longest-running Filipino daily talk show outside of the Philippines, she left the show in June 2014. Born and raised in the Philippines, So is of Chinese and Spanish descent, her last name is Chinese, meaning "happiness". She is the daughter of a Chinese entrepreneur who, together with his Filipina wife and established a clothing manufacturing business, supplying ready-to-wear merchandise to several leading Philippine department stores. Jannelle was an accomplished media practitioner in the Philippines where she had a six-year print and broadcast journalism career, which includes coverage of top local and international events such as: 1997 ASEAN Informal Summit in Malaysia, 1998 Asian Games in Bangkok 1998 Philippine Presidential Elections, 1998 Centennial Celebrations in the Philippines.
2002 Asian Games in KoreaAs a courtside reporter for Vintage Television, she covered the Philippine Basketball Association games from 1997-2003, while covering other basketball leagues - NCAA, PBL. She hosted a weekly sports show and a weekly travel/culture show commissioned by the Philippines' National Commission on Culture and the Arts. Jannelle has been covering the fights of Philippine boxing pride, Manny Pacquiao since 2000; as a columnist for the Philippine Star, Jannelle wrote "The Score" - a weekly sports column, from 1999-2004. Jannelle attended Saint Theresa's College, Quezon City for her high school education, she holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Communication Arts. She graduated cum laude and was awarded second honors of the whole graduating class from Miriam College, Inc. Philippines, where she was an honor scholar. In 1998, she was nominated to the Top 10 Most Outstanding Students of the Philippines. Jannelle moved to the United States in 2003 with her family, leaving behind a budding career as a sportscaster for the Philippine Basketball Association.
She lends herself to other non-profit organizations in Southern California such as The Philippine Medical Association of Southern California as event emcee and as keynote speaker. She completed a certificate course in journalism at UCLA and did freelance writing for Young Money and Audrey before coming to Kababayan L. A. So has worked as a correspondent for various news programs airing on The Filipino Channel. Jannelle start a popular and successful daily talk/magazine show, “Kababayan LA” on 2007, the fifth anniversary was celebrated on 2011. Jannelle got Honorable Mention from the Los Angeles Press Club at the 53rd Annual Southern California Journalism Awards. Janelle has been named to 100 Most Influential Filipinas in the US by Filipina Women’s Network, an esteemed Filipino group based in San Francisco. In 2013 So won the New America Media Award for Outstanding Community Reporting for Television; the award was in recognition of her work "Human Trafficking Special: A 4-Part Series". Jannelle was recognized by different prestigious Filipino organizations such as Search to Involve Pilipino Americans and Filipino American Library because of her hard work on her program Kababayan L.