An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System. The first evidence of an exoplanet was not recognized as such; the first scientific detection of an exoplanet was in 1988. The first confirmed detection occurred in 1992; as of 1 April 2019, there are 4,023 confirmed planets in 3,005 systems, with 656 systems having more than one planet. There are many methods of detecting exoplanets. Transit photometry and Doppler spectroscopy have found the most, but these methods suffer from a clear observational bias favoring the detection of planets near the star. In several cases, multiple planets have been observed around a star. About 1 in 5 Sun-like stars have an "Earth-sized" planet in the habitable zone. Assuming there are 200 billion stars in the Milky Way, it can be hypothesized that there are 11 billion habitable Earth-sized planets in the Milky Way, rising to 40 billion if planets orbiting the numerous red dwarfs are included; the least massive planet known is Draugr, about twice the mass of the Moon.
The most massive planet listed on the NASA Exoplanet Archive is HR 2562 b, about 30 times the mass of Jupiter, although according to some definitions of a planet, it is too massive to be a planet and may be a brown dwarf instead. There are planets that are so near to their star that they take only a few hours to orbit and there are others so far away that they take thousands of years to orbit; some are so far out. All of the planets detected so far are within the Milky Way. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that extragalactic planets, exoplanets farther away in galaxies beyond the local Milky Way galaxy, may exist; the nearest exoplanet is Proxima Centauri b, located 4.2 light-years from Earth and orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun. The discovery of exoplanets has intensified interest in the search for extraterrestrial life. There is special interest in planets that orbit in a star's habitable zone, where it is possible for liquid water, a prerequisite for life on Earth, to exist on the surface.
The study of planetary habitability considers a wide range of other factors in determining the suitability of a planet for hosting life. Besides exoplanets, there are rogue planets, which do not orbit any star; these tend to be considered as a separate category if they are gas giants, in which case they are counted as sub-brown dwarfs, like WISE 0855−0714. The rogue planets in the Milky Way number in the billions; the convention for designating exoplanets is an extension of the system used for designating multiple-star systems as adopted by the International Astronomical Union. For exoplanets orbiting a single star, the designation is formed by taking the name or, more designation of its parent star and adding a lower case letter; the first planet discovered in a system is given the designation "b" and planets are given subsequent letters. If several planets in the same system are discovered at the same time, the closest one to the star gets the next letter, followed by the other planets in order of orbital size.
A provisional IAU-sanctioned standard exists to accommodate the designation of circumbinary planets. A limited number of exoplanets have IAU-sanctioned proper names. Other naming systems exist. For centuries scientists and science fiction writers suspected that extrasolar planets existed, but there was no way of detecting them or of knowing their frequency or how similar they might be to the planets of the Solar System. Various detection claims made in the nineteenth century were rejected by astronomers; the first evidence of an exoplanet was not recognized as such. The first suspected scientific detection of an exoplanet occurred in 1988. Shortly afterwards, the first confirmed detection came in 1992, with the discovery of several terrestrial-mass planets orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12; the first confirmation of an exoplanet orbiting a main-sequence star was made in 1995, when a giant planet was found in a four-day orbit around the nearby star 51 Pegasi. Some exoplanets have been imaged directly by telescopes, but the vast majority have been detected through indirect methods, such as the transit method and the radial-velocity method.
In February 2018, researchers using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, combined with a planet detection technique called microlensing, found evidence of planets in a distant galaxy, stating "Some of these exoplanets are as small as the moon, while others are as massive as Jupiter. Unlike Earth, most of the exoplanets are not bound to stars, so they're wandering through space or loosely orbiting between stars. We can estimate. In the sixteenth century the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno, an early supporter of the Copernican theory that Earth and other planets orbit the Sun, put forward the view that the fixed stars are similar to the Sun and are accompanied by planets. In the eighteenth century the same possibility was mentioned by Isaac Newton in the "General Scholium" that concludes his Principia. Making a comparison to the Sun's planets, he wrote "And if the fixed stars are the centres of similar systems, they will all be constructed according to a similar design and subject to the dominion of One."In 1952, more than 40 years before the first hot Jupiter was discovere
Urania's Mirror. They had illustrations based on Alexander Jamieson's A Celestial Atlas, but the addition of holes punched in them allowed them to be held up to a light to see a depiction of the constellation's stars, they were engraved by Sidney Hall, were said to be designed by "a lady", but have since been identified as the work of the Reverend Richard Rouse Bloxam, an assistant master at Rugby School. The cover of the box-set showed a depiction of Urania, the muse of astronomy, came with a book entitled A Familiar Treatise on Astronomy... written as an accompaniment. Peter Hingley, the researcher who solved the mystery of who designed the cards a hundred and seventy years after their publication, considered them amongst the most attractive star chart cards of the many produced in the early 19th century. Urania's Mirror illustrates 79 constellations, some of which are now obsolete, various subconstellations, such as Caput Medusæ, it was advertised as including "all the constellations visible in the British Empire", but, in fact, leaves out the southern constellations and, by the second edition, advertisements claimed illustration of the constellations visible from "Great Britain".
Some cards focus on a single constellation, others include several, with Card 32, centered on Hydra, illustrating twelve constellations. Card 28 has six, no other card has more than four; each card measures 8 inches by 5 1⁄2. A book by Jehoshaphat Aspin entitled A Familiar Treatise on Astronomy was written to accompany the cards. Both the book and cards were published by Samuel Leigh, 18 Strand, although the publishing firm had moved to 421 Strand and changed its name to M. A. Leigh by the fourth edition; the cards and books came within a box illustrated with a woman certainly intended to be Urania, muse of astronomy. P. D. Hingley calls it "One of the most charming and visually attractive of the many aids to astronomical self-instruction produced in the early nineteenth century". On its main gimmick, the holes in the stars meant to show the constellation when held in front of a light, he notes that, as the size of the holes marked correspond to the magnitude of the stars, a quite realistic depiction of the constellation is provided.
Ian Ridpath concurs. He describes the device as an "attractive feature", but notes that, due to the light at the time being provided by candles, many cards burned up due to carelessness when trying to hold them in front of the flame, he notes three other attempts to use the same gimmick—Franz Niklaus König's Atlas céleste, Friedrich Braun's Himmels-Atlas in transparenten Karten, Otto Möllinger's Himmelsatlas, but states that they lack Urania's Mirror's artistry. The depictions of the constellations are redrawn from those in Alexander Jamieson's A Celestial Atlas, published about three years earlier, include unique attributes differing from Jamieson's sky atlas, including the new constellation of Noctua the owl, "Norma Nilotica" – a measuring device for the Nile floods – held by Aquarius the water bearer. Advertisements for Urania's Mirror, as well as the introduction to its companion book A Familiar Treatise on Astronomy, credit the design of the cards to a "lady", described in the introduction of the book as being "young".
This led to speculation for over a century. The designer's real identity was not discovered for some 170 years. While he had several notable sons, he has no other known publications, his main distinction being to have served as assistant master at Rugby School for 38 years; the reasons for the disguise are unknown. Hingley notes that many contemporary publications attempted to suggest women had played a role in their creation to make them sound less threatening, he suggests that anonymity might have been necessary to protect Bloxam's position at Rugby, but notes Rugby was quite progressive, which makes this unlikely. Ian Ridpath, noting the plagiarism of the art from A Celestial Atlas, suggests that this alone might be sufficient to cause the author to wish to remain anonymous. A December 1824 advertisement, which states the cards were "just published", offered the cards "plain" at £1/8s or "fully coloured" for £1/14s; this first edition did not include any stars surrounding the named constellations, leaving those parts blank.
This was changed for the second edition. An American edition was published in 1832. Modern reprints were produced in 1993, Barnes & Noble reproduced the American edition in 2004; the accompanying book, A Familiar Treatise on Astronomy by Jehoshaphat Aspin went through at least four editions, with the last coming out in 1834. The second edition featured a marked expansion in content, growing from 121 pages in the first edition to 200 pages in the second; the book, by the time of the 1834 American edition, consisted of an introduction, a list of the northern and southern constella
The South Pole known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth and lies on the opposite side of Earth from the North Pole. Situated on the continent of Antarctica, it is the site of the United States Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that year; the Geographic South Pole is distinct from the South Magnetic Pole, the position of, defined based on Earth's magnetic field. The South Pole is at the center of the Southern Hemisphere. For most purposes, the Geographic South Pole is defined as the southern point of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. However, Earth's axis of rotation is subject to small "wobbles", so this definition is not adequate for precise work; the geographic coordinates of the South Pole are given as 90°S, since its longitude is geometrically undefined and irrelevant.
When a longitude is desired, it may be given as 0°. At the South Pole, all directions face north. For this reason, directions at the Pole are given relative to "grid north", which points northwards along the prime meridian. Along tight latitude circles, clockwise is east, counterclockwise is west, opposite to the North Pole; the Geographic South Pole is located on the continent of Antarctica. It sits atop a featureless, barren and icy plateau at an altitude of 2,835 metres above sea level, is located about 1,300 km from the nearest open sea at Bay of Whales; the ice is estimated to be about 2,700 metres thick at the Pole, so the land surface under the ice sheet is near sea level. The polar ice sheet is moving at a rate of 10 metres per year in a direction between 37° and 40° west of grid north, down towards the Weddell Sea. Therefore, the position of the station and other artificial features relative to the geographic pole shift over time; the Geographic South Pole is marked by a stake in the ice alongside a small sign.
The sign records the respective dates that Roald Amundsen and Robert F. Scott reached the Pole, followed by a short quotation from each man, gives the elevation as "9,301 FT.". A new marker stake is fabricated each year by staff at the site; the Ceremonial South Pole is an area set aside for photo opportunities at the South Pole Station. It is located some meters from the Geographic South Pole, consists of a metallic sphere on a short bamboo pole, surrounded by the flags of the original Antarctic Treaty signatory states. Amundsen's Tent: The tent was erected by the Norwegian expedition led by Roald Amundsen on its arrival on 14 December 1911, it is buried beneath the snow and ice in the vicinity of the Pole. It has been designated a Historic Site or Monument, following a proposal by Norway to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting; the precise location of the tent is unknown, but based on calculations of the rate of movement of the ice and the accumulation of snow, it is believed, as of 2010, to lie between 1.8 and 2.5 km from the Pole at a depth of 17 m below the present surface.
Argentine Flagpole: A flagpole erected at the South Geographical Pole in December 1965 by the First Argentine Overland Polar Expedition has been designated a Historic Site or Monument following a proposal by Argentina to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. In 1820, several expeditions claimed to have been the first to have sighted Antarctica, with the first being the Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev; the first landing was just over a year when American Captain John Davis, a sealer, set foot on the ice. The basic geography of the Antarctic coastline was not understood until the mid-to-late 19th century. American naval officer Charles Wilkes claimed that Antarctica was a new continent, basing the claim on his exploration in 1839–40, while James Clark Ross, in his expedition of 1839–43, hoped that he might be able to sail all the way to the South Pole. British explorer Robert Falcon Scott on the Discovery Expedition of 1901–04 was the first to attempt to find a route from the Antarctic coastline to the South Pole.
Scott, accompanied by Ernest Shackleton and Edward Wilson, set out with the aim of travelling as far south as possible, on 31 December 1902, reached 82°16′ S. Shackleton returned to Antarctica as leader of the British Antarctic Expedition in a bid to reach the Pole. On 9 January 1909, with three companions, he reached 88°23' S – 112 miles from the Pole – before being forced to turn back; the first men to reach the Geographic South Pole were the Norwegian Roald Amundsen and his party on December 14, 1911. Amundsen named his camp Polheim and the entire plateau surrounding the Pole King Haakon VII Vidde in honour of King Haakon VII of Norway. Robert Falcon Scott returned to Antarctica with his second expedition, the Terra Nova Expedition unaware of Amundsen's secretive expedition. Scott and four other men reached the South Pole on January 17, 1912, thirty-four days after Amundsen. On the return trip and his four companions all died of starvation and extreme cold. In 1914 Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition set out with the goal of crossing Antarctica via the South Pole, but his ship, the Endurance, was frozen in pack ice and sank 1
European Southern Observatory
The European Southern Observatory, formally the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, is a 16-nation intergovernmental research organization for ground-based astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO has provided astronomers with state-of-the-art research facilities and access to the southern sky; the organisation employs about 730 staff members and receives annual member state contributions of €162 million. Its observatories are located in northern Chile. ESO has operated some of the largest and most technologically advanced telescopes; these include the 3.6 m New Technology Telescope, an early pioneer in the use of active optics, the Very Large Telescope, which consists of four individual 8.2 m telescopes and four smaller auxiliary telescopes which can all work together or separately. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array observes the universe in the millimetre and submillimetre wavelength ranges, is the world's largest ground-based astronomy project to date, it was completed in March 2013 in an international collaboration by Europe, North America, East Asia and Chile.
Under construction is the Extremely Large Telescope. It will use a 39.3-metre-diameter segmented mirror, become the world's largest optical reflecting telescope when operational in 2024. Its light-gathering power will allow detailed studies of planets around other stars, the first objects in the universe, supermassive black holes, the nature and distribution of the dark matter and dark energy which dominate the universe. ESO's observing facilities have made astronomical discoveries and produced several astronomical catalogues, its findings include the discovery of the most distant gamma-ray burst and evidence for a black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. In 2004, the VLT allowed astronomers to obtain the first picture of an extrasolar planet orbiting a brown dwarf 173 light-years away; the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher instrument installed on the older ESO 3.6 m telescope led to the discovery of extrasolar planets, including Gliese 581c—one of the smallest planets seen outside the solar system.
The idea that European astronomers should establish a common large observatory was broached by Walter Baade and Jan Oort at the Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands in spring 1953. It was pursued by Oort, who gathered a group of astronomers in Leiden to consider it on June 21 that year. Thereafter, the subject was further discussed at the Groningen conference in the Netherlands. On January 26, 1954, an ESO declaration was signed by astronomers from six European countries expressing the wish that a joint European observatory be established in the southern hemisphere. At the time, all reflector telescopes with an aperture of 2 metres or more were located in the northern hemisphere; the decision to build the observatory in the southern hemisphere resulted from the necessity of observing the southern sky. Although it was planned to set up telescopes in South Africa, tests from 1955 to 1963 demonstrated that a site in the Andes was preferable. On November 15, 1963 Chile was chosen as the site for ESO's observatory.
The decision was preceded by the ESO Convention, signed 5 October 1962 by Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Sweden. Otto Heckmann was nominated as the organisation's first director general on 1 November 1962. A preliminary proposal for a convention of astronomy organisations in these five countries was drafted in 1954. Although some amendments were made in the initial document, the convention proceeded until 1960 when it was discussed during that year's committee meeting; the new draft was examined in detail, a council member of CERN highlighted the need for a convention between governments. The convention and government involvement became pressing due to rising costs of site-testing expeditions; the final 1962 version was adopted from the CERN convention, due to similarities between the organisations and the dual membership of some members. In 1966, the first ESO telescope at the La Silla site in Chile began operating; because CERN had sophisticated instrumentation, the astronomy organisation turned to the nuclear-research body for advice and a collaborative agreement between ESO and CERN was signed in 1970.
Several months ESO's telescope division moved into a CERN building in Geneva and ESO's Sky Atlas Laboratory was established on CERN property. ESO's European departments moved into the new ESO headquarters in Garching, Germany in 1980. Although ESO is headquartered in Germany, its telescopes and observatories are in northern Chile, where the organisation operates advanced ground-based astronomical facilities: La Silla, which hosts the New Technology Telescope Paranal, where the Very Large Telescope is located Llano de Chajnantor, which hosts the APEX submillimetre telescope and where ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is locatedThese are among the best locations for astronomical observations in the southern hemisphere. An ESO project is the Extremely Large Telescope, a 40-metre-class telescope based on a five-mirror design and the planned Overwhelmingly Large Telescope; the ELT will be the near-infrared telescope in the world. ESO began its design in early 2006, aimed to begin construction in 2012.
Construction work at the ELT site started in June 2014. As decided by the ESO council on 26 April 2010, a fou
Mira variables, named for the prototype star Mira, are a class of pulsating variable stars characterized by red colours, pulsation periods longer than 100 days, amplitudes greater than one magnitude in infrared and 2.5 magnitude at visual wavelengths. They are red giants in the late stages of stellar evolution, on the asymptotic giant branch, that will expel their outer envelopes as planetary nebulae and become white dwarfs within a few million years. Mira variables are stars massive enough that they have undergone helium fusion in their cores but are less than two solar masses, stars that have lost about half their initial mass. However, they can be thousands of times more luminous than the Sun due to their large distended envelopes, they are pulsating due to the entire star contracting. This produces a change in temperature along with radius, both of which factors cause the variation in luminosity; the pulsation depends on the mass and radius of the star and there is a well-defined relationship between period and luminosity.
The large visual amplitudes are not due to large luminosity changes, but due to a shifting of energy output between infra-red and visual wavelengths as the stars change temperature during their pulsations. Early models of Mira stars assumed. A recent survey of Mira variable stars found that 75% of the Mira stars which could be resolved using the IOTA telescope are not spherically symmetric, a result, consistent with previous images of individual Mira stars, so there is now pressure to do realistic three-dimensional modelling of Mira stars on supercomputers. Mira variables may be carbon-rich. Carbon-rich stars such as R Leporis arise from a narrow set of conditions that override the normal tendency for AGB stars to maintain a surplus of oxygen over carbon at their surfaces due to dredge-ups. Pulsating AGB stars such as Mira variables undergo fusion in alternating hydrogen and helium shells, which produces periodic deep convection known as dredge-ups; these dredge-ups bring carbon from the helium burning shell to the surface and would result in a carbon star.
However, in stars above about 4 M☉, hot bottom burning occurs. This is when the lower regions of the convective region are hot enough for significant CN cycle fusion to take place which destroys much of the carbon before it can be transported to the surface, thus more massive AGB stars do not become carbon-rich. Mira variables are losing mass and this material forms dust shrouds around the star. In some cases conditions are suitable for the formation of natural masers. A small subset of Mira variables appear to change their period over time: the period increases or decreases by a substantial amount over the course of several decades to a few centuries; this is believed to be caused by thermal pulses, where the helium shell reignites the outer hydrogen shell. This changes the structure of the star; this process is predicted to happen to all Mira variables, but the short duration of thermal pulses over the asymptotic giant branch lifetime of the star, means we only see it in a few of the several thousand Mira stars known in R Hydrae.
Most Mira variables do exhibit slight cycle-to-cycle changes in period caused by nonlinear behaviour in the stellar envelope including deviations from spherical symmetry. Mira variables are popular targets for amateur astronomers interested in variable star observations, because of their dramatic changes in brightness; some Mira variables have reliable observations stretching back well over a century. The following list contains selected Mira variables. Unless otherwise noted, the given magnitudes are in the V-band. Long period variable Semiregular variable star
In Greek mythology, Orion was a giant huntsman whom Zeus placed among the stars as the constellation of Orion. Ancient sources tell several different stories about Orion; the most important recorded episodes are his birth somewhere in Boeotia, his visit to Chios where he met Merope and after he violated her, was blinded by her father, the recovery of his sight at Lemnos, his hunting with Artemis on Crete, his death by the bow of Artemis or the sting of the giant scorpion which became Scorpio, his elevation to the heavens. Most ancient sources omit some of these episodes and several tell only one; these various incidents may have been independent, unrelated stories, it is impossible to tell whether omissions are simple brevity or represent a real disagreement. In Greek literature he first appears as a great hunter in Homer's epic the Odyssey, where Odysseus sees his shade in the underworld; the bare bones of Orion's story are told by the Hellenistic and Roman collectors of myths, but there is no extant literary version of his adventures comparable, for example, to that of Jason in Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica or Euripides' Medea.
The surviving fragments of legend have provided a fertile field for speculation about Greek prehistory and myth. Orion served several roles in ancient Greek culture; the story of the adventures of Orion, the hunter, is the one on which there is the most evidence. Orion is mentioned in the oldest surviving works of Greek literature, which date back to the 7th or 8th century BC, but which are the products of an oral tradition with origins several centuries earlier. In Homer's Iliad Orion is described as a constellation, the star Sirius is mentioned as his dog. In the Odyssey, Odysseus sees him hunting in the underworld with a bronze club, a great slayer of animals. In the Works and Days of Hesiod, Orion is a constellation, one whose rising and setting with the sun is used to reckon the year; the legend of Orion was first told in full in a lost work by Hesiod the Astronomia. This version is known through the work of Eratosthenes on the constellations, who gives a long summary of Hesiod's episode on Orion.
According to this version, Orion was the son of the sea-god Poseidon and Euryale, daughter of Minos, King of Crete. Orion could walk on the waves because of his father. In vengeance, Oenopion blinded Orion and drove him away. Orion stumbled to Lemnos where Hephaestus — the lame smith-god — had his forge. Hephaestus told his servant, Cedalion, to guide Orion to the uttermost East where Helios, the Sun, healed him. Orion returned to Chios to punish Oenopion, but the king hid away underground and escaped Orion's wrath. Orion's next journey took him to Crete where he hunted with the goddess Artemis and her mother Leto, in the course of the hunt, threatened to kill every beast on Earth. Mother Earth objected and sent a giant scorpion to kill Orion; the creature succeeded, after his death, the goddesses asked Zeus to place Orion among the constellations. Zeus consented and, as a memorial to the hero's death, added the Scorpion to the heavens as well. Although Orion has a few lines in both Homeric poems and in the Works and Days, most of the stories about him are recorded in incidental allusions and in obscure writings.
No great poet standardized the legend. The ancient sources for Orion's legend are notes in the margins of ancient poets or compilations by scholars, the equivalent of modern reference works or encyclopedias. In several cases, including the summary of the Astronomy, although the surviving work bears the name of a famous scholar, such as Apollodorus of Athens, Eratosthenes, or Gaius Julius Hyginus, what survives is either an ancient forgery or an abridgement of the original compilation by a writer of dubious competence; the margin of the Empress Eudocia's copy of the Iliad has a note summarizing a Hellenistic poet who tells a different story of Orion's birth. Here the gods Zeus and Poseidon come to visit Hyrieus of Tanagra, who roasts a whole bull for them; when they offer him a favor, he asks for the birth of sons. The gods take the bull's hide and urinate into it and bury it in the earth tell him to dig it up ten months later; when he does, he finds Orion. A second full telling is in a Roman-era collection of myths.
Here Orion is described as earthborn and enormous in stature. This version mentions Poseidon and Euryale as his parents, it adds a first marriage to Side before
The moon rabbit in folklore is a rabbit that lives on the Moon, based on pareidolia that identifies the markings of the Moon as a rabbit. The folklore originated in China, spread to other Asian cultures. In East Asian folklore, it is seen pounding with a mortar and pestle, but the contents of the mortar differ among Chinese and Korean folklore. In Chinese folklore, it is portrayed as a companion of the Moon goddess Chang'e pounding the elixir of life for her. In some Chinese versions, the rabbit pounds medicine for the mortals. An early mention appears in the Chu Ci, a Western Han anthology of Chinese poems from the Warring States period, which notes that along with a toad, there is a rabbit on the Moon who pounds herbs for the immortals; this notion is supported by texts, including the Song-era Taiping Imperial Reader. Han Dynasty poets call the rabbit on the Moon the "Jade Rabbit" or the "Gold Rabbit", these phrases were used in place of the word for the Moon. A famous poet of Tang China, Li Bai, relates how "he rabbit in the Moon pounds the medicine in vain" in his poem "The Old Dust."
In the Buddhist Jataka tales, a monkey, an otter, a jackal, a rabbit resolved to practice charity on the day of the full moon, believing a demonstration of great virtue would earn a great reward. When an old man begged for food, the monkey gathered fruits from the trees and the otter collected fish, while the jackal wrongfully pilfered a lizard and a pot of milk-curd; the rabbit, who knew only how to gather grass, instead offered its own body, throwing itself into a fire the man had built. The rabbit, was not burnt; the old man revealed himself to be Śakra and, touched by the rabbit's virtue, drew the likeness of the rabbit on the Moon for all to see. It is said the lunar image is still draped in the smoke that rose when the rabbit cast itself into the fire. A version of this story can be found in the Japanese anthology Konjaku Monogatarishū, where the rabbit's companions are a fox, instead of a jackal, a monkey; the legend is popular and part of local folklore throughout Asia in China, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Myanmar.
The legend gave rise to the Mid-Autumn Festival of China and Vietnam, Tsukimi of Japan and Chuseok of Korea which all celebrate the legend of the moon rabbit. The reason why there's a rabbit on the Moon is explained in the buddhist fable Śaśajâtaka, whose name references one of the Sanskrit words for the Moon: शशाङ्क, that means “ whose mark is a hare ”. Legends of moon rabbits exist among some of the indigenous peoples of the Americas; these legends were not influenced by Asian cultures. According to an Aztec legend, the god Quetzalcoatl living on Earth as a man, started on a journey and, after walking for a long time, became hungry and tired. With no food or water around, he thought. A rabbit grazing nearby offered herself as food to save his life. Quetzalcoatl, moved by the rabbit's noble offering, elevated her to the Moon lowered her back to Earth and told her, "You may be just a rabbit, but everyone will remember you. Another Mesoamerican legend tells of the brave and noble sacrifice of Nanahuatzin during the creation of the fifth sun.
Humble Nanahuatzin sacrificed himself in fire to become the new sun, but the wealthy god Tecciztecatl hesitated four times before he set himself alight to become the Moon. Due to Tecciztecatl's cowardice, the gods felt that the Moon should not be as bright as the sun, so one of the gods threw a rabbit at his face to diminish his light, it is said that Tecciztecatl was in the form of a rabbit when he sacrificed himself to become the Moon, casting his shadow there. A Cree legend tells a different variation, about a young rabbit. Only the crane was willing to take him; the trip stretched the crane’s legs as the heavy rabbit held them leaving them elongated as cranes' legs are now. When they reached the Moon, the rabbit touched the crane’s head with a bleeding paw, leaving the red mark cranes wear to this day. According to the legend, on clear nights, Rabbit can still be seen riding the Moon; the Chinese lunar rover Yutu, which landed on the Moon on December 14, 2013, was named after the Jade Rabbit as a result of an online poll.
The moon rabbit was the subject of a humorous conversation between NASA mission control and the crew of Apollo 11:Houston: Among the large headlines concerning Apollo this morning, is one asking that you watch for a lovely girl with a big rabbit. An ancient legend says a beautiful Chinese girl called Chang-O has been living there for 4,000 years, it seems. You might look for her companion, a large Chinese rabbit, easy to spot since he is always standing on his hind feet in the shade of a cinnamon tree; the name of the rabbit is not reported. Michael Collins: Okay. We'll keep a close eye out for the bunny girl; the eponymous Sailor Moon's human name is Usagi Tsukino, a pun on 月のうさぎ which means Moon Rabbit in Japanese. Her daughter's name, means little rabbit; the 1998–1999 Japanese-exclusive Transformers animated series Beast Wars II features Moon, a robotic rabbit who lives in the Moon with Artemis. The story makes an appearance in the "Legend of the Stars" section of the Kamen Rider Spirits manga, told by Sergei Koribanof to his son Masim.
In the Dragon Ball animation, Son Goku fights against the Rabbit Gang and solves the issue presented in the episode by