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Lernaean Hydra

The Lernaean Hydra or Hydra of Lerna, more known as the Hydra, is a serpentine water monster in Greek and Roman mythology. Its lair was the lake of Lerna in the Argolid, the site of the myth of the Danaïdes. Lerna was reputed to be an entrance to the Underworld, archaeology has established it as a sacred site older than Mycenaean Argos. In the canonical Hydra myth, the monster is killed by Heracles as the second of his Twelve Labors. According to Hesiod, the Hydra was the offspring of Echidna, it had poisonous breath and blood so virulent that its scent was deadly. The Hydra possessed the exact number of which varies according to the source. Versions of the Hydra story add a regeneration feature to the monster: for every head chopped off, the Hydra would regrow two heads. Heracles required the assistance of his nephew Iolaus to cut off all of the monster's heads and burn the neck using a sword and fire; the oldest extant Hydra narrative appears in Hesiod's Theogony, while the oldest images of the monster are found on a pair of bronze fibulae dating to c. 700 BCE.

In both these sources, the main motifs of the Hydra myth are present: a multi-headed serpent, slain by Heracles and Iolaus. While these fibulae portray a six-headed Hydra, its number of heads was first fixed in writing by Alcaeus, who gave it nine heads. Simonides, writing a century increased the number to fifty, while Euripides and others did not give an exact figure. Heraclitus the paradoxographer rationalized the myth by suggesting that the Hydra would have been a single-headed snake accompanied by its offspring. Like the initial number of heads, the monster's capacity to regenerate lost heads varies with time and author; the first mention of this ability of the Hydra occurs with Euripides, where the monster grew back a pair of heads for each one severed by Heracles. In the Euthydemus of Plato, Socrates likens Euthydemus and his brother Dionysidorus to a Hydra of a sophistical nature who grows two arguments for every one refuted. Palaephatus and Diodorus Siculus concur with Euripides, while Servius has the Hydra grow back three heads each time.

Depictions of the monster dating to c. 500 BCE show it with a double tail as well as multiple heads, suggesting the same regenerative ability at work, but no literary accounts have this feature. The Hydra had many parallels in ancient Near Eastern religions. In particular, Sumerian and Assyrian mythology celebrated the deeds of the war and hunting god Ninurta, whom the Angim credited with slaying 11 monsters on an expedition to the mountains, including a seven-headed serpent and Bashmu, whose constellation was associated by the Greeks with the Hydra; the constellation is sometimes associated in Babylonian contexts with Marduk's dragon, the Mushhushshu. Eurystheus sent Heracles to slay the Hydra. Upon reaching the swamp near Lake Lerna, where the Hydra dwelt, Heracles covered his mouth and nose with a cloth to protect himself from the poisonous fumes, he shot flaming arrows into the Hydra's lair, the spring of Amymone, a deep cave from which it emerged only to terrorize neighboring villages. He confronted the Hydra, wielding either a harvesting sickle, a sword, or his famed club.

The chthonic creature's reaction to this decapitation was botanical: two grew back, an expression of the hopelessness of such a struggle for any but the hero. The weakness of the Hydra was; the details of the struggle are explicit in the Bibliotheca: realizing that he could not defeat the Hydra in this way, Heracles called on his nephew Iolaus for help. His nephew came upon the idea of using a firebrand to scorch the neck stumps after each decapitation. Heracles cut off each head and Iolaus cauterized the open stumps. Seeing that Heracles was winning the struggle, Hera sent a giant crab to distract him, he crushed it under his mighty foot. The Hydra's one immortal head was cut off with a golden sword given to Heracles by Athena. Heracles placed the head—still alive and writhing—under a great rock on the sacred way between Lerna and Elaius, dipped his arrows in the Hydra's poisonous blood, thus his second task was complete. The alternate version of this myth is that after cutting off one head he dipped his sword in its neck and used its venom to burn each head so it could not grow back.

Hera, upset that Heracles had slain the beast she raised to kill him, placed it in the dark blue vault of the sky as the constellation Hydra. She turned the crab into the constellation Cancer. Heracles would use arrows dipped in the Hydra's poisonous blood to kill other foes during his remaining labors, such as Stymphalian Birds and the giant Geryon, he used one to kill the centaur Nessus. Both Strabo and Pausanias report that the stench of the river Anigrus in Elis, making all the fish of the river inedible, was reputed to be due to the Hydra's poison, washed from the arrows Heracles used on the centaur; when Eurystheus, the agent of Hera, assigning The Twelve Labors to Heracles, found out that it was Heracles' nephew Iolaus who had handed Heracles the firebrand, he declared that the labor had not been completed alone and as a result did not count towards the 10 labors set for him. The mythic element is an equivocating attempt to resolve the submerged conflict between an ancient ten labors and a more recent twelve.



Enspel is an Ortsgemeinde – a community belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde – in the Westerwaldkreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Enspel lies 10 km northwest of Westerburg on a bank on the west slope of the Stöffel, a basalt mountain; the community’s structure is based on the nearby basalt quarries which were worked beginning about 1900. Worth seeing are the mighty outcrops in the Stöffel. Since 1972 Enspel has belonged to what was the newly founded Verbandsgemeinde of Westerburg, a kind of collective municipality. In 1261, Enspel had its first documentary mention. In the 20th century, the famous Stöffelmaus was found; this was a fossil of Eomys quercyi. The council is made up of 9 council members, including the extraofficial mayor, who were elected in a majority vote in a municipal election on 7 June 2009. South of the community runs Bundesstraße 255 leading from Montabaur to Herborn; the nearest Autobahn interchange is Montabaur on the A 3. Enspel lies on the Oberwesterwaldbahn to Au. From there, the cities of Cologne, Frankfurt am Main and Wiesbaden may be reached directly.

The nearest InterCityExpress stop is the railway station at Montabaur on the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line. Fire brigade "Stöffelhalle" village association house "Am Stöffel" Guesthouse – self-catering Blockhütte Jugendraum Football area Two playgrounds Entrance to Stöffel-Park Enspel

Gospel Oak railway station

Gospel Oak railway station is in the London Borough of Camden in north London. It is on the North London Line and is the western passenger terminus of the Gospel Oak to Barking Line - known informally as GOBLIN. Passengers using Oyster cards are required to tap on interchange Oyster card readers when changing between the two lines; the station is in Travelcard Zone 2, is managed by London Overground which runs all passenger trains at the station. The station opened in 1860 as Kentish Town on the Hampstead Junction Railway from Camden Road to Old Oak Common Junction south of Willesden Junction, it was renamed Gospel Oak in 1867 when a new station more appropriately named Kentish Town was opened about a mile south on the same line. Due to financial constraints a planned connection from the Tottenham and Hampstead Junction Railway to Gospel Oak station was not added until 4 June 1888, some 20 years after that railway opened, without a link to the North London Line due to other companies' opposition.

From 1926 to 1981, the station was not a passenger interchange: passenger trains left the Barking line at Tufnell Park and descended the gradient to Kentish Town station. In 1981 that passenger service from Barking was diverted from Kentish Town to Gospel Oak with the terminal platform rebuilt on the north side of the existing station; the North London Line through Gospel Oak was electrified on the fourth-rail 660 volt DC system in 1916 by the LNWR: in the 1970s, changed to 750 volt DC third rail. In 1996, the line from Willesden through Gospel Oak to Camden was closed during conversion to 25 kv AC overhead; the platforms are high above street level with stairs and two lifts, one serving westbound trains, one serving eastbound trains and the Barking line. The North London Line has two platforms and the Barking line has a short terminal platform north of which are two separate through freight tracks which join the NLL just west of the station. Oyster ticket barriers are in operation. To allow four-car trains to run on the London Overground network, the North London Line between this station and Stratford closed from February 2010 to 1 June 2010, for installing a new signalling system and for extending 30 platforms.

Until May 2011, there was a reduced service with no services on Sundays while the upgrade work continued. The typical off-peak service at the station in trains per hour is: 4 eastbound to Barking 6 eastbound to Stratford 2 westbound to Clapham Junction 4 westbound to Richmond London Buses route C11 serves the station; the two brick skew arch bridges by which the trains cross Gordon House Road are shown in the cover photograph of the 1997 Gospel Oak EP by Irish singer Sinéad O'Connor. Train times and station information for Gospel Oak railway station from National Rail

Earl of Norbury

Earl of Norbury, in the County of Tipperary, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1827, along with the title Viscount Glandine, of Glandine in the King's County, for the Irish politician and judge John Toler, 1st Baron Norbury, upon his retirement as Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland; the titles were created with special remainder to his second son, Hector, as his eldest son, was considered mentally unwell. Lord Norbury had been created Baron Norbury, of Ballycrenode in the County of Tipperary, in the Peerage of Ireland in 1800, with remainder to the heirs male of his body. Moreover, his wife, Grace Toler, had been created Baroness Norwood, of Knockalton in the County of Tipperary, in the Peerage of Ireland in 1797, with remainder to the heirs male of her body. By the time Lord Norbury was raised to the Earldom, his wife had died and their eldest son had succeeded her as 2nd Baron Norwood; this son succeeded Lord Norbury himself on his death in 1831 as 2nd Baron Norbury, whilst his younger brother Daniel succeeded to the viscountcy and earldom according to the special remainder.

In 1832, the second Earl succeeded his elder brother in the two baronies. He had in 1825 assumed the additional surname of Graham by Royal licence. John Toler, 1st Earl of Norbury Hector John Graham-Toler, 2nd Earl of Norbury Hector John Graham-Toler, 3rd Earl of Norbury William Brabazon Lindsay Graham-Toler, 4th Earl of Norbury Ronald Ian Montagu Graham-Toler, 5th Earl of Norbury Noel Terence Graham-Toler, 6th Earl of Norbury Richard James Graham-Toler, 7th Earl of Norbury There is no heir to the peerages. John Toler, 1st Earl of Norbury, 1st Baron Norbury Daniel Toler, 2nd Baron Norwood and 2nd Baron Norbury Hector John Graham-Toler, 2nd Earl of Norbury, 3rd Baron Norbury Grace Toler, 1st Baroness Norwood Daniel Toler, 2nd Baron Norwood and 2nd Baron Norbury Hector John Graham-Toler, 2nd Earl of Norbury, 3rd Baron Norwood Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages

Coprinopsis cinerea

Coprinopsis cinerea is a species of mushroom in the family Psathyrellaceae. Known as the gray shag, it is edible, but must be used promptly after collecting. Coprinopsis cinerea is an important model organism for studying fungal sex and mating types, mushroom development, the evolution of multicellularity of fungi; the genome sequence was published in 2010. It is considered to be suited organism to study meiosis, due to its synchronous meiotic development and prolonged prophase. Researchers in 2014 discovered; the protein, known as copsin, has similar effects to other non-protein organically derived antibiotics. To date, it has not been determined whether antibiotic medicine for humans and other animals can be developed from this protein. Coprinopsis cinerea can be grown on complex or minimal media, solid or liquid, with or without agitation, at 25 °C or optimally at 37 °C, it can be grown with 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. C. cinereus strain PG78 is an AmutBmut monokaryon, self-compatible strain, with trp- and pab-auxotrophic markers.

Coprinopsis cinerea strain Okayama 7 was sequenced with 10x coverage in 2003. A third and most recent revision of the sequence of strain Okayama 7 was released in 2010, its haploid genome is ca. 37.5 Mb. Coprinopsis cinerea can be transformed with exogenous DNA by transformation when the fungus is a protoplast, it was found that disrupting ku70 homologue can increase gene targeting via increased homologous recombination. Either protoplasts derived from oidia or vegetative mycelium can be used, gene targeting was found to be higher by 2% when using vegetative mycelium. Otherwise, insertion of integrative vectors ectopically and with small homologous regions can be used with low transformation efficiency. Earlier, REMI could be used to insert exogenous DNA into the chromosome to produce mutant strains; this relies on inserting exogenous DNA and restriction enzymes into the protoplast cell, allowing for the enzymes to cut the chromosome at specific sites which match those sites used to produce linearized plasmid DNA with the gene of interest.

Although successful, undesirable mutations are likely. Chemical mutagenesis can be done. Phenotype selection of the inability to fruit can indict that insertion led to disruption of vital genes. All in all, homologous recombination provides more specificity. Depending on the mutant, auxotrophy markers or prototrophy be used for selection. Coprinopsis cinerea is known to produce a type of phenoloxidase. C. cinerea produces a variety of the same laccase, known as isoenzymes. Laccase activity can be measured by zymograms. Under stressed conditions and medium, laccase secretion was increased. Although copper is required co-factor for laccase adding copper did not induce laccase secretion, it was found that a TET homologue, CcTET, was identified in C. cinerea, which may have important human implications like cancer. DNA methylation is vital in humans and dysfunction is associated with cancer, studying methylation reactions in non-mammalians may provide better insight into mammalian methylation reactions.

Coprinopsis cinerea can sense blue light. It was identified. Etiolated stipes is caused. C. cinerea is an ideal model for studying meiosis because meiosis progresses synchronously in about 10 million cells within each mushroom cap. Meiosis is a specialized cell division process, occurring in diploid cells, in which a single round of DNA replication occurs, is followed by two divisions to produce four haploid daughter nuclei. During meiosis homologous chromosomes pair with each other and undergo a DNA repair process in which DNA damage is removed and genetic information is recombined. Burns et al. studied the expression of genes involved in the 15-hour meiotic process encompassing time points prior to the haploid nuclear fusion that forms the diploid zygote to the final formation of the four haploid products. They compared expression of particular genes in C. cinerea to the expression of the comparable genes in two other species from which C. cinerea had diverged in evolution 500 to 900 million years ago.

They found that the expression of individual genes turned on or off at the same stage in C. cinerea as in the other two species. They found that genes considered to be involved in the meiotic process were more conserved in their expression pattern than non-meiotic genes; these findings indicate ancient conservation of the meiotic process. Coprinopsis cinerea is harmless to animal health under normal conditions. However, the organism can cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or are otherwise undergoing immunosuppression treatment. Most reported cases have been respiratory infections, but cases involving the heart, brain or gut have been reported, the infections may become systemic. Whilst exceptionally rare, Coprinopsis cinerea infection is difficult to treat

Makoto Nakajima

Makoto Nakajima was the commissioner of the Japan Patent Office until he was succeeded by Tetsuhiro Hosono. Upon graduating from the University of Tokyo with a law degree, Nakajima began working in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in April 1974. On May 1988, the Industrial Organization and Industrial Policy Bureau chief. Nakajima became the director of the Director of the Budget and Accounts Division for the Minister's Secretariat, served as the director of the MITI's Kansai region branch. In 2004, Nakajima served as the director-general of the Ministry of Economy and Industry Trade and Economic Cooperation Bureau, until his appointment as commissioner of the Japan Patent Office in 2005. While serving in the role of commissioner, Nakajima entered into new agreements with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and other patent offices for the Patent Prosecution Highway, a set of rules for fast-tracking patents by sharing information between patent offices in different countries.

He reached a similar agreement with the Korean Intellectual Property Office and the State Intellectual Property Office of the People's Republic of China. Nakajima took steps to increase efficiency and reduce duplication of work within the Japan Patent Office. Shinjiro Ono