Plymouth is a port city situated on the south coast of Devon, England 37 miles south-west of Exeter and 190 miles west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city are the mouths of the river Plym and river Tamar, which are incorporated into Plymouth Sound to form a boundary with Cornwall. Plymouth's early history extends to the Bronze Age; this settlement continued as a trading post for the Roman Empire, until it was surpassed by the more prosperous village of Sutton founded in the ninth century, now called Plymouth. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers departed Plymouth for the New World and established Plymouth Colony, the second English settlement in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War, the town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged between 1642 and 1646. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Plymouth grew as a commercial shipping port, handling imports and passengers from the Americas, exporting local minerals; the neighbouring town of Devonport became a strategic Royal Naval dockyard town.
In 1914 three neighbouring independent towns, viz. the county borough of Plymouth, the county borough of Devonport, the urban district of East Stonehouse were merged to form a single County Borough. The combined town took the name of Plymouth; the city's naval importance led to its being targeted by the German military and destroyed by bombing during World War II, an act known as the Plymouth Blitz. After the war the city centre was rebuilt and subsequent expansion led to the incorporation of Plympton and Plymstock along with other outlying suburbs in 1967; the city is home to 263,100 people, making it the 30th-most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom and the second-largest city in the South West, after Bristol. It is represented nationally by three MPs. Plymouth's economy remains influenced by shipbuilding and seafaring including ferry links to Brittany and Spain, but has tended toward a service-based economy since the 1990s, it has the largest operational naval base in Western Europe, HMNB Devonport, is home to the University of Plymouth.
Upper Palaeolithic deposits, including bones of Homo sapiens, have been found in local caves, artefacts dating from the Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age have been found at Mount Batten, showing that it was one of few principle trading ports of pre Roman Britannia dominating continental trade with Armorica. An unidentified settlement named TAMARI OSTIA is listed in Ptolemy's Geographia and is presumed to be located in the area of the modern city. An ancient promontory fort was located at Rame Head at the mouth of Plymouth Sound with ancient hillforts located at Lyneham Warren to the east, Boringdon Camp and Maristow Camp to the north; the settlement of Plympton, further up the River Plym than the current Plymouth, was an early trading port. As the river silted up in the early 11th century and merchants were forced to settle downriver at the current day Barbican near the river mouth. At the time this village was called meaning south town in Old English; the name Plym Mouth, meaning "mouth of the River Plym" was first mentioned in a Pipe Roll of 1211.
The name Plymouth first replaced Sutton in a charter of King Henry VI in 1440. See Plympton for the derivation of the name Plym. During the Hundred Years' War a French attack burned a manor house and took some prisoners, but failed to get into the town. In 1403 the town was burned by Breton raiders. On 12 November 1439, the English Parliament made Plymouth the first town incorporated. In the late fifteenth century, Plymouth Castle, a "castle quadrate", was constructed close to the area now known as The Barbican; the castle served to protect Sutton Pool, where the fleet was based in Plymouth prior to the establishment of Plymouth Dockyard. In 1512 an Act of Parliament was passed for further fortifying Plymouth. A series of fortifications were built, including defensive walls at the entrance to Sutton Pool. Defences on St Nicholas Island date from this time, a string of six artillery blockhouses were built, including one on Fishers Nose at the south-eastern corner of the Hoe; this location was further strengthened by the building of a fort in 1596.
During the 16th century, locally produced wool was the major export commodity. Plymouth was the home port for successful maritime traders, among them Sir John Hawkins, who led England's first foray into the Atlantic slave trade, as well as Sir Francis Drake, Mayor of Plymouth in 1581 and 1593. According to legend, Drake insisted on completing his game of bowls on the Hoe before engaging the Spanish Armada in 1588. In 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers set sail for the New World from Plymouth, establishing Plymouth Colony – the second English colony in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War Plymouth sided with the Parliamentarians and was besieged for four years by the Royalists; the last major attack by the Royalists was by Sir Richard Grenville leading thousands of soldiers towards Plymouth, but they were defeated by the Plymothians at Freedom Fields Park. The civil war ended as a Parliamentary win, but monarchy was restored by King Charles II in 1660, who imprisoned many of the Parliamentary heroes on Drake's Is
Whalley Range, Manchester
Whalley Range is an area of Manchester, about 2 miles southwest of the city centre. The population at the 2011 census was 15,430. In Lancashire, it was one of the earliest of the city's suburbs, built by local businessman Samuel Brooks. Whalley Range was one of Manchester's first suburbs, built by Manchester banker and businessman Samuel Brooks as "a desirable estate for gentlemen and their families". In September 1834, Samuel Brooks bought 39 Lancashire acres of land from Robert Fielden, called Oak Farm in Moss Side known locally as Barber's Farm. Brooks bought 42 Lancashire acres from the Egerton Estate; this land is described in the deeds as being part of Hough Moss, but in the Egerton Estate's records as Fletcher's Moss. It was known locally as Jackson's, Plant's or Woodall's Moss, was part of the Manor of Withington. In 1867, the area was given its own postcode by the post office -'Manchester SW 16'. In 1894, the area north of the Black Brook was incorporated into the newly formed Stretford Urban District.
Upon the sale of Manley Hall in 1905, a contiguous strip of land was added to the south and west of the estate for house building being a part of the township of Chorlton-cum-Hardy. Because all of this land was covered in peat from a thickness of eighteen inches to three feet, Samuel Brooks drained it, built villas for wealthy businessmen such as himself, he was born near Whalley, after which he named his own home Whalley House, which may be the origin of the area's name. A toll gate guarded this exclusive area and this place is still "Brooks’s Bar" though simplified in local pronunciation to Brooks' Bar; the toll-gate was first removed to the junction with Wood Road, the charging of tolls came to an end on 10 June 1896. The residents never tried to incorporate the area as a separate local authority, as in the age of light-touch government they saw no need; the area was more or less divided between the Moss Side and Withington Urban Districts. The urban district councils in turn sub-contracted some functions to Lancashire County Council, notably policing.
Additionally the residents paid for a private police force, to protect property. This arrangement seemed to be quite effective, as the area appears in Victorian and Edwardian crime reports, with the one exception below; the private police survived the elimination of toll-charging and incorporation into the City, only becoming defunct with the manpower shortages of the First World War. Residents to the south of the area could call on the Cheshire Lines Committee Police and Manchester City Council maintained a park police; the unusual nature of the area has given rise to some myths, notably that no alcohol could be sold within it. Brooks was a High Church Anglican, so there was no religious reason for any restrictive covenants, rather a desire to keep up the tone of the area. Whalley Range had several private members' clubs, as well as a public hall and a cinema in Withington Road, at the end of Dudley Road. In Withington Road was the'Caught on the Hop' pub on Withington Road, as well as the much older'Whalley Hotel' at the Brooks's Bar corner of Upper Chorlton Road, the'Seymour', at the other end.
All have now been either sold for other uses. The original plans for the area envisaged it as much larger. For instance, Hough End Crescent was meant to be an arc of large houses, linking the ends of Alexandra and Withington Roads; this idea was made impossible by the difficulty of draining the area, the building of the railway. Drainage difficulties are a feature of the area, as it was crossed by a large number of streams, some being notable as open sewers. Many roads are in fact built over culverts, notably Upper Chorlton Brantingham Road; as late as the 1930s significant drainage work had to be carried out in the Manley Road area. Clarendon Road was built on the site of clay pits, needed remedial work on gable-ends due to subsidence in the 1980s. Today the remaining open brooks are worked on to prevent flooding. Incorporation shrank the area thanks to ward and constituency boundary changes. West Point was lost to Chorlton, Darley Park to Old Trafford, as well as the eastern side at the north end of Withington Road.
Postcode changes, made necessary by the inter-war development of the Egerton Estate, meant that the southern end of the area was lost. Whalley Range has had a large Polish community since the late 1940s. By the 1960s the area became synonymous with bedsit-land, the encroachment of property developers, gained a poor reputation as a red-light district. There has been a recent return of this phenomenon. Estate agents took to describing it as'Chorlton Borders', the City Council made a short-lived attempt to rename it as East Chorlton; however the area had two redoubtable female defenders: one of these was Ingeborg Tipping, the Chair of the Residents' Association, who made great efforts to ensure the area was properly policed, among many other matters. City Councillor the late Kath Fry was a pro-active champion of the area. On 24 June 2012 the Olympic Torch passed along the full length of Upper Chorlton Road on its nationwide tour. Public transport was resisted. No railway line was allowed through: the nearest station was at the southern end of Alexandra Road South, designed to serve the Alexandra Park Aerodrome at Hough End.
The aerodrome ran a scheduled service to Croydon Airport. The travel agent, Robinson's on Withington Road, woul
Norman Evans was a variety and radio performer, born in Rochdale, England. Evans was discovered by fellow Rochdale entertainer Gracie Fields; the act for which he is best remembered was "Over the Garden Wall", in which he played Fanny Fairbottom, a toothless hatchet-faced Lancastrian housewife gossiping over a garden wall, The routine was the inspiration for Les Dawson and Roy Barraclough's Cissie and Ada characters. The one-sided conversations would embrace local gossip, including scandal about the neighbours and personal medical complaints, including silently mouthing words deemed too rude to be spoken out loud, accompanied with a range of facial contortions and glances round for supposed eavesdroppers. Another famous stage sketch was "The Dentist" in which Evans played both patient and dentist, in which he employed a large screen, his first appearance on the London stage was alongside a young Betty Driver. Evans was the only pantomime dame to receive top billing at the London Palladium. In May 1955, he lost his right eye in a serious car accident while driving near Preston.
The accident was caused. His final summer season was at Butlin's Holiday Camp, Pwllheli in 1962, he wrote to Clarkson Rose "Working in a Butlin theatre is a terrific experience, although I've not been too well, I've never been happier in my life". Norman Evans is buried in Blackpool; the headstone of his grave is a low wall built from natural gritstone blocks. His epitaph reads "Norman's last garden wall!" Demobbed Under New Management The Calendar Over the Garden Wall Norman Evans on IMDb Sample of Evans' act Biography on Rochdale Council website
The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income upon their earnings from wage labour. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production; as with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in many different ways. The most general definition, used by Marxists and many socialists, is that the working class includes all those who have nothing to sell but their labour power and skills. In that sense it includes both white and blue-collar workers and mental workers of all types, excluding only individuals who derive their income from business ownership and the labour of others.
When used non-academically in the United States, however, it refers to a section of society dependent on physical labour when compensated with an hourly wage. For certain types of science, as well as less scientific or journalistic political analysis, for example, the working class is loosely defined as those without college degrees. Working-class occupations are categorized into four groups: unskilled labourers, artisans and factory workers. A common alternative, sometimes used in sociology, is to define class by income levels; when this approach is used, the working class can be contrasted with a so-called middle class on the basis of differential terms of access to economic resources, cultural interests, other goods and services. The cut-off between working class and middle class here might mean the line where a population has discretionary income, rather than sustenance; some researchers have suggested that working-class status should be defined subjectively as self-identification with the working-class group.
This subjective approach allows people, rather than researchers. In feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, most people were part of the labouring class, a group made up of different professions and occupations. A lawyer and peasant were all considered to be part of the same social unit, a third estate of people who were neither aristocrats nor church officials. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-industrial societies; the social position of these labouring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested by peasants, for example during the German Peasants' War. In the late 18th century, under the influence of the Enlightenment, European society was in a state of change, this change could not be reconciled with the idea of a changeless god-created social order. Wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on their morals and ethics.
In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P. Thompson argues that the English working class was present at its own creation, seeks to describe the transformation of pre-modern labouring classes into a modern, politically self-conscious, working class. Starting around 1917, a number of countries became ruled ostensibly in the interests of the working class; some historians have noted that a key change in these Soviet-style societies has been a massive a new type of proletarianization effected by the administratively achieved forced displacement of peasants and rural workers. Since four major industrial states have turned towards semi-market-based governance, one state has turned inwards into an increasing cycle of poverty and brutalization. Other states of this sort have either collapsed, or never achieved significant levels of industrialization or large working classes. Since 1960, large-scale proletarianization and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes.
Additionally, countries such as India have been undergoing social change, expanding the size of the urban working class. Karl Marx defined the working class or proletariat as individuals who sell their labour power for wages and who do not own the means of production, he argued. He asserted that the working class physically build bridges, craft furniture, grow food, nurse children, but do not own land, or factories. A sub-section of the proletariat, the lumpenproletariat, are the poor and unemployed, such as day labourers and homeless people. Marx considered them to be devoid of class consciousness. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationshi
A cotton mill is a building housing spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system. Although some were driven by animal power, most early mills were built in rural areas at fast-flowing rivers and streams using water wheels for power; the development of viable steam engines by Boulton and Watt from 1781 led to the growth of larger, steam-powered mills allowing them to be concentrated in urban mill towns, like Manchester, which with neighboring Salford had more than 50 mills by 1802. The mechanization of the spinning process in the early factories was instrumental in the growth of the machine tool industry, enabling the construction of larger cotton mills. Limited companies were developed to construct mills, the trading floors of the cotton exchange in Manchester, created a vast commercial city. Mills generated employment, drawing workers from rural areas and expanding urban populations.
They provided incomes for women. Child labor was used in the mills, the factory system led to organized labor. Poor conditions became the subject of exposés, in England, the Factory Acts were written to regulate them; the cotton mill a Lancashire phenomenon, was copied in New England and in the southern states of America. In the 20th century, North West England lost its supremacy to the United States to Japan and subsequently to China. In the mid-16th century Manchester was an important manufacturing centre for woollens and linen and market for textiles made elsewhere; the fustian district of Lancashire, from Blackburn to Bolton, west to Wigan and Leigh and south towards Manchester, used flax and raw cotton imported along the Mersey and Irwell Navigation. During the Industrial Revolution cotton manufacture changed from a domestic to a mechanized industry, made possible by inventions and advances in technology; the weaving process was the first to be mechanized by the invention of John Kay's flying shuttle in 1733.
The manually-operated spinning jenny was developed by James Hargreaves in about 1764 speeded up the spinning process. The roller spinning principle of Paul and Bourne became the basis of Richard Arkwright's spinning frame and water frame, patented in 1769; the principles of the spinning jenny and water frame were combined by Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule of 1779, but water power was not applied to it until 1792. Many mills were built after Arkwright's patent expired in 1783 and by 1788, there were about 210 mills in Great Britain; the development of cotton mills was linked to the development of the machinery. By 1774, 30,000 people in Manchester were employed using the domestic system in cotton manufacture. Handloom weaving lingered into the mid-19th century but cotton spinning in mills relying on water power and subsequently steam power using fuel from the Lancashire Coalfield began to develop before 1800; the first cotton mills were established in the 1740s to house roller spinning machinery invented by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt.
The machines were the first to spin cotton mechanically "without the intervention of human fingers". They were driven by a single non-human power source which allowed the use of larger machinery and made it possible to concentrate production into organized factories. Four mills were set up to house Paul and Wyatt's machinery in the decade following its patent in 1738: the short-lived, animal-powered Upper Priory Cotton Mill in Birmingham in 1741; the Paul-Wyatt mills spun cotton for several decades but were not profitable, becoming the ancestors of the cotton mills that followed. Richard Arkwright obtained a patent for his water frame spinning machinery in 1769. Although its technology was similar to that of Lewis Paul, John Wyatt, James Hargreaves and Thomas Highs, Arkwright's powers of organization, business acumen and ambition established the cotton mill as a successful business model and revolutionary example of the factory system. Arkwright's first mill – powered by horses in Nottingham in 1768 – was similar to Paul and Wyatt's first Birmingham mill although by 1772 it had expanded to four storeys and employed 300 workers.
In 1771, while the Nottingham mill was at an experimental stage and his partners started work on Cromford Mill in Derbyshire, which "was to prove a major turning point in the history of the factory system". It resembled the Paul-Wyatt water-powered mill at Northampton in many respects, but was built on a different scale, influenced by John Lombe's Old Silk Mill in Derby and Matthew Boulton's Soho Manufactory in Birmingham. Constructed as a five-storey masonry box. Arkwright recruited large disciplined workforces for his mills, managed credit and supplies and cultivated mass consumer markets for his products. By 1782 his annual profits exceeded £40,000, by 1784 he had opened 10 more mills, he licensed his technology to other entrepreneurs and in 1782 boasted that his machinery was being used by "numbers of adventurers residing in the different counties of Derby, Nottingham, Stafford, York and Lancashire" and by 1788 there were 143 Arkwrig
Humour and jokes about one's mother-in-law are a mainstay of comedy. The humour is based on the premise that the average mother-in-law considers her son-in-law to be unsuitable for her daughter, includes the stereotype that mothers-in-law are overbearing, obnoxious, or unattractive; this has been referred to as the "battle."British comedians such as Les Dawson and Jim Davidson have used them, many television sitcoms have featured stereotypical mothers-in-law. There is evidence that this joke dates back to Roman times: Satire VI by Juvenal says that one cannot be happy while one's mother-in-law is still alive. Most of the mother-in-law jokes are translatable to other languages and are understandable in most European cultures. In a book on cartooning written by Dave Breger, the author lists a series of "tired gags", gives a suggestion on how to exploit them. In his illustration and his wife go to a museum and see a Tyrannosaurus skeleton. Mrs. Breger says, "And no funny remarks, about that Mother called or something..."A study of mothers-in-law by Pamela Cotterill found that "they tended not to be upset by jokes because they seemed so far fetched they couldn't apply to them, but they didn't find them funny".
Cotterill found that daughters-in-law didn't find them funny either because they saw that one day the jokes could be applied to them. The jokes are considered offensive by some. A reported case is that of the London borough where, in 2010, a workshop leaflet called "Cultural Awareness: General Problems" advised against using them; the leaflet states that "mother-in-law jokes, as well as offensively sexist in their own right, can be seen as offensive on the grounds that they disrespect elders or parents." The stereotype is portrayed on film and in popular entertainment. Viola Fields in the film Monster-in-Law. Marie Barone in the sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond, meddlesome and incessantly makes conceited remarks to her daughter-in-law Debra. Adele Delfino on the television series Desperate Housewives. Endora in the sitcom Bewitched is a witch, not happy with the decision of her daughter to marry a normal human, uses her magic to cause trouble for him. Norma Speakman in the sitcom The Royle Family, who enjoys baiting son-in-law Jim.
Olivia Jefferson in the sitcom The Jeffersons puts down her daughter-in-law Louise. Mrs. Marcus in the film It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World berates her son-in-law, Russell Finch complains constantly, annoys most of the other characters in the film. Mrs. Gibson in various episodes of the TV show The Honeymooners insults her son-in-law Ralph by making jokes about his weight, telling Alice about other men who has courted her before she married Ralph in front of him and saying things that make him mad enough that he shouts at her to get out of the house. Pearl Slaghoople in the animated series The Flintstones ponders why her daughter Wilma had to marry Fred Flintstone The plant Sansevieria trifasciata is sometimes referred to as "mother-in-law's tongue". Maternal insult "Mother-in-law", a 1961 song written by Allen Toussaint and performed by Ernie K-Doe Mother in Law Support and Stories Collection Mother-In-Law Stories and Support