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Les Invalides

Les Invalides, formally the Hôtel national des Invalides, or as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l'Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, the Musée d'Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the Dôme des Invalides, a large church, the tallest in Paris at a height of 107 meters, with the tombs of some of France's war heroes, most notably Napoleon. Louis XIV initiated the project by an order dated 24 November 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers: the name is a shortened form of hôpital des invalides; the architect of Les Invalides was Libéral Bruant. The selected site was in the suburban plain of Grenelle. By the time the enlarged project was completed in 1676, the river front measured 196 metres and the complex had fifteen courtyards, the largest being the cour d'honneur for military parades.

It was felt that the veterans required a chapel. Jules Hardouin-Mansart assisted the aged Bruant, the chapel was finished in 1679 to Bruant's designs after the elder architect's death; this chapel was known as Église Saint-Louis des Invalides, daily attendance of the veterans in the church services was required. Shortly after the veterans' chapel was completed, Louis XIV commissioned Mansart to construct a separate private royal chapel referred to as the Église du Dôme from its most striking feature; the domed chapel was finished in 1793 Because of its location and significance, the Invalides served as the scene for several key events in French history. On 14 July 1789 it was stormed by Parisian rioters who seized the cannons and muskets stored in its cellars to use against the Bastille the same day. Napoleon was entombed under the dome of the Invalides with great ceremony in 1840. In December 1894 the degradation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus was held before the main building, while his subsequent rehabilitation ceremony took place in a courtyard of the complex in 1906.

The building retained its primary function of a retirement home and hospital for military veterans until the early twentieth century. In 1872 the musée d'artillerie was located within the building to be joined by the musée historique des armées in 1896; the two institutions were merged to form the present musée de l'armée in 1905. At the same time the veterans in residence were dispersed to smaller centres outside Paris; the reason was that the adoption of a conscript army, after 1872, meant a substantial reduction in the numbers of veterans having the twenty or more years of military service required to enter the Hôpital des Invalides. The building accordingly became too large for its original purpose; the modern complex does however still include the facilities detailed below for about a hundred elderly or incapacitated former soldiers. On the north front of Les Invalides, Hardouin-Mansart's chapel dome is large enough to dominate the long façade, yet harmonizes with Bruant's door under an arched pediment.

To the north, the courtyard is extended by a wide public esplanade where the embassies of Austria and Finland are neighbors of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, all forming one of the grand open spaces in the heart of Paris. At its far end, the Pont Alexandre III links this grand urbanistic axis with the Petit Palais and the Grand Palais; the Pont des Invalides is downstream the Seine river. The buildings still comprise the Institution Nationale des Invalides, a national institution for disabled war veterans; the institution comprises: a retirement home a medical and surgical centre a centre for external medical consultations. In 1676, Jules Hardouin-Mansart was commissioned to construct a place of worship on the site, he designed a building. In this way, the King and his soldiers could attend mass while entering the place of worship through different entrances, as prescribed by court etiquette; this separation was reinforced in the 19th century with the erection of the tomb of Napoleon I, the creation of the two separate altars and with the construction of a glass wall between the two chapels.

When the Army Museum at Les Invalides was founded in 1905, the veterans' chapel was placed under its administrative control. It is now the cathedral of the Diocese of the French Armed Forces known as Cathédrale Saint-Louis-des-Invalides; the Dôme des Invalides is a large former church in the centre of the Les Invalides complex, 107 metres high. The dôme was designated to become Napoleon's funeral place by a law dated 10 June 1840. Ousted in 1815 by the allied armies, Napoleon had stayed so popular in France that Louis-Philippe, the King of France from 1830 to 1848, returned his "ashes" in 1840.. The excavation and erection of the crypt, which modified the interior of the domed church, took twenty years to complete and was finished in 1861. Inspired by St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the original for all baroque domes, the Dôme des Invalides is one of the triumphs of French Baroque architecture. Mansart raised its drum with an attic storey over its main cornice, employed the paired columns motif in his more complicated rhythmic theme.

The gen

Blue Groove

Blue Groove is an album by saxophonist Gene Ammons recorded in 1961 but not released on the Prestige label until 1982. Allmusic awarded the album 2 stars with its review by Scott Yanow stating, "This particular LP, released for the first time in 1982, is an average, although enjoyable enough, outing... Nothing that unusual occurs but fans should enjoy this set"; this is a good cd. Allmusic is wrong. All compositions by Gene Ammons except. "Blue Groove" – 4:19 "You Better Go Now" – 3:15 "It Never Goes Away" – 7:50 "Blinky" – 3:29 "Yea! "- 3:09 "Someone to Watch Over Me" – 5:30 "Sleepy" – 4:44 "The Masquerade Is Over" – 4:43 Gene Ammons – tenor saxophone Clarence "Sleepy" Anderson – organ, piano Unnamed musicians – guitar, drums, vocals

Luccombe Bay

Luccombe Bay is a bay on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, England. It lies to the east of Luccombe Village, it faces south-east towards the English Channel, its shoreline is 2⁄3 mile in length. It consists of a predominantly sand and shingle beach lined with sea cliffs which range from 200 to 280 feet in height, it stretches from Horse Ledge in the north to Bordwood Ledge in the south. The sea bottom is a mixture of mud and rocks. Along the top of the cliffs which line the bay is the site of the National trust maintained 4 1⁄2-mile Luccombe and the Landslip Walk; the bay is best viewed from Luccombe Chine which descends to the beach about two-thirds of the way along the bay. There was a footpath down a set of wooden steps to the beach from the coastal path, but these are closed due to damage from landslips. A small fishing community existed at the foot of the Chine on the bay until it was destroyed in the Great Landslip of 1910; the area is the site of a lot of erosion and cliff retreat, with a loss of around a foot per year