Seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person, to engage in a relationship, to lead astray, as from duty, rectitude, or the like. Strategies of seduction include conversation and sexual scripts, paralingual features, non-verbal communication, short-term behavioural strategies; the word seduction stems from Latin and means "leading astray." As a result, the term may have a negative connotation. Famous seducers from history or legend include Lilith, Giacomo Casanova, the fictional character Don Juan; the emergence of the Internet and technology has supported the availability and the existence of a seduction community, based on discourse about seduction. This is predominately by "pickup artists". Seduction is used within marketing to increase compliance and willingness. Seduction, seen negatively, involves temptation and enticement sexual in nature, to lead someone astray into a behavioural choice they would not have made if they were not in a state of sexual arousal. Seen positively, seduction is a synonym for the act of charming someone—male or female—by an appeal to the senses with the goal of reducing unfounded fears and leading to their "sexual emancipation."
Some sides in contemporary academic debate state that the morality of seduction depends on the long-term impacts on the individuals concerned, rather than the act itself, may not carry the negative connotations expressed in dictionary definitions. Seduction is a popular motif in history and fiction, both as a warning of the social consequences of engaging in the behaviour or becoming its victim, as a salute to a powerful skill. In the Bible, Eve offers the forbidden fruit to Adam. Eve herself was verbally seduced by the serpent, believed in Christianity to be Satan. Sirens of Greek mythology lured sailors to their death by singing them to shipwreck. Famous male seducers, their names synonymous with sexual allure, range from Genji to James Bond. In biblical times, because unmarried females who lost their virginity had lost much of their value as marriage prospects, the Old Testament Book of Exodus specifies that the seducer must marry his victim or pay her father to compensate him for his loss of the marriage price: "And if a man entice a maid, not betrothed, lie with her, he shall endow her to be his wife.
If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins." The Book of Judges in the Old Testament describes Delilah seducing Samson, given great strength by God, but lost his strength when she allowed the Philistines to shave his hair off during his slumber. Males and females both implement the strategy of seduction as a method of negotiating their sexual relationships; this can involve manipulation of other individuals. This is based on desire physical, as well as attraction towards them. Popular phrases used include; these phrases help to demonstrate the extensively pervasive and ubiquitous strategy use within love and relationships amongst humans. Individuals employing such strategies do so subconsciously and will report the feelings and thoughts that they subjectively experienced and are colloquially comparable to ‘attraction’ or'love'. Research has indicated that seduction could substitute or equate to a form of collapsed or condensed courtship.
Evolutionary psychology suggests that this form of sexual enticement can be used in order to cajole desired individuals to engage in sexual intercourse and reproduce. This behaviour is aimed at persuading someone to develop a short-term or long-term sexual relationship with them. Males declare that they adopt the strategy of seduction statistically more than females. From an evolutionary perspective this is due to females’ higher parental investment and the lack of guarantee of male parental investment. Females therefore need to be seduced more prior to engaging in sexual intercourse. Men more wish to engage in more frequent short-term mating, which may require this strategy of seduction used to access the female for intercourse. However, this finding has been contradicted by non-verbal seduction results which indicate that females have more control within this area. Other potential strategies individuals employ to gain access to a mate include courting or having relatives select mates for socioeconomic reasons.
Both males and females have reported preferring seduction above all other strategies, such as the use of power or aggression, for making a potential partner agree to sexual intercourse. Seduction is related to human mate poaching. Human mate poaching refers to when either a male or female purposefully entices another individual, in an established relationship into sexual relations with them; this is akin to the definition of seduction in the introduction. This is a psychological mechanism which had unconscious and conscious manifestations, that in relation to evolutionary psychology has been adaptive to our ancestors in the past and has continued to be functional in modern society. Human mate poaching is a form of seduction, can be used as a short-term and long-term mating strategy among both sexes. Moreover, there are associated benefits to poaching. Schmitt and Buss investigated the potential costs and benefits across sexes in relation to human mate poaching. Costs for women engaging in poaching behaviours include unwanted pregnancy, transmitted infection and diseases, insecurity about provision
San Francisco Opera
San Francisco Opera is an American opera company, based in San Francisco, California. It was founded in 1923 by Gaetano Merola; the first performance given by San Francisco Opera was La bohème, with Queena Mario and Giovanni Martinelli, on 26 September 1923, in the city's Civic Auditorium and conducted by Merola, whose involvement in opera in the San Francisco Bay Area had been ongoing since his first visit in 1906. Merola launched the company in 1922, convinced that the city could support a full-time opera organization and not depend upon visiting companies, coming to the San Francisco since Gold Rush days. In fact, Merola's initial visits to the city were as conductor of some of these troupes—the first in 1909 with the International Opera Company of Montreal. Continued visits for the next decade convinced him that a San Francisco company was viable, in 1921 he returned to live in the city under the patronage of Mrs. Oliver Stine. By the fall of 1921 he was planning his first season, presented at Stanford University's football stadium on 3 June 1922 with a star-studded group of singers, including Giovanni Martinelli in Pagliacci, followed by Carmen and Faust.
While it was a popular and critical triumph, the five-day season was not a financial success. It was clear to Merola that a more solid financial base was needed, so he set about fund raising for a season of opera to be presented at the Civic Auditorium in the fall of 1923. Appealing to more than the city's elite, Merola raised 2441 contributions of $50 each from many "founding members". After the opening of La bohème, the first 1923/24 season included productions of Andrea Chénier, Tosca (with Giuseppe De Luca and Martinelli, Verdi's Rigoletto. An international opera season had been launched, the ones that followed it covered a broad range of Italian operas, many being presented only once or twice in seasons lasting no more than two months, sometimes only the month of September. During the nine years following the opening season, the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House was conceived; the building was designed by Arthur Brown Jr. the architect who created San Francisco's Coit Tower and City Hall.
The company inaugurated the new opera house with a performance of Tosca on 15 October 1932 with Claudia Muzio in the title role. Characteristic of the following thirty of Merola's years as general director was the fact that "the great singers of the world came to San Francisco performing several roles in deference to the short season and long travel time across the country."Other characteristics of his tenure were the opportunities given to young American singers in spite of the absence of a formal training program at that time, regular tours by the SFO to Los Angeles between 1937 and 1965, which expanded the season into November. However, until well after Merola's death, the main San Francisco season extended beyond late October, he died while conducting an open-air concert at Stern Grove on 30 August 1953. Edwin MacArthur led the San Francisco Opera Orchestra in several 78-rpm recordings for RCA Victor in the late 1930s, including performances by soprano Kirsten Flagstad; some of these were reissued by RCA on LP and CD.
Short versions of all the works in the season were broadcast on about 30 California, Washington and British Columbia radio stations, starting about 1941. Kurt Herbert Adler came to the United States in 1938 after early experience and training in many aspects of music and theatre in Austria and Italy. For five years, he worked to build the chorus of the Chicago Opera Company. Merola heard of him and, over the telephone, invited him to San Francisco opera in 1943 as chorus director. Adler was regarded as a difficult, sometimes tyrannical person to work for. However, as Chatfield-Taylor notes, "singers, conductors and designers came back season after season, they came back because Adler made the SFO an internationally respected company that ran at a high level of professionalism and offered them interesting things to do in a warm and supportive atmosphere." Among those who were offered new and exciting challenges were Geraint Evans, the Welsh baritone, Leontyne Price, Luciano Pavarotti. He took on more and more administrative details as Merola's health and energy diminished, but Adler was not the Board's natural choice to replace Merola at the time of his death in 1953.
After three months of acting as Artistic Director, with the assistance of its president, Robert Watt Miller, Adler was confirmed as General Director. Adler's aims Adler's aims in taking over the company. One was to expand the season which in Merola's time ran from the Friday after Labor Day until early November in order to capitalize on the availability of singers by presenting up to fourteen operas with two or three performances each; as seen in the 1961 SFO season, eleven operas were given five or six performances each on average while the season ran to late November. Another aim was to present new talent and, for this, he was tireless in seeking out up-and-coming new singers, whether American or European, by attending performances in both major and minor opera houses, he heard Leontyne Price on the radio, offered her a role in Dialogues of the Carmelites in 1957, thus providing her with her the first performance on a major operatic stage. A short time in the same season, she was to step into the role of Aida at short notice to replace Antonietta Stella, a role which gave her long-lived international acclaim.
Thirdly, a characteristic of the Adler years was his interest in developin
An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. The usual form is letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. Electronic "documents" such as recordings and radio, e-mails have come into use; the word epistolary is derived from Latin from the Greek word ἐπιστολή epistolē. The epistolary form can add greater realism to a story, it is thus able to demonstrate differing points of view without recourse to the device of an omniscient narrator. There are two theories on the genesis of the epistolary novel; the first claims that the genre is originated from novels with inserted letters, in which the portion containing the third person narrative in between the letters was reduced. The other theory claims that the epistolary novel arose from miscellanies of letters and poetry: some of the letters were tied together into a plot. Both claims have some validity; the first epistolary novel, the Spanish "Prison of Love" by Diego de San Pedro, belongs to a tradition of novels in which a large number of inserted letters dominated the narrative.
Other well-known examples of early epistolary novels are related to the tradition of letter-books and miscellanies of letters. Within the successive editions of Edmé Boursault's Letters of Respect and Love, a group of letters written to a girl named Babet were expanded and became more and more distinct from the other letters, until it formed a small epistolary novel entitled Letters to Babet; the immensely famous Letters of a Portuguese Nun attributed to Gabriel-Joseph de La Vergne, comte de Guilleragues, though a small minority still regard Marianna Alcoforado as the author, is claimed to be intended to be part of a miscellany of Guilleragues prose and poetry. The founder of the epistolary novel in English is said by many to be James Howell with "Familiar Letters", who writes of prison, foreign adventure, the love of women; the first novel to expose the complex play that the genre allows was Aphra Behn's Love-Letters Between a Nobleman and His Sister, which appeared in three volumes in 1684, 1685, 1687.
The novel shows the genre's results of changing perspectives: individual points were presented by the individual characters, the central voice of the author and moral evaluation disappeared. Behn furthermore explored a realm of intrigue with letters that fall into the wrong hands, faked letters, letters withheld by protagonists, more complex interaction; the epistolary novel as a genre became popular in the 18th century in the works of such authors as Samuel Richardson, with his immensely successful novels Pamela and Clarissa. In France, there was Lettres persanes by Montesquieu, followed by Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Laclos' Les Liaisons dangereuses, which used the epistolary form to great dramatic effect, because the sequence of events was not always related directly or explicitly. In Germany, there was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werther and Friedrich Hölderlin's Hyperion; the first North American novel, The History of Emily Montague by Frances Brooke was written in epistolary form.
Starting in the 18th century, the epistolary form was subject to much ridicule, resulting in a number of savage burlesques. The most notable example of these was Henry Fielding's Shamela, written as a parody of Pamela. In it, the female narrator can be found wielding a pen and scribbling her diary entries under the most dramatic and unlikely of circumstances. Oliver Goldsmith used the form to satirical effect in The Citizen of the World, subtitled "Letters from a Chinese Philosopher Residing in London to his Friends in the East". So did the diarist Fanny Burney in a successful comic first novel, Evelina; the epistolary novel fell out of use in the late 18th century. Although Jane Austen tried her hand at the epistolary in juvenile writings and her novella Lady Susan, she abandoned this structure for her work, it is thought that her lost novel First Impressions, redrafted to become Pride and Prejudice, may have been epistolary: Pride and Prejudice contains an unusual number of letters quoted in full and some play a critical role in the plot.
The epistolary form nonetheless saw continued use, surviving in exceptions or in fragments in nineteenth-century novels. In Honoré de Balzac's novel Letters of Two Brides, two women who became friends during their education at a convent correspond over a 17-year period, exchanging letters describing their lives. Mary Shelley employs the epistolary form in her novel Frankenstein. Shelley uses the letters as one of a variety of framing devices, as the story is presented through the letters of a sea captain and scientific explorer attempting to reach the north pole who encounters Victor Frankenstein and records the dying man's narrative and confessions. Published in 1848, Anne Brontë's novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall is framed as a retrospective letter from one of the main heroes to his friend and brother-in-law with the diary of the eponymous tenant inside it. In the late 19th century, Bram Stoker released one of the most recognized and successful novels in the epistolary form to date, Dracula.
Printed in 1897, the novel is compiled of letters, diary entries, newspaper clippings, doctor's notes, ship's logs, the like. There are 3 types of epistolar
Les Liaisons Dangereuses (play)
Les liaisons dangereuses is a play by Christopher Hampton adapted from the 1782 novel of the same title by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos. The plot focuses on the Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont, rivals who use sex as a weapon of humiliation and degradation, all the while enjoying their cruel games, their targets are the virtuous Madame de Tourvel and Cécile de Volanges, a young girl who has fallen in love with her music tutor, the Chevalier Danceny. In order to gain their trust and Valmont pretend to help the secret lovers so they can use them in their own treacherous schemes. Staged by the Royal Shakespeare Company, the play opened at The Other Place in Stratford-upon-Avon on 24 September 1985. Directed by Howard Davies, the cast included Lindsay Duncan as the Marquise de Merteuil, Alan Rickman as the Vicomte de Valmont, Juliet Stevenson as Madame de Tourvel, Lesley Manville as Cécile de Volanges, Sean Baker as the Chevalier Danceny. On 8 January 1986, the production transferred to The Pit, an intimate studio theatre in the Barbican Centre in London, with its original cast intact.
Christopher Hampton won the Evening Standard Award for Best Play and the Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Play, Lindsay Duncan received the Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actress. In October 1986, with only a few cast changes, the production transferred again to the Ambassadors Theatre in the West End. Lindsay Duncan and Alan Rickman reprised their roles for the Broadway production directed by Howard Davies. Following eight previews, it opened at the Music Box Theatre on April 30, 1987 and ran for 149 performances. Christopher Hampton was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Play and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Play, but lost both to August Wilson for Fences. Duncan won Davies won the Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play; the show won the 1987 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best Foreign Play. Hampton adapted the play for the screen in a 1988 film version directed by Stephen Frears. Following 22 previews, a Broadway revival produced by the Roundabout Theatre Company opened at the American Airlines Theatre on May 1, 2008 and ran for 77 performances.
Directed by Rufus Norris, the cast included Laura Linney as the Marquise de Merteuil, Ben Daniels as the Vicomte de Valmont, Mamie Gummer as Cécile de Volanges, Benjamin Walker as the Chevalier Danceny, with Siân Phillips in the supporting role of Madame de Rosemonde. The production was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play but lost to Boeing-Boeing. Hampton's play was produced by the Sydney Theatre Company and performed at the Wharf Theatre as part of the 2012 season; the production was directed by Sam Strong, with Hugo Weaving playing the Vicomte de Valmont and Pamela Rabe the Marquise de Merteuil. Strong said that he liked the line given to Rosamonde “The only thing which might surprise one is how little the world changes” because it "speaks directly to the timelessness of the piece's exploration of human behaviour, from the less savoury parts like betrayal and manipulation to the best parts like being in love." He said he was "intrigued by the paradoxical nature of the Valmont and Tourvel story – the manner in which Valmont is both redeemed and destroyed by love at the same time".
One reviewer noted that "Director Sam Strong's beautifully paced production emphasises gratification via the wielding of power rather than via lust." The play was revived at the Donmar Warehouse in the winter of 2015-16, the first time it had received a major outing in London since its 1986 premiere. The director was Josie Rourke, with the roles of Valmont and Mme de Merteuil played by Dominic West and Janet McTeer respectively; the production transferred to Broadway in a limited engagement with McTeer joined by Liev Schreiber and Mary Beth Peil as Madame de Rosemonde. The play opened at the Booth Theatre on October 30, 2016; the Broadway production closed earlier than expected, on January 2017 Hampton, Christopher. Les Liaisons Dangereuses. London: Faber & Faber 1985. ISBN 0-571-13724-5 Les liaisons dangereuses at the Internet Broadway Database
The Booth Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 222 West 45th Street in midtown-Manhattan, New York City. Architect Henry B. Herts designed the Booth and its companion Shubert Theatre as a back-to-back pair sharing a Venetian Renaissance-style façade. Named in honor of famed 19th-century American actor Edwin Booth, brother of John Wilkes Booth, the theater's 783-seat auditorium was intended to provide an intimate setting for dramatic and comedic plays, it opened on October 16, 1913, with Arnold Bennett's play "The Great Adventure." The venue was the second New York City theatre to bear this name. The first, Booth's Theatre, was owned by Edwin Booth, built by the architectural partnership Renwick & Sands between 1867-69 on the corner of 23rd Street and 6th Avenue; the Booth Theatre appeared in The West Wing episode Posse Comitatus as venue for a fictitious charity performance of War of the Roses which President Jed Bartlet attended during the assassination of the Qumari Defence Minister Abdul ibn Shareef.
The box-office record was broken in 2013 by Bette Midler in I'll Eat You Last: A Chat with Sue Mengers with a gross of $753,217 in just seven performances. Midler broke her own record the week following with a gross of $865,144; the revival of The Elephant Man, starring Bradley Cooper, topped Midler's record by grossing $1,058,547 for an eight-performance week ending December 28, 2014. 1915: Our American Cousin 1936: You Can't Take It With You 1946: Swan Song 1969: Butterflies Are Free 1972: That Championship Season 1976: for colored girls who have considered suicide / when the rainbow is enuf 1979: The Elephant Man 1984: Sunday in the Park with George 1990: Once on This Island 1992: The Most Happy Fella 2000: The Search for Intelligent Life in the Universe 2002: I'm Not Rappaport 2005: The Pillowman 2009: Next to Normal 2011: High'm, Other Desert Cities 2012: Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? 2013: I'll Eat You Last: A Chat with Sue Mengers. Booth Theatre | PlaybillVault.com
Luca Francesconi is an Italian composer. He studied at the Milan Conservatory with Karlheinz Stockhausen and Luciano Berio. Luca Francesconi was born in Milan, his father was a painter who edited Il Corriere dei piccoli and conceived Il Corriere dei ragazzi, while his mother, an advertiser, created a number of famous advertising campaigns. Francesconi spent his early years in QT8, a working class quarter in Milan that rose up alongside a huge pile of post-war rubble which would become Monte Stella. At the age of five, won over by a concert by Svjatoslav Richter, he began to learn the piano. Although he was accepted into the junior high school section of the city's conservatory six years he instinctively pulled out, thinking that it was too academic and conventional. Instead though he had in the meantime moved with his family to a more central quarter of Milan, Francesconi opted to attend the junior high school in QT8. In this way from a early age his relationship with music and life in general took on a course of responsibility and constant choice, of research and direct experimentation.
We need to profoundly rethink and filter in a determined way the enormously rich potential, elaborated in the past and to use it for expressive purposes. Francesconi returned to the Conservatory of Milan in 1974, while he was still attending the Berchet Classical Languages High School, explored the length and breadth of the musical landscape, taking an interest in every possible dimension of sound, he played in jazz and rock groups as well as in classical concerts, he worked as a session man in recording studios, he composed music for theatre, cinema and television. These were all rewarding experiences, not least from an economic point of view, but they were not enough, he realised that a living language, while looking at the present, draws its lifeblood from its roots. The time had come for him to dig into the tradition of music; the Milan Conservatory was opening more and more space to contemporary music so Francesconi enrolled in the composition course conducted by Azio Corghi. "From him I learnt the trade, the fundamentals and those things, professional seriousness and open-mindedness."
In the meantime he continued to explore electronic music and in 1977 took time out to immerse himself in jazz at the Berklee College of Music in Boston. The mountain is in front of us and it is necessary to pass over it, with enormous force and patience. It's not enough just to contemplate it nor to sneak by it via secondary paths much less go backwards claiming that the mountain is not there. Donnerstag aus Licht went on stage at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan in 1981. Stockhausen is a historical reference point: Francesconi admired him for his extraordinary organisational consistency, for his tireless search for a linguistic unity, he was deeply struck by the visionary quality of this initial opera. He wanted to observe the composer at work so he enrolled in the intensive course that Stockhausen held in Rome that same year. "From him I learnt rigor, at first imbibing it by osmosis, demythologising it." Luciano didn't talk much about delicate aspects of his work as a composer. I remember that when he least expected it, I would fire questions at him point blank, hoping to pick up some tips.
His replies were like enigmas. They had something sacral about them and they required divining rituals to decode them. With Berio Francesconi studied above all in the field, just like the workshop artisans of old, acting as his assistant from 1981 to 1984, he worked directly on the score of La vera storia and participated in the production as rehearsal pianist and second conductor/substitute maestro. In 1984 he collaborated with the composer in the rewriting of Monteverdi's Orfeo, he was present with Berio at Tanglewood where he attended one of his famous summer courses. In 1984 three of Francesconi's pieces, including Passacaglia, for large orchestra, were selected for the Gaudeamus International Composers Award in Amsterdam; this first important recognition on the international scene created a useful tie with the Dutch music scene and laid the foundation for further commissions. Meanwhile, in Italy, thanks to a commission from the Teatro Lirico di Cagliari, Francesconi had the opportunity to put into practice for the first time his idea of a "polyphony of languages": Suite 1984.
The polyphony that I have in mind hasn't got anything to do with the "postmodern" or collage, the exotic pastiche, the provincial chinoiserie of our grandparents. Instead, it is a free fusion of ideas in a compact and linguistically solid body that reveals its profound energies in its inner profundity and not in an exterior heterogeneity. Energies that come from popular culture, from ancient African and Oriental cultures. "In 1984 the Teatro Lirico in Cagliari presented a quartet made up of the pianist and composer Franco D'Andrea together with the group Africa Djolé led by the master percussionist Fode Youla from Guinea. The idea was conceived that the music of this group be recreated in symphonic form by the 28 year-old Luca Francesconi for a performance by the theatre's orchestra under the direction of Francesconi himself, a recent product of rigorous musical studies, assistant to Luciano Berio and'jazz student of D'Andrea', as he used to like to define himself; the concert attracted experts from all over the place anxious to hear novelties and promising syncretisms of various musical civilisations, it was a triumph."
"Orchestra, African percussionists and jazz quintet: the choice of instrumental make-up itself contained in an explicit manner the generative nucleus
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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