Carry On (franchise)
The Carry On series consists of 31 British comedy motion pictures, four Christmas specials, a television series of thirteen episodes, three West End and provincial stage plays. The films' humour was in the British comic tradition of bawdy seaside postcards. Producer Peter Rogers and director Gerald Thomas drew on a regular group of actors, the Carry On team, that included Sid James, Kenneth Williams, Charles Hawtrey, Joan Sims, Kenneth Connor, Peter Butterworth, Hattie Jacques, Terry Scott, Bernard Bresslaw, Barbara Windsor, Jack Douglas, Jim Dale; the Carry On series contains the largest number of films of any British series, it is the longest continually running UK film series, although with a fourteen-year break. Anglo Amalgamated Film Distributors Ltd produced twelve films, the Rank Organisation made eighteen and United International Pictures made one. Producer Peter Rogers and director Gerald Thomas made all 31 films on time and to a strict budget, employed the same crew. Between 1958 and 1992, the series employed seven writers, most Norman Hudis and Talbot Rothwell.
In between the films and Thomas produced four Christmas specials in 1969, 1970, 1972, 1973, a thirteen episode television series in 1975, various West End stage shows which toured the regions. All the films were made at Pinewood Studios near Buckinghamshire. Budgetary constraints meant that a large proportion of the location filming was undertaken close to the studios in and around south Buckinghamshire, including areas of Berkshire and Middlesex. However, by the late 1960s more ambitious plots necessitated locations further afield, which included Snowdonia National Park and the beaches of the Sussex coast doubling as Saharan sand dunes in Follow That Camel. Carry On Sergeant was about a group of recruits doing National Service; the film was sufficiently successful to inspire a similar venture, again focusing on an established and respected profession in Carry On Nurse. When that too was successful, further forays with Carry On Teacher and Carry On Constable established the series; this initial'pattern' was broken with the fifth film in 1961, Carry On Regardless, but it still followed a similar plot to that of many of the early films—a small group of misfit newcomers to a job make comic mistakes, but come together to succeed in the end.
The remainder of the series developed with increased use of the British comic traditions of music hall and bawdy seaside postcards. Many titles parodied more serious films, such as their tongue-in-cheek homages to James Bond and Hammer horror films; the most impressive of these was Carry On Cleo, after the Burton and Taylor epic Cleopatra, where the budget-conscious Carry On team made full use of some impressive sets, intended for that film. Carry On Emmannuelle, inspired by the soft-porn Emmanuelle, brought to an end the original'run'; the stock-in-trade of Carry On humour was innuendo and the sending-up of British institutions and customs, such as the National Health Service, the monarchy, the Empire, the armed forces, the police and the trade unions as well as camping, foreign holidays, beauty contests, caravan holidays, the education system amongst others. Although the films were often panned by critics, they proved popular with audiences. In 2007, the pun "Infamy, they've all got it in for me", spoken by Kenneth Williams in Carry on Cleo, was voted the funniest one-line joke in film history.
A film had appeared in 1957 under the title Carry On Admiral. The much earlier 1937 film Carry On London is unrelated; the cast were poorly paid—around £5,000 per film for a principal performer. In his diaries, Kenneth Williams lamented this, criticised several of the movies despite his declared fondness for the series as a whole. Peter Rogers, the series' producer, acknowledged: "Kenneth was worth taking care of, because while he cost little he made a great deal of money for the franchise." Several other films were planned, scripted or entered pre-production before being abandoned: What a Carry On... 1961 Carry On Smoking, 1961. The story revolved around a fire station, various attempts to train a bungling group of new recruits. Carry On Spaceman, 1961 and again in 1962. See section below. Carry On Flying, 1962. Scripted by Norman Hudis, about a group of RAF recruits, it got as far as pre-production before being abandoned. Jim Dale was to have a starring role. Carry On Robin, 1965. A planned spoof of Robin Hood starring the "Carry On regulars" was outlined by Rogers and registered with the British Film Producers Association but never pursued.
Carry On Again Nurse, 1967 and two other attempts. See section below ↓. Carry On Escaping, 1973. Scripted by Talbot Rothwell, a spoof of World War II escape films; the complete script was included in the book The Complete A-Z of Everything Carry On. Carry on Dallas, 1980. A p
Dame Florence Marjorie Wilcox, known professionally as Anna Neagle, was an English stage and film actress and dancer. Neagle was a successful box-office draw in the British cinema for 20 years and was voted the most popular star in Britain in 1949, she was known for providing glamour and sophistication to war-torn London audiences with her lightweight musicals and historical dramas. All of her films were produced and directed by Herbert Wilcox, whom she married in 1943. In her historical dramas Anna Neagle was renowned for her portrayals of British historical figures, including Nell Gwynn, Queen Victoria and Edith Cavell. Neagle was born in Forest Gate, daughter to Herbert William Robertson, a Merchant Navy captain, his wife, the former Florence Neagle, her older brother was actor Stuart Robertson. Robertson attended primary school in Glasgow and St Albans High School for Girls, she made her stage debut as a dancer in 1917, appeared in the chorus of C. B. Cochran's revues and André Charlot's revue Bubbly.
While with Cochran she understudied Jessie Matthews. In 1931 she starred in the West End musical Stand Up and Sing, with actor Jack Buchanan, who encouraged her to take a featured role. For this play she began using the professional name of Anna Neagle; the play was a success with a total run of 604 performances. Stand Up and Sing provided her big break when film producer and director Herbert Wilcox, who had caught the show purposely to consider Buchanan for an upcoming film, but took note of her cinematic potential. Forming a professional alliance with Wilcox, Neagle played her first starring film role in the musical Goodnight, again with Jack Buchanan. With this film Neagle became an overnight favourite. Although the film cost a mere £23,000 to produce, it was a hit at the box office, with profits from its Australian release alone being £150,000. After her starring role in The Flag Lieutenant, directed by and co-starring Henry Edwards, she worked under Wilcox's direction for all but one of her subsequent films, becoming one of Britain's biggest stars.
She continued in the musical genre. This first version of Noël Coward's tale of ill-fated lovers was obscured by the better known Jeanette MacDonald–Nelson Eddy remake in 1940. Neagle had her first major success with Nell Gwynn, which Wilcox had shot as a silent starring Dorothy Gish in 1926. Neagle's performance as the woman who became the mistress of Charles II prompted some censorship in the United States; the Hays Office had Wilcox add a scene featuring the two leads getting married and a "framing" story resulting in an different ending. Graham Greene a film critic, said of Nell Gwynn: "I have seen few things more attractive than Miss Neagle in breeches". Two years after Nell Gwynn, she followed up with another real-life figure, portraying Irish actress Peg Woffington in Peg of Old Drury; that same year she appeared in Limelight, a backstage film musical in which she played a chorus girl. Her co-star was Arthur Tracy, who had gained fame in the United States as a radio performer known as'The Street Singer'.
The film featured Jack Buchanan in an uncredited cameo. Performing "Goodnight Vienna". Neagle and Wilcox followed with a circus trapeze fable Three Maxims, released in the United States as The Show Goes On; the film, with a script featuring a contribution from Herman J. Mankiewicz, had Neagle performing her own high-wire acrobatics. Although now successful in films, Neagle continued acting on stage. In 1934, while working under director Robert Atkins, she performed as Rosalind in As You Like It and Olivia in Twelfth Night. Both productions earned her critical accolades, despite the fact that she had never performed Shakespearean roles before. In 1937 Neagle gave her most prestigious performance so far – as Queen Victoria in the historical drama Victoria the Great, co-starring Anton Walbrook as Prince Albert; the script by Robert Vansittart and Miles Malleson alternated between the political and the personal lives of the royal couple. The Diamond Jubilee sequence that climaxed the film was shot in Technicolor.
Victoria the Great was such an international success that it resulted in Neagle and Walbrook playing their roles again in an all-Technicolor sequel entitled Sixty Glorious Years, co-starring C. Aubrey Smith as the Duke of Wellington. While the first of these films was in release, Neagle returned to the London stage and entertained audiences with her portrayal of the title role in Peter Pan; the success of Victoria the Great and Sixty Glorious Years caused Hollywood studios to take notice. Neagle and Wilcox began an association with RKO Radio Pictures, their first American film was Nurse Edith Cavell, a remake of Dawn, a Wilcox silent that starred Sybil Thorndike. In this, another Neagle role based on an actual British heroine, she played the role of the nurse, shot by the Germans in World War I for alleged spying; the resulting effort had a significant impact for audiences on the eve of war. In a turnabout from this serious drama, the couple followed with three musical comedies, all based on once-popular stage plays.
The first of these was Irene. It included a Technicolor sequence, which featured Neagle singing the play's most famous son
Psychiatric hospitals known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Psychiatric hospitals vary in their size and grading; some hospitals may specialize only in short outpatient therapy for low-risk patients. Others may specialize in the temporary or permanent care of residents who, as a result of a psychological disorder, require routine assistance, treatment, or a specialized and controlled environment. Patients are admitted on a voluntary basis, but people whom psychiatrists believe may pose a significant danger to themselves or others may be subject to involuntary commitment. Psychiatric hospitals may be referred to as psychiatric wards or units when they are a subunit of a regular hospital. Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from, replaced the older lunatic asylums; the treatment of inmates in early lunatic asylums was sometimes brutal and focused on containment and restraint.
With successive waves of reform, the introduction of effective evidence-based treatments, most modern psychiatric hospitals provide a primary emphasis on treatment, attempt where possible to help patients control their own lives in the outside world, with the use of a combination of psychiatric drugs and psychotherapy. An exception is in Japan, where many psychiatric hospitals still use physical restraints on patients, tying them to their beds for days or months at a time. A crisis stabilization unit is in effect an emergency department for psychiatry dealing with suicidal, violent, or otherwise critical individuals. Open units are psychiatric units. Another type of psychiatric hospital is medium term. In the United Kingdom, both crisis admissions and medium term care are provided on acute admissions wards. Juvenile or adolescent wards are sections of psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric wards set aside for children or adolescents with mental illness. Long-term care facilities have the goal of treatment and rehabilitation back into society within a short time-frame.
Another institution for the mentally ill is a community-based halfway house. Modern psychiatric hospitals evolved from, replaced the older lunatic asylums; the development of the modern psychiatric hospital is the story of the rise of organized, institutional psychiatry. Hospitals known as bimaristans were built in Persia beginning around the early 9th century, with the first in Baghdad under the leadership of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid. While not devoted to patients with psychiatric disorders, they contained wards for patients exhibiting mania or other psychological distress; because of cultural taboos against refusing to care for one's family members, mentally ill patients would be surrendered to a bimaristan only if the patient demonstrated violence, incurable chronic illness, or some other debilitating ailment. Psychological wards were enclosed by iron bars owing to the aggression of some of the patients. Western Europe would adopt these views on with the advances of physicians like Philippe Pinel at the Bicêtre Hospital in France and William Tuke at the York Retreat in England.
They advocated the viewing of mental illness as a disorder that required compassionate treatment that would aid in the rehabilitation of the victim. The arrival in the Western world of institutionalisation as a solution to the problem of madness was much an advent of the nineteenth century; the first public mental asylums were established in Britain. Nine counties first applied. In 1828, the newly appointed Commissioners in Lunacy were empowered to license and supervise private asylums; the Lunacy Act 1845 made the construction of asylums in every country compulsory with regular inspections on behalf of the Home Secretary. The Act required asylums to have a resident physician. At the beginning of the nineteenth century there were a few thousand "sick people" housed in a variety of disparate institutions throughout England, but by 1900 that figure had grown to about 100,000; this growth coincided with the growth of alienism known as psychiatry, as a medical specialism. The treatment of inmates in early lunatic asylums was sometimes brutal and focused on containment and restraint.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, terms such as "madness," "lunacy" or "insanity"—all of which assumed a unitary psychosis—were split into numerous "mental diseases," of which catatonia and dementia praecox were the most common in psychiatric institutions. In 1961 sociologist Erving Goffman described a theory of the "total institution" and the process by which it takes efforts to maintain predictable and regular behavior on the part of both "guard" and "captor," suggesting that many of the features of such institutions serve the ritual function of ensuring that both classes of people know their function and social role, in other words of "institutionalizing" them. Asylums was a key text in the development of deinstitutionalization. With successive waves of reform and the introduction of effective evidence-based treatments, modern psychiatric hospitals provide a primary emphasis on treatment.
The London Palladium is a 2,286-seat Grade II* West End theatre located on Argyll Street in the City of Westminster. From the roster of stars who have played there and many televised performances, it is arguably the most famous theatre in London and the United Kingdom for musical variety shows; the theatre has hosted the Royal Variety Performance a record 42 times, most in 2018. Walter Gibbons, an early moving-pictures manager, built the Palladium in 1910 to compete with Sir Edward Moss's London Hippodrome and Sir Oswald Stoll's London Coliseum; the facade, dates back to the 19th century. It was a temporary wooden building called Corinthian Bazaar, which featured an aviary and aimed to attract customers from the closed Pantheon Bazaar on Oxford Street; the theatre was rebuilt a year by Fredrick Hengler, the son of a tightrope walker, as a circus arena for entertainments that included promenade concerts, pantomimes and an aquatic display in a flooded ring. It became the National Skating Palace – a skating rink with real ice.
However the rink failed and the Palladium was redesigned by Frank Matcham, a famous theatrical architect who designed the Coliseum, on the site that had housed Hengler’s Circus. The building now carries Heritage Foundation commemorative plaques honouring Lew Grade and Frankie Vaughan; the theatre retains many of its original features and was Grade II* listed in September 1960. The Palladium had its own telephone system, it had a revolving stage. The theatre started out as a premier venue for variety performances. Pantomimes were featured there. In 1926, the pantomime starred Lennie Dean as Cinderella; the theatre is linked to the Royal Variety Performances, where many were, still are, held. In 1928, for three months the Palladium ran as a cinema. Following this'Cine-Variety' episode the theatre fell dark for a short period in the autumn of 1928. From 3 September 1928, the Palladium reopened under the directorship of the impresario/producer George Black as part of the General Theatre Corporation; when Black took control the theatre was close to bankruptcy.
He revived its fortunes by returning to the original ethos of the Palladium by staging large variety shows, with a capital'V' – and as well as headlining Britain's homegrown acts he brought over big American stars such as Duke Ellington and his Orchestra, Adelaide Hall, Louis Armstrong and Ethel Waters for two-week engagements. Before too long, under Black's management the Palladium was soon gaining praise again as'The World's Leading Variety Theatre'. In 1935, Black initiated the Crazy Gang revues at the Palladium with Life Begins at Oxford Circus; the revues continued at the Palladium as an annual event until they transferred to the Victoria Palace theatre in 1940. Black managed the Palladium until his death in 1945; the climax of the 1935 Alfred Hitchcock spy thriller The 39 Steps was filmed at the Palladium. The theatre was hit by an unexploded German parachute mine on 11 May 1941; the device had fallen through the roof. A Royal Navy bomb disposal team was sent to deal with it. After the mine was located, the fuse locking ring had to be turned to allow access to the fuze itself.
Rather disconcertingly, the fuse began ticking as soon. This caused a rapid evacuation of the immediate area; the two team members cautiously returned, extracted the fuse and removed other hazardous components, rendering the mine'safe'. It was lowered to the stage and disposed of; the George Medal for gallantry and undaunted devotion to duty was given to Sub Lieutenant Graham Maurice Wright for his action in the Palladium on that night. He was killed, on 19 Aug 1941, while en route for Gibraltar on board the torpedoed troopship SS Aguila. Val Parnell took over as Managing Director after George Black's death in 1945, he adopted a controversial, but successful, policy of presenting high-priced, big-name American acts at the top of the bill. Among many, the list included Carmen Miranda, Judy Garland, Sophie Tucker, Bing Crosby, Danny Kaye, Rosemary Clooney, the Andrews Sisters with Vic Schoen and his orchestra, Bob Hope, Liza Minnelli, Lena Horne, Ella Fitzgerald, Peggy Lee, Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis, Jr. Frankie Laine and Johnnie Ray, freezing out many British stars of the day, who were relegated to second-billing.
From 1955–67 the theatre was the setting for the top-rated ITV variety show Sunday Night at the London Palladium hosted first by Tommy Trinder, followed by Bruce Forsyth, Norman Vaughan, Jimmy Tarbuck. The programme was broadcast live every week by ATV, owned by the famous theatrical impresario Lew Grade. Production was by Val Parnell. Six programmes aired as special episodes in the United States between May and August 1966 on NBC. Val Parnell became associated with a property development company and began to sell Moss Empires' theatres for redevelopment; when it became known in 1966 that this fate awaited the London Palladium, The Victoria Palace and the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Prince Littler organised a take-over to save the theatres and Val Parnell retired to live in France. The new Managing Director of Stoll-Moss was Louis Benjamin, who took on the role while continuing as MD of Pye Records within the ATV Group. By 1965, the Wine Society was operating out of a cellar under the Palladium.
Additionally, it was using one at Joiner Street under London Bridge Station and one at St James's Bond in Rotherhithe (which flooded
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 is a 2011 fantasy film directed by David Yates and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, it is the second of two cinematic parts based on J. K. Rowling's 2007 novel of the same name; the film, the eighth and final instalment in the Harry Potter film series, was written by Steve Kloves and produced by David Heyman, David Barron, Rowling. The story continues to follow Harry Potter's quest to find and destroy Lord Voldemort's Horcruxes in order to stop him once and for all; the film stars Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter, alongside Rupert Grint and Emma Watson as Harry's best friends, Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. Principal photography began on 19 February 2009, was completed on 12 June 2010, with reshoots taking place in December 2010, more than ten years after filming started on the first instalment of the series. Part 2 was released in 2D, 3-D and IMAX cinemas worldwide from 13–15 July 2011, is the only Harry Potter film to be released in 3-D.
The film became a commercial success and one of the best reviewed films of 2011, with praise for the acting, Yates's direction, musical score, visual effects, action sequences, the satisfying conclusion of the saga. At the box office, Part 2 claimed the worldwide opening weekend record, earning $483.2 million, as well as setting opening day and opening weekend records in various countries. As of 2018, the film is the tenth-highest-grossing film of all time, it became the highest-grossing film of 2011, the highest-grossing film in the Harry Potter series, the ninth film to gross over $1 billion. The Blu-ray and DVD sets were released on 11 November 2011 in the United States and on 2 December 2011 in the United Kingdom; the film was released in the Harry Potter: Complete 8-Film Collection box set on DVD and Blu-ray, which included all eight films and new special features. Part 1 and Part 2 were released as a combo pack on Blu-ray on 11 November 2011 in Canada; the film won several awards and was nominated for many more, including three nominations at the Academy Awards for Best Art Direction, Best Makeup and Best Visual Effects.
After burying Dobby, Harry Potter asks the goblin Griphook to help him, Ron Weasley, Hermione Granger break into Bellatrix Lestrange's vault at Gringotts bank, suspecting a Horcrux may be there. Griphook agrees in exchange for the Sword of Gryffindor. Wandmaker Ollivander tells Harry that two wands taken from Malfoy Manor belonged to Bellatrix and Draco Malfoy, though Malfoy's has changed its allegiance to Harry. In the vault, Harry discovers, he retrieves it, but Griphook snatches the sword and abandons the trio, leaving them cornered by security. The three flee on its back. Harry sees a vision of Lord Voldemort killing goblins including Griphook, learns Voldemort is aware of the theft. Harry realises there is a Horcrux at Hogwarts somehow connected to Rowena Ravenclaw; the trio apparate into Hogsmeade, where Aberforth Dumbledore reluctantly instructs the portrait of his deceased younger sister Ariana to fetch Neville Longbottom, who leads the trio through a secret passageway into Hogwarts. Severus Snape warns staff and students of punishment for aiding Harry.
Harry confronts Snape. McGonagall gathers the Hogwarts community for battle. At Luna Lovegood's insistence Harry speaks to Helena Ravenclaw's ghost, who reveals that Voldemort performed "dark magic" on her mother's diadem, located in the Room of Requirement. In the Chamber of Secrets, Hermione destroys the Horcrux cup with a Basilisk fang. In the Room of Requirement, Blaise Zabini and Gregory Goyle attack Harry, but Ron and Hermione intervene. Goyle casts a Fiendfyre curse. Harry stabs the diadem with the Basilisk fang and Ron kicks it into the Room of Requirement to be destroyed; as Voldemort's army attacks, seeing into Voldemort's mind, realises that Voldemort's snake Nagini is the final Horcrux. After entering the boathouse, the trio witness Voldemort telling Snape that the Elder Wand cannot serve Voldemort until Snape dies. Before dying, Snape tells Harry to take his memories to the Pensieve. Meanwhile, Fred Weasley, Remus Lupin, Nymphadora Tonks are killed in the chaos at Hogwarts. Harry learns from Snape's memories that while Snape despised Harry's late father James, who bullied him, he loved his late mother Lily.
Following her death, Snape worked with Albus Dumbledore to protect Harry from Voldemort due to his love for Lily. Harry learns that Dumbledore was dying and wished for Snape to kill him, that the Patronus doe he saw in the woods that led him to the sword was conjured by Snape. Harry discovers that he himself became a Horcrux when Voldemort failed to kill him. Harry surrenders himself to Voldemort in the Forbidden Forest. Voldemort casts the Killing Curse upon Harry. Dumbledore's spirit meets him and explains that the part of Voldemort within Harry was killed by Voldemort's curse. Harry returns to his body, determined to defeat Voldemort. Voldemort demands their surrender; as Neville gives a defiant response and draws the sword from the Sorting Hat, Harry reveals he is still alive. While Harry confronts Voldemort in a duel throughout the castle, Molly Weasley kills Bellatrix in the Great Hall and Neville decapitates Nagini, making Voldemort mortal. Harry and Voldemort's fight ends with Voldemort's own Killing C
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (film)
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets is a 2002 fantasy film directed by Chris Columbus and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, it is based on J. K. Rowling's 1998 novel of the same name; the film is a sequel to the 2001 film Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone and the second instalment in the Harry Potter film series. It was produced by David Heyman, its story follows Harry Potter's second year at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry as the Heir of Salazar Slytherin opens the Chamber of Secrets, unleashing a monster that petrifies the school's denizens. The film stars Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter, with Rupert Grint as Ron Weasley, Emma Watson as Hermione Granger and is the last film to feature Richard Harris as Professor Albus Dumbledore, due to his death that same year; the film was released in theatres in the United Kingdom and the United States on 15 November 2002. It became a commercial success, grossing $879 million at the box office worldwide, it was the second highest-grossing film of 2002 behind The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers.
The movie was nominated for many awards including the BAFTA Award for Best Production Design, Best Sound, Best Special Visual Effects. It was followed by six sequels, beginning with Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban in 2004 and ending with Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 in 2011, nearly ten years after the first film's release. Harry Potter spends the summer with The Dursleys without receiving letters from his Hogwarts friends. In his room, Harry meets Dobby, a house-elf who warns him of a peril that will take shape if he returns to Hogwarts. Dobby reveals that he intercepted his friends' letters, destroys a cake in order to prevent his return to school; the Dursleys lock Harry up, but Ron Weasley and his older twin brothers and George, rescue him in their father's flying car. While purchasing school supplies and the Weasley family encounter Rubeus Hagrid and Hermione Granger, they attend a book-signing by celebrity wizard Gilderoy Lockhart, who announces that he will be the new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher.
During a small confrontation with Draco Malfoy, Harry meets Malfoy's father, who discreetly slips a book into Ginny Weasley's belongings, which only Harry sees, but he mentions this to no one. When Harry and Ron are blocked from entering Platform Nine and Three-Quarters, they fly to Hogwarts in the flying car, they crash into the Whomping Willow upon arrival, Ron's wand is broken. Both boys narrowly avoid expulsion. During the detention, Harry hears strange voices and finds caretaker Argus Filch's cat, Mrs. Norris, along with a message written in blood announcing the "Chamber of Secrets has been opened". McGonagall explains that one of Hogwarts' founders, Salazar Slytherin constructed a secret Chamber, he placed a monster inside that only his Heir can control, capable of purging the school of muggle-born wizards and witches. Harry and Ron suspect Malfoy as the Heir, so Hermione suggests they question him while disguised using polyjuice potion, they utilise a disused bathroom haunted by a ghost, Moaning Myrtle, as their makeshift laboratory to brew the potion.
When Harry communicates with a snake, the school believes. On Christmas Day and Ron learn that Malfoy is not the Heir, but he mentions that a muggle-born girl died when the Chamber was last opened fifty years ago. Harry finds an enchanted diary owned by former Hogwarts student Tom Riddle, which contains a flashback fifty years prior where Riddle accused Hagrid a student, of opening the Chamber; when the diary is stolen and Hermione is petrified and Ron question Hagrid. Professor Dumbledore, Cornelius Fudge, Lucius come to take Hagrid to Azkaban, but he discreetly tells the boys to "follow the spiders". In the Forbidden Forest and Ron meet Hagrid's giant pet spider, who reveals Hagrid's innocence and provides them a small clue about the Chamber's monster. A book page in Hermione's hand identifies the monster as a basilisk, a giant serpent that kills those that make direct eye contact with it; the school staff learn that Ginny was taken into the Chamber, convince Lockhart to save her. Harry and Ron find Lockhart, planning to flee.
Once inside, Lockhart uses Ron's broken wand against them, but it backfires, wipes his memory, causes a cave-in. Harry finds Ginny unconscious, guarded by Riddle. Riddle reveals that he used the diary to reopen the Chamber; when Riddle creates the anagram for his future new identity, "I am Lord Voldemort", Harry realises that Riddle himself is Slytherin's heir and Voldemort's true identity. After Harry expresses support for Dumbledore, Fawkes flies in with the Sorting Hat, causing Riddle to summon the Basilisk. Fawkes blinds the Basilisk, allowing Harry to look at it directly without being killed or petrified; the Sorting Hat produces the Sword of Gryffindor, with which Harry battles and slays the Basilisk, though he is injured by one of its fangs. Harry revives Ginny by stabbing the diary with a basilisk fang. Fawkes's tears heal him, he returns to Hogwarts with his friends and a baffled Lockhart. Dumbledore praises them and orders Hagrid's release. Dumbledore shows Harry the sword he wielded was Godric Gryffindor's own sword, says he is different from Voldemort because he chose Gryffindor instead of Slytherin.
Harry accuses Lucius, Dobby's master, of planting the diary in Ginny's cauldron, tricks him into freeing Dobby. The
Tottenham is a district of North London, England, in the London Borough of Haringey. It is 5.9 miles north-north-east of Charing Cross. Tottenham is believed to have been named after Tota, a farmer, whose hamlet was mentioned in the Domesday Book.'Tota's hamlet', it is thought, developed into'Tottenham'. The settlement was recorded in the Domesday Book as Toteham, it is not related to Tottenham Court Road in Central London, though the two names share a similar-sounding root. There has been a settlement at Tottenham for over a thousand years, it grew up along the old Roman road, Ermine Street, between High Cross and Tottenham Hale, the present Monument Way. When the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086, about 70 families lived within the area of the manor labourers working for the Lord of the Manor. A humorous poem entitled the Tournament of Tottenham, written around 1400, describes a mock-battle between peasants vying for the reeve's daughter. In 1894, Tottenham was made an urban district and on 27 September 1934 it became a municipal borough.
As from 1 April 1965, the municipal borough formed part of the London Borough of Haringey together with Hornsey and Wood Green. The River Lea was the eastern boundary between the Municipal Boroughs of Walthamstow, it is the ancient boundary between Middlesex and Essex and formed the western boundary of the Viking controlled Danelaw. Today it is the boundary between the London Boroughs of Waltham Forest. A major tributary of the Lea, the River Moselle crosses the borough from west to east, caused serious flooding until it was covered in the 19th century. From the Tudor period onwards, Tottenham became a popular recreation and leisure destination for wealthy Londoners. Henry VIII is known to have visited Bruce Castle and hunted in Tottenham Wood. A rural Tottenham featured in Izaak Walton's book The Compleat Angler, published in 1653; the area became noted for its large Quaker population and its schools Tottenham remained a semi-rural and upper middle class area until the 1870s. In late 1870, the Great Eastern Railway introduced special workman's trains and fares on its newly opened Enfield and Walthamstow branch lines.
Tottenham's low-lying fields and market gardens were rapidly transformed into cheap housing for the lower middle and working classes, who were able to commute cheaply to inner London. The workman's fare policy stimulated the early development of the area into a London suburb. An incident occurred on 23 January 1909, at the time known as the Tottenham Outrage. Two armed robbers of Russian extraction held up the wages clerk of a rubber works in Chesnut Road, they fled across the Lea. On the opposite bank of the river they hijacked a Walthamstow Corporation tramcar, hotly pursued by the police on another tram; the hijacked tram was stopped but the robbers continued their flight on foot. After firing their weapons and killing two people, Ralph Joscelyne, aged 10, PC William Tyler, they were cornered by the police and shot themselves rather than be captured. Fourteen other people were wounded during the chase; the incident became the subject of a silent film. During the Second World War Tottenham was one of the many targets of the German air offensive against Britain.
Bombs fell in the borough during the first air raid on London on 24 August 1940. The borough received V-1 and V-2 hits, the last of which occurred on 15 March 1945. Wartime shortages led to the creation of Tottenham Pudding, a mixture of household waste food, converted into feeding stuffs for pigs and poultry; the "pudding" was named by Queen Mary on a visit to Tottenham Refuse Works. Production continued into the post-war period, its demise coinciding with the merging of the borough into the new London Borough of Haringey; the Broadwater Farm riot occurred around the Broadwater Farm Estate on 6 October 1985 following the death of Cynthia Jarrett. Jarrett was a resident of Tottenham who lived about a mile from the estate, who died of heart failure during a police search of her home; the tension between local black youths and the white Metropolitan Police had been high due to a combination of local issues and the aftermath of riots in Brixton which had occurred in the previous week. The response of some of the black community in Tottenham and surrounding areas culminated in a riot beginning on Tottenham High Road and ending in Broadwater Farm Estate.
One police officer, Keith Blakelock, was murdered. Two of the policemen were injured by gunshots during the riot, the first time that firearms had been used in that type of confrontation; the 2011 Tottenham riots were a series of riots precipitated by the fatal shooting of Mark Duggan, a 29-year-old man in Tottenham, by officers of the Metropolitan Police Service on 4 August 2011. Attacks were carried out on two police cars, a bus, a Post Office and several local shops from 8:00pm onwards on 6 August 2011. Riot police vans attended the scene of disturbances on Tottenham High Road. In the evening the riot spread, with an Aldi supermarket and a branch of Allied Carpets destroyed by fire, widespread looting in nearby Wood Green shopping centre and the retail park at Tottenham Hale. Several flats above shops on Tottenham High Road collapsed due to the fires. 26 shared ownership flats in the Union Point development above the Carpetright store – built in the landmark Cooperative department store building – were completely destroyed by fire.
The triggering event was when a group of over one hundred local Tottenham residents se