click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Lesser Poland Voivodeship

Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province known as Małopolska Voivodeship or Małopolska Province, is a voivodeship, in southern Poland. It has an area of 15,108 square kilometres, a population of 3,267,731, it was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Kraków, Tarnów, Nowy Sącz and parts of Bielsko-Biała, Katowice and Krosno Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province's name recalls the traditional name of a historic Polish region, Lesser Poland, or in Polish: Małopolska. Current Lesser Poland Voivodeship, covers only a small part of the broader ancient Małopolska region which, together with Greater Poland and Silesia, formed the early medieval Polish state. Historic Lesser Poland is much larger than the current province, it stretches far north, to Radom, Siedlce including such cities, as Stalowa Wola, Kielce, Częstochowa, Sosnowiec. The province is bounded on the north by the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, on the west by Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska, on the south by the Tatra and Beskidy Mountains.

Politically it is bordered by Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship to the north, Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the east, Slovakia to the south. All of Lesser Poland lies in the Vistula River catchment area; the city of Kraków was one of the European Cities of Culture in 2000. Kraków has railway and road connections with Katowice, Wrocław and Rzeszów, it lies at the crossroads of major international routes linking Dresden with Kiev, Gdańsk with Budapest. Located here is the second largest international airport in Poland, the John Paul II International Airport; the region's economy includes high technology, banking and metallurgical industries, ore, food processing, spirit and tobacco industries. The most industrialized city of the voivodeship is Kraków; the largest regional enterprise operates here, the Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks in Nowa Huta, employing 17,500 people. Another major industrial center is located in the west, in the neighborhood of Chrzanów and Oświęcim. Kraków Park Technologiczny, a Special Economic Zone, has been established within the voivodeship.

There are 210,000 registered economic entities operating in the voivodeship small and medium-sized, of which 234 belong to the state-owned sector. Foreign investment, growing in the region, reached US$18.3 billion by the end of 2006. 130,000 students attend fifteen Kraków institutions of higher learning. The Jagiellonian University, the largest university in the city, was founded in 1364 as Cracow Academy. Nicolaus Copernicus and Karol Wojtyła graduated from it; the AGH University of Science and Technology is considered to be the best technical university in Poland. The Academy of Economics, the Pedagogical University, the Kraków University of Technology and the Agricultural Academy are very regarded. There are the Fine Arts Academy, the State Theatre University and the Musical Academy. Nowy Sącz has become a major educational center in the region thanks to its Higher School of Business and Administration, with an American curriculum, founded in 1992; the school has 4,500 students. There are two private higher schools in Tarnów.

Located in Southern Poland, Lesser Poland is the warmest place in Poland with average summer temperatures between 23 °C and 30 °C during the day reaching 32 °C to 38 °C in July and August, the two warmest months of the year. The city of Tarnów, located in Lesser Poland, is the hottest place in Poland all year round, average temperatures being around 25 °C during the day in the three summer months and 3 °C during the day in the three winter months. In the winter the weather patterns alter each year. Błędów Desert, the only desert in Poland, is located in Lesser Poland, where temperatures can reach 38 °C in the summer. Four national parks and numerous reserves have been established in the voivodeship to protect the environment of Lesser Poland; the region has areas for tourism and recreation, including Zakopane and the Tatra and Beskidy Mountains. The natural landscape features many historic sites; the salt mine at Wieliczka, the pilgrimage town of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Kraków's Old Town are ranked by UNESCO among the most precious sites of world heritage.

At Wadowice, birthplace of John Paul II is a museum dedicated to the late Pope's childhood. The area of Oświęcim, with the former Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz-I and Auschwitz-II-Birkenau, is visited annually by a million people. Another tourist destination is the town of Bochnia with Europe's oldest; the voivodeship contains 61 towns. These are listed below in descending order of population: Smaller Poland Voivodeship is divided into 22 counties: 3 city counties and 19 land counties; these are further divided into 182 gminas. The counties are listed in the following table (orde

Pon Pon Pon

"Pon Pon Pon" is a song and debut single by Japanese singer Kyary Pamyu Pamyu. It was released as the lead single for her EP, Moshi Moshi Harajuku, included on her debut album, "Pamyu Pamyu Revolution"; the song was produced by Yasutaka Nakata of Capsule. The music video, a psychedelic tribute to kawaisa and Decora culture, was released to YouTube on July 16, 2011 and became a viral hit. On 27 July 2012 was released a limited edition of a 7' LP with A side: PONPONPON -extended mix- and Side B: Cherry Bon Bon -extended mix-, exclusive for DJs; the song was launched on iTunes internationally in 23 countries, set records for a Japanese song, reaching #1 in Finland and #4 in Belgium. As of 2012, the song sold over 1 million digital downloads; as of 2016, the music video has over 100 million views on YouTube. Internationally, the song has been featured in G-Eazy's single "Lost in Translation", FACE's "Night Fever", was featured in The Simpsons episode "Married to the Blob". Pon Pon Pon is featured on 2012 Japan game, Just Dance Wii 2.

The music video for "PonPonPon" was shot by Jun Tamukai. The theme of the music video is "kawaii". Tamukai regarded Kyary as a person bending the definition of "kawaii" by mixing it with weirdness; the art director Sebastian Masuda, of fashion brand 6%DOKIDOKI, adopted the randomness of "a room of a girl who isn't good at tidying up", adding "a taste of the 60-70s". The fashion stylist and designer for the video was Kumiko Iijima; the video is a mix of 3D animation. It depicts two worlds, the first of, created by Masuda Sebastian and looks like a room of a girl; the video starts. The microphone stand is used to imitate the image of Freddie Mercury. In the chorus, Kyary performs a dance choreographed by air:man with the lyrics inserted as kinetic typography; when Kyary claps during the bridge, slices of bread appear because "pan" is the Japanese onomatopoeia for the sound of a clap, as well as the word for bread. A combo television unit into which a cassette is inserted is a reference to the fact that analog broadcasting stopped in Japan and was switched to digital broadcasting on July 20, the same day the song was released on iTunes Store.

Kyary parodies the "Hige dance" from the 70s comedy show 8 Ji Dayo! Zenin Shugo wearing a mustache and does the "kamehameha" move from the Japanese manga series Dragon Ball. Credits adapted from liner notes. Cover artwork Steve Nakamura – art director, designer Shinji Konishi – hair, make-up Eri Soyama – stylist There are three versions of Pon Pon Pon on YouTube which the first version is uploaded on 18 July 2011, the second version is uploaded on 16 July 2011, the third version is 30 sec. short version. Kyary Pamyu Pamyu - PONPONPON on YouTube - uploaded on 18 July 2011. Kyary Pamyu Pamyu - PONPONPON on YouTube - uploaded on 16 July 2011. PONPONPON on YouTube - short version

Rukhsa

Rukhṣa is a technical term in the discipline of uṣūl al-fiqh in Islamic law, applied on ibadah. It is a special dispensation from performing an obligatory act or from submitting to a prohibition, as a result of a mitigating circumstance; the result is the replacement of a command with an easier alternative in cases of need or duress. The opposite of rukhṣa is ʿAzīma which means the request to observe the duty without consideration of any obstacles. A permission of this kind, found in the quran is the permission to eat prohibited food in cases of emergency to avoid the death of hunger, the recommendation to use sand instead of water for cleaning for salah. Other permissions are based on sayings of the prophet Muhammad, like denying the own faith in case of danger of life; the exemption of fasting the month of Ramadan for menstruating women, ill people, travellers and breastfeeding women is known as rukhṣa. In some cases rukhṣa leads to the complete opposite of an original provision such as visiting the graves, prohibited first, than allowed with a rukhṣa by the prophet.

Basic of the rukhṣa-concept is the following hadith:"Really, Allah loves his dispenses to be fulfilled, like his requests. The sahabah Abd Allah ibn Abbas is quoted: "Rukhṣa is like a sadaqah, which Allah gives. Sufis, were called to seek the divine reward that results from adhering to the'aza'im. For example, while God allowed people to marry in the ruchsa, they sought the'zīīma of celibacy. In particular, in the Sufi Order of the Naqshbandi emphasis was placed on the observance of'Azā'im, but other Muslims were allowed to use the Ruchsa facilities; this is based on the idea. This is the basic idea of the treatise "The Chidric Measure" of the Egyptian Sufis'Abd al-Wahhāb ash-Shārānī, he developed there, with reference to the two principles Ruchsa and'Azīma, the doctrine that the sharia had come down altogether in two stages, namely at the level of "mitigation" and the degree of "aggravation", each aimed at different groups of people. Asch-Sha'rānī describes in his treatise how he received this teaching from Khidr, who traveled with him in seclusion and showed him the source of pure Sharia.

Therefore, the treatise has its name. Ze'ev Maghen: After hardship cometh ease: the Jews as backdrop for Muslim moderation. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006. S. 25–51. R. Peters: Art. "Rukhṣa. 1. In Law" in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition Bd. VIII, S. 595b–596a. J. G. J. Ter Haar: Art. "Rukhṣa. 1. In Sufism" in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition Bd. VIII, S. 596

Argentine Medical Association

The Argentine Medical Association is the principal professional association of physicians in Argentina. It is a medical non-profit organization with headquarters in Buenos Aires; the group was founded on September 5, 1891, as the Sociedad Mèdica Argentina by a conference of doctors in Buenos Aires led by Dr. Pedro F. Roberts, an ophthalmologist, Doctors José Penna and Alfredo Lagarde. Though the society was preceded by the Buenos Aires National Academy of Medicine, the former was founded with a focus on advocacy on behalf of the nation's medical professionals, was a response to hardships imposed by the Panic of 1890. Although the founding conference debated the possibility of establishing the society as a guild or trade union, these options were discarded in favor of creating a professional association and learned society; the society was composed of 106 members, was housed within the Illuminated Block, a historic, Jesuit center of learning. Justo a leader of the Socialist Party of Argentina.

It relocated to offices of its own in 1892, as it grew, it became necessary to have the society succeed to the Argentine Medical Association, a name adopted by an assembly held on August 13, 1913. The Buenos Aires city government granted it a valuable Santa Fe Avenue lot for the construction of new offices in 1917, the following year, new headquarters were inaugurated; the new facilities allowed the association to grow, by 1923, over 1,000 physicians had become members. Six societies comprised the association in 1919: internal medicine, biology, microbiology and ophthalmology. Societies of urology and otolaryngology were added in 1922, toxicology, pharmacology. Dr. Carlos Mainini's tenure was marked by a notable expansion of the group's academic activities, including the establishment of the societies of orthopedic surgery, nutrition science, mental health, as well as the Argentine Society of Medical History; the Argentine Society of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery was inducted in 1952. The institution grew to include 43 societies, 7 associations, 25 committees.

The association issues accreditation to health facilities nationwide, since 1950, operates the school of Continuing Medical Education, which offers 60 courses to over 2,000 students yearly. Its periodical, the Revista de la Sociedad Médica Argentina has been published since October 1891, its library, opened in 1917, houses over 25,000 volumes; this scientific society was created in 1891 to improve health. It carried scientific sessions to disseminated information and various aspects of medicine, it is composed of sections and / or subsidiaries representing different medical specialties and subspecialties. Their number is increasing, in view of the complexity. Is a center for teaching in different medical specialties, it performs continuing medical education and postgraduate education. The AMA members require being doctors and having a behavior and morality of the profession itself, they stand out in AMA statute the following: Contribute to the progress of medicine and encourage scientific research.

Celebrating scientific activities by facilitating the exchange among its members in medical specialties. Contribute to teaching medical in the country. Publish the works of scientific interest to disseminate knowledge and encourage medical research. To promote scientific relations with other similar foreign societies, it consists of a general assembly, a steering committee and a board of AMA. The administration of the AMA is in charge of a steering committee headed by a chairman, it is elected by the majority of the members present at the Ordinary General Assembly. The council of the AMA is constituted by the committee and the chairmen of the sections and subsidiaries; the current president of the AMA is Prof. Dr. Elias Hurtado Hoyo. To organize scientific efforts in each specialty or discipline sections are created; these sections are important and popular because of the unceasing progress and development of health sciences. In them, they develop conferences, round tables and complex clinical cases for discussed by the attendees and encouraging colleague’s diagnosis and medical treatment.

They developed seminars and other educational activities. The EGAMA began in 1977. Brings together and coordinates all formal educational activities carried out at AMA; some of them are specialists in different disciplines. Its current Director is Prof. Dr. Armando Arata; the Journal of the Medical Association of Argentina is the official publication of AMA. Professionals use it to dump its expertise in scientific articles in various fields; the magazine is distributed to all partners. Four issues is quarterly appearance; the current editor is Prof. Dr. Alfredo Buzzi. Asociación Médica Argentina: Historia

Tonya Evinger

Tonya Evinger is an American mixed martial artist. She competed for EliteXC, Raging Wolf and Invicta Fighting Championships, was the Invicta Bantamweight Champion, she is signed to Ultimate Fighting Championship. Evinger played wrestled while at Odessa High School in Odessa, Missouri, she went on to earn her degree at Missouri Valley College in Marshall, Missouri. Evinger's younger twin brothers and Owen Evinger, are professional mixed martial arts fighters. Evinger faced Jennifer Tate at IFC: Warriors Challenge 21 on June 3, 2006 and lost via triangle choke in the second round; the fight was the first women's bout sanctioned by the California State Athletic Commission. She faced Brittany Pullen at FFF 1: Asian Invasion on February 17, 2007, she won the fight via a 16-second knockout in the first round. Evinger faced Shonie Plagman at X-1: Extreme Fighting 2 on March 17, 2007, she won the fight by knockout 10 seconds into the second round. She faced Ginele Marquez at Tuff-N-Uff 2 on April 14, 2007.

She won the fight by rear naked choke submission in the third round. Evinger faced Vanessa Porto at FFF 2: Girls Night Out on July 14, 2007, she lost the fight by armbar submission in the first round. Evinger debuted for Elite XC against Gina Carano at EliteXC: Uprising on September 15, 2007, she lost the fight by rear-naked choke submission in the first round. She faced Julie Kedzie at ShoXC: Elite Challenger Series on January 25, 2007, she won the fight by rear-naked choke submission in the first round. Evinger faced Alexis Davis at Raging Wolf 7: Mayhem In The Mist 3 on May 8, 2010 for the Raging Wolf Women's Flyweight Championship, she lost the fight by rear-naked choke submission in the third round. Evinger faced Adrienna Jenkins in a number one contender's bout at Raging Wolf 8: Cage Supremacy on July 17, 2010, she won the fight by TKO in the second round. On November 6, 2010, Evinger rematched Alexis Davis at Raging Wolf 10, she was defeated by submission due to a rear-naked choke in the first round.

Evinger faced Sara McMann at Titan Fighting Championships 19 on July 29, 2011 in Kansas City, Kansas. The fight served as the co-main event. Evinger was defeated by unanimous decision. On September 23, 2011, Evinger stepped in on short notice to face Anita Rodriguez at XFL: Rumble on the River 5 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, she defeated Rodriguez by submission due to a rear-naked choke in round one. Evinger defeated Lacie Jackson by knockout in the first round at Fight Me MMA on April 13, 2012. On November 10, 2012, Evinger made her flyweight debut against Carina Damm at Fight Hard MMA, she defeated Damm by split decision. In August 2013, it was announced that Evinger was one of the fighters selected to be on The Ultimate Fighter: Team Rousey vs. Team Tate. In the elimination fight to get into the TUF house, Evinger faced Raquel Pennington and lost via guillotine choke submission in the second round. On December 7, 2013, Evinger faced Sarah D'Alelio at Invicta Fighting Championships 7, she won the fight via unanimous decision.

After switching camps to Houston, Texas she joined team Gracie Barra Champions and 4 oz Fight Club, training her Boxing and Kickboxing with Aaron Pena and MMA with Jeremy Mahon. Evinger next fought Ediane Gomes at Invicta Fighting Championships 8 on September 6, 2014, she won the fight via first round submission. Evinger next fought Cindy Dandois at Invicta Fighting Championships 10 on December 5, 2014, she won the fight via second round submission, making her the front runner to fight for the vacant Invicta FC bantamweight title. Evinger next fought Irene Aldana for the vacant Invicta FC bantamweight title at Invicta Fighting Championships 13 on July 9, 2015, she dominated the fight from bell to bell finishing the fight early with an arm bar. Evinger would go on to stop Aldana in the 4th round via TKO, claiming the Invicta FC bantamweight title. Evinger next fought Pannie Kianzad; this was set as a title defense but both Evinger and Kianzad were unable to make weight, both being fined a percentage of their purse and was changed to a five-round non-title fight.

Evinger ended up dispatching Kianzad in the 2nd round by TKO due to punches. Evinger next fought Colleen Schneider at Invicta Fighting Championships 17 on May 7, 2016. Evinger defended her bantamweight title by unanimous decision. Following the fight, Evinger celebrated her victory by kissing interviewer Laura Sanko on the lips. Evinger would lose her bantamweight championship in an upset defeat to Russian newcomer Yana Kunitskaya by armbar submission in the first round on November 18, 2016; the loss was controversial because the referee told her to move from a legal position which may have led directly to the submission. Evinger appealed her loss and on December 1, 2016 the loss was changed to a no contest, so Evinger retained her title. Evinger faced Kunitskaya in a rematch in the main event of Invicta FC 22 on March 25, 2017, she won the fight by submission in the second round to retain her title. On June 27, 2017, it was announced that Evinger had signed with the UFC and was set to face Cris Cyborg for the vacant UFC Women's Featherweight Championship at UFC 214.

She lost the fight by TKO in the third round. Evinger was scheduled to face Marion Reneau at UFC Fight Night: Cowboy vs. Medeiros in Austin, Texas on February 18, 2018. However, on January 9, 2018, she was forced to pull out fight. Evinger was scheduled to face Ketlen Vieira on September 22, 2018 at UFC Fight Night 137. However, on August 7, 2018, Vieira pulled out due to a knee injury. In turn, Evinger was pulled from the card and scheduled to face Aspen Ladd two weeks at UFC 229, she lost the fight via TKO in the first round. Evinger faced Lina Länsberg on June 1, 2019 at

Market socialism

Market socialism is a type of economic system involving the public, cooperative or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy. Market socialism differs from non-market socialism in that the market mechanism is utilized for the allocation of capital goods and the means of production. Depending on the specific model of market socialism, profits generated by owned firms may variously be used to directly remunerate employees, accrue to society at large as the source of public finance or be distributed amongst the population in a social dividend. Market socialism is distinguished from the concept of the mixed economy because models of market socialism are complete and self-regulating systems, unlike the mixed economy. Market socialism contrasts with social democratic policies implemented within capitalist market economies. While social democracy aims to achieve greater economic stability and equality through policy measures such as taxes and social welfare programs, market socialism aims to achieve similar goals through changing patterns of enterprise ownership and management.

Although economic proposals involving social ownership with factor markets have existed since the early 19th century, the term market socialism only emerged in the 1920s during the socialist calculation debate. Contemporary market socialism emerged from the debate on socialist calculation during the early-to-mid 20th century among socialist economists who believed that a socialist economy could neither function on the basis of calculation in natural units nor through solving a system of simultaneous equations for economic coordination, that capital markets would be required in a socialist economy. Early models of market socialism trace their roots to the work of Adam Smith and the theories of classical economics which consisted of proposals for cooperative enterprises operating in a free-market economy; the aim of such proposals was to eliminate exploitation by allowing individuals to receive the full product of their labor while removing the market-distorting effects of concentrating ownership and wealth in the hands of a small class of private owners.

Among early advocates of market socialism were the Ricardian socialist economists and mutualist philosophers. In the early 20th century, Oskar Lange and Abba Lerner outlined a neoclassical model of socialism which included a role for a central planning board in setting prices equal to marginal cost to achieve Pareto efficiency. Although these early models did not rely on conventional markets, they were labeled market socialist for their utilization of financial prices and calculation. In more recent models proposed by American neoclassical economists, public ownership of the means of production is achieved through public ownership of equity and social control of investment; the key theoretical basis for market socialism is the negation of the underlying expropriation of surplus value present in other, modes of production. Socialist theories that favored the market date back to the Ricardian socialists and anarchist economists, who advocated a free market combined with public ownership or mutual ownership of the means of production.

Proponents of early market socialism include the Ricardian socialist economists, the classical liberal philosopher John Stuart Mill and the anarchist philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. These models of socialism entailed perfecting or improving the market mechanism and free price system by removing distortions caused by exploitation, private property and alienated labor; this form of market socialism has been termed free-market socialism because it does not involve planners. Mill's early economic philosophy was one of free markets that he moved toward a more socialist bent, adding chapters to his Principles of Political Economy in defence of a socialist outlook, defending some socialist causes. Within this revised work he made the radical proposal that the whole wage system be abolished in favour of a co-operative wage system. Nonetheless, some of his views on the idea of flat taxation remained, albeit altered in the third edition of the Principles of Political Economy to reflect a concern for differentiating restrictions on unearned incomes which he favoured.

Mill's Principles, first published in 1848, was one of the most read of all books on economics in the period. As Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations had during an earlier period, Mill's Principles dominated economics teaching. In the case of Oxford University, it was the standard text until 1919, when it was replaced by Alfred Marshall's Principles of Economics. In editions of Principles of Political Economy, Mill would argue that "as far as economic theory was concerned, there is nothing in principle in economic theory that precludes an economic order based on socialist policies". Mill promoted substituting capitalist businesses with worker cooperatives, writing: The form of association, which if mankind continue to improve, must be expected in the end to predominate, is not that which can exist between a capitalist as chief, work-people without a voice in the management, but the association of the labourers themselves on terms of equality, collectively owning the capital with which they carry on their operations and working under managers elected and removable by themselves.

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon developed a theoretical system called mutualism which attacks the legitimacy of existing property rights, corporations and rent. Proudhon envisioned a decentralized market where people would enter the market with equal power, negating wage slavery. Proponents believe that cooperatives, credit unions and other forms of worker ownership would become