England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Rhythm of Love Tour
The Rhythm of Love Tour was the third concert tour by Kylie Minogue, in support of her 1990 album Rhythm of Love. Beginning on 10 February 1991, the tour visited East Asia; the concerts showcased a more confident Minogue as she began to command control over her image, as well as new songs from the album Rhythm of Love, which offered a new sound for the Australian pop star. Costumes for the shows, with exception of the opening outfit were designed by the same team as Kylie's previous two tours and marked the final time she would engage their services. Planned VHS release for the show, recorded in Sydney Australia was cancelled in favour of an updated version of the tour following its extension into Europe in late 1991. By it had become known as the Let's Get to It Tour in support of a new studio album of the same name, with new wardrobe, modified set list and a much more live assured Minogue. "Step Back in Time" "Wouldn't Change a Thing" "Got to Be Certain" "Always Find The Time" "Enjoy Yourself" "Tears on My Pillow" "Secrets" "Help!"
"I Should Be So Lucky" "What Do I Have to Do?" "Je Ne Sais Pas Pourquoi" "One Boy Girl" "Love Train" "Rhythm of Love" "Shocked"Encore"Hand on Your Heart" "Count the Days" "The Loco-Motion" "Better the Devil You Know" The Rhythm Of Love Tour was recorded in Sydney, at the final show of the Australian leg. The footage remains unreleased; the photo stills of this recording appeared on the internet in January 2014. On 6 August 2015 a short montage of "Step Back In Time", dance sequence of "Shocked" and the full performance of "Count The Days" appeared on YouTube; the full concert footage remains unreleased. In commemoration of the tour, a special edition of Rhythm Of Love was released in Australia, including remixed versions of the songs "Better the Devil You Know", "Step Back in Time", "What Do I Have To Do" as bonus tracks; the album came in a normal CD Case with a gold slip cover A poor quality audio recording exists of the full 15 February 1991 Adelaide show on soundcloud "1991 Rhythm of Love Tour" Kylie Minogue notable Tours-Part 2-Rhythm of Love Tour Rhythm of Love Tour 1991 RHYTHM OF LOVE TOUR 1991
Nottingham Royal Concert Hall
Nottingham Royal Concert Hall is a concert hall in the English city of Nottingham. It is owned by Nottingham City Council and is part of a complex that includes the city's Theatre Royal; the Royal Concert Hall's striking modern architecture has proved to be a city landmark at the heart of Nottingham City Centre, opposite the more built The Cornerhouse complex. The concert hall is served by the adjacent Royal Centre tram stop on the Nottingham Express Transit; the site of the Royal Concert Hall was the old'Empire Palace of Varieties' designed and built in 1898 by Frank Matcham. The Empire closed for the last time in 1958 and was demolished for road-widening in 1969. Designed by the Renton Howard Wood Levin Partnership, the hall cost £12 million to complete; the project's client was Nottingham City Council, who were ambitious to win acclaim for their hall as a first-rate local and international venue for concerts and conferences. Work on the Royal Concert Hall began in 1980 and was completed in 1982, providing Nottingham with a contemporary 2,499-seater, state-of-the-art, air-conditioned auditorium complete with a versatile sound and lighting system.
The first artist to perform there was Elton John in November 1982. "... the architects have attempted to keep before them a clear set of sculptural intentions. The development of the design has involved the production of some forty models and the overriding concern with the three-dimensional and fluid nature of the space has sought to give a new meaning to the old adage of architecture as'frozen music'." The acoustical design of the auditorium was created by reference to the standards of world-famous concert halls. An acoustical canopy can be raised and lowered and tilted backwards to suit the changing musical needs of each performance. At its lowest settings, the canopy suits intimate chamber music; the shimmering glass walls of the facade by day mirror the varied architecture nearby, acting as architectural'sunglasses'. Whereas by night the effect of a display-case is created,those outside can see the audience inside dressed and assembling for their entertainment; the Hall has become a leading venue on the worldwide touring circuit attracting world-class orchestras, rock bands, dance acts and solo artists, which includes Shane Filan of Westlife, Motörhead and Union J, who are both due to perform there this year.
The hall is equipped for staging conferences and large meetings. When the Royal Concert Hall first opened, Nottingham City Council entertained the idea of launching a resident professional orchestra to complement such a prestigious new venue but decided against it. There is still strong support for the idea and it is hoped by many that it may yet become a reality. List of concert halls Official website Exterior photograph Interior photograph See the Royal Concert Hall on Google Street View
Kylie Ann Minogue known mononymously as Kylie, is an Australian-British singer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson. Appearing in the series for two years, Minogue's character married Scott Robinson in an episode viewed by nearly 20 million people in the United Kingdom, making it one of the most watched Australian TV episodes ever. Since Minogue has been a recording artist and has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the entertainment industry. Minogue has been recognised with several honorific nicknames, most notably the "Princess of Pop." She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association. Born and raised in Melbourne, Minogue has worked and lived in the United Kingdom since the 1990s, she released her first studio album Kylie the next year. In 1992, she left PWL and signed with Deconstruction Records where she released her self-titled studio album and Impossible Princess, both of which received positive reviews from critics.
Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and released Light Years. The followup, was a hit in many countries, including the United States; the lead single "Can't Get You Out of My Head" became one of the most successful singles of the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her "signature song" and was named "the catchiest song ever" by Yahoo! Music. Other successful singles by Minogue include "I Should Be So Lucky", "The Loco-Motion", "Especially for You", "Hand on Your Heart", "Better the Devil You Know", "Confide in Me", "Spinning Around", "Love at First Sight", "Slow", "2 Hearts" and "All the Lovers". In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. After treatment, she resumed the tour under the title Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour, which critics viewed as a "triumph". Minogue made her film debut in The Delinquents and portrayed Cammy in Street Fighter. Minogue has appeared in the films Moulin Rouge!, Jack & Diane, Holy Motors.
In 2014, she appeared as a judge on the third series of The Voice Australia. Her other ventures include children's books and fashion; as of 2015, Minogue has had worldwide record sales of more than 80 million. She has mounted several successful and critically acclaimed concert world tours and received a Mo Award for "Australian Entertainer of the Year" for her live performances. Minogue was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours for services to Music, she was appointed by the French government as a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for her contribution to the enrichment of French culture. Minogue was awarded an honorary Doctor of Health Science degree by Anglia Ruskin University for her work in raising awareness for breast cancer. In November 2011, on the 25th anniversary of the ARIA Music Awards, she was inducted by the Australian Recording Industry Association into the ARIA Hall of Fame. In December 2016, Billboard ranked her as the 18th most successful dance artist of all-time.
Minogue signed a new global recording contract with BMG Rights Management in early 2017. Her latest album Golden was released on 6 April 2018, debuting at No. 1 in the Australia. Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia, on 28 May 1968, her father is a fifth generation Australian, has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales. Jones had lived in Wales until age ten when her mother and father and Denis Jones, decided to move to Australia for a better life. Just before Kylie's birth, Ron qualified as an accountant and worked through several jobs while Carol worked as a professional dancer. Kylie's younger brother, Brendan, is a news cameraman in Australia, while her younger sister Dannii Minogue is a singer and television host; the Minogue family moved around various suburbs in Melbourne to sustain their living expenses, which Kylie found unsettling as a child. After the birth of Dannii, the family moved to South Oakleigh; because money was tight, Ron worked as an accountant at a family-owned car company and Carol worked as a tea lady at a local hospital.
After moving to Surrey Hills, Minogue attended Studfield Primary School before attending Camberwell Primary School. She went on to Camberwell High School. During her schooling years, Minogue found it difficult to make friends, she got her HSC with subjects including English. Minogue described herself as being of "average intelligence" and "quite modest" during her high school years. From the age of 11, Kylie appeared in small roles in soap operas including The Sullivans and Skyways. In 1985, she was cast in one of the lead roles in The Henderson Kids. Minogue took time off school to film The Henderson Kids and while Carol was not impressed, Minogue felt that she needed the independence to make it into the entertainment industry. During filming, co-star Nadine Garner labelled Minogue "fragile" after producers yelled at her for forgetting her lines. Minogue was dropped from the second season of the show after producer Alan Hardy felt the need for her character to be "written off". In retrospect, Hardy stated that removing her from the showing "turned out to be the best thing for her".
Interested in following a career in music, Minogue made a demo tape for the producers of weekly music programme Young Talent Time, which featured Dannii as a regular performer
I Should Be So Lucky
"I Should Be So Lucky" is a 1987 song performed by Australian recording artist and songwriter Kylie Minogue from her debut studio album Kylie. Released on 29 December 1987 by Mushroom Records and PWL Records, the song became a worldwide breakthrough hit; the song was well received by music critics. The song was written and produced by Stock Aitken Waterman for Minogue, they went on to produce Minogue's first four studio albums. "I Should Be So Lucky" was an international hit, reaching number one in several countries including Australia, United Kingdom and Germany, as well as making the US Billboard Hot 100 top 30. After the success of her debut single "Locomotion" in Australia, Minogue traveled to London to work with Stock Aitken Waterman, a successful British writing and production team, they had forgotten that she was arriving. Mike Stock wrote the lyrics for the song in response to what he had learned about Minogue prior to her arrival, he believed that although she was a successful soap star in Australia and talented, there must be something wrong with her and figured that she must be unlucky in love.
Minogue recorded the song in less than an hour, which Stock attributes to her good ear for music and her quick memorization skills. After Minogue finished the recording session she returned home to Australia to continue work on the soap opera, Neighbours."I Should Be So Lucky" is a pop, dance-pop, Hi-NRG song which features elements of bubblegum pop and new wave music. According to the music sheet on MusicNotes.com, published by Universal Music Publishing Group, the song is set in the key of C major. Minogue's vocals span from D4 to C5; the song is set in common time and moves at a moderate tempo of 116 beats per minute. Instrumentation of the song features synthesizers and guitars. According to PopMatters, the song features "numerous orchestra hits to the uncomfortably thin sounding drum machine." Waterman has said. Stock told The Guardian: "Anyone is easy should try to play it. It's in four keys, all of them awkward, you can't strum it unless you're a good musician.""I Should Be So Lucky" received positive to mixed reviews from contemporary music critics, who thought that the song was an instant highlight and good song within the 80's, while some dismissed the lyrical content.
Despite this, the song received commercial attention around the world, where the song peaked in the top ten in many countries including Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the Dance charts in the U. S; the song was known to many in the late 1980s and early 1990s as one of Minogue's signature songs, which many critics entering the song on their best track or worst track list. And additionally, in 2011, "I Should Be So Lucky" was added to the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's Sounds of Australia registry."I Should Be So Lucky" appeared on six of Kylie's hit compilations including Greatest Hits, Greatest Hits 1987–1999, Greatest Hits 87–97, Ultimate Kylie, her compilation The Best of Kylie Minogue and The Abbey Road Sessions. "I Should Be So Lucky" garnered positive reviews from some music critics. Nick Levine, from Digital Spy, called it "standout track". Chris True from AllMusic had reviewed the album, highlighted the song as an album standout, but as a separate rating, they gave the single three stars out of five.
In the review of The Best of Kylie Minogue, Tim Sendra highlighted it as an album standout. Hunter Felt from PopMatters gave it a positive review, stating "something about Kylie’s innocent yet forceful vocals and the sheer catchiness of the song itself So the song became a beloved secret, I never bothered to try to tune my friends in on "I Could Be So Lucky", or, crazier yet, proclaim that this "has-been" would be a critical and commercial darling in a few years time." However, he did say the song was cliché. However, Mark Edwards from Stylus Magazine gave it a scathing remark by saying "Listening to the first tracks on Ultimate Kylie, you want to skip straight through, because early songs like "I Should Be So Lucky" and "Locomotion" are unlistenable—horribly naff, squeaky songs" and criticized Stock and Waterman songs they produced in the 80's by stating " transport the listener back to a time when every single in the UK charts was either written by Stock and Waterman or sung by an Aussie soap star, or both."
OK! called the song a "classic". The song won the Highest Selling Single award at the 3rd annual ARIA Awards. "I Should Be So Lucky" was released in the UK on 29 December 1987, in Australia on 1 February 1988. It was a commercial success, reaching atop the Australian Kent Music Report chart for six consecutives weeks, became her second number-one single, following Locomotion; the single was certified platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association and ranked at number five on the Year-end chart for 1988. In New Zealand, the song entered at No. 15 on New Zealand Top 40 and peaked at No. 3 on 27 March 1988, spending twelve weeks on the chart. In United Kingdom, "I Should Be So Lucky" was released on 29 December 1987; the song entered at No. 90 on the UK Singles Chart, climbing to No. 54 the following week and three weeks it was No. 1 and remained at the top position for five weeks. It spent seventeen weeks on the chart, it was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry for the shipment of 600,000 copies.
The song was one of the best-selling singles of 1988
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base; the population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population; the metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000. The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. Sixty-one per cent of Sheffield's entire area is green space, a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. There are more than 250 parks and gardens in the city, estimated to contain around 4.5 million trees. Sheffield played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution, with many significant inventions and technologies developed in the city.
In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel were developed locally, fuelling an tenfold increase in the population. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area; the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield, along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the city has a long sporting heritage, is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F. C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby; the city is home to the World Snooker Championship and the Sheffield Steelers, the UK's first professional ice hockey team.
The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes, it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia. Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield; the settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the second half of the first millennium, are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest of England, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, a small town developed, the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. From 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had been possible.
In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became known as Sheffield plate. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century; the resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew throughout the 19th century; the Sheffield and Rotherham railway was constructed in 1838. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842, was granted a city charter in 1893; the influx of people led to demand for better water supplies, a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town; the growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".
The Great Depression hit the city in the 1930s, but as international tensions increased and the Second
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K