Lev Vygotsky was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of an unfinished Marxist theory of human cultural and bio-social development, the "cultural-historical psychology" and a "science of Superman", a new psychological theory of consciousness and its relationship to the development of higher psychological functions, as well as the leader of the Vygotsky Circle. During the early twenty-first century, several scholarly reevaluations of the popular version of Vygotsky's legacy have been undertaken and are referred to as the "revisionist revolution in Vygotsky Studies". Vygotsky studies conducted within the framework of the "revisionist turn" during the 2010s revealed not only systematic and massive falsifications and distortions of Vygotsky's legacy, but demonstrated a rapid decrease of this author's popularity in international scholarship that began in 2016–2017 and strikingly accelerated in 2018; this situation has been described as the "Vygotsky bubble" and is a foundational crisis in global "Vygotskiana".
The reasons of this crisis are not clear yet and are being discussed in scholarly circles. Despite his claim for a "new psychology" that he foresaw as a "science of the Superman" of the Communist future, Vygotsky's main work was in developmental psychology. In order to understand the human mind, he believed one must understand its genesis; the majority of his work involved the study of infant and child behavior, as well as the development of language acquisition and the development of concepts. Early in the psychological research period of his career, which focused upon mechanistic and reductionist "instrumental psychology" in many ways inspired by the work of Ivan Pavlov and Vladimir Bekhterev, Vygotsky argued that human psychological development could be formed through the use of meaningless signs that he viewed as the psychological equivalent of instrument use in human labor and industry, it was during the "holistic" period of his career that Vygotsky rejected this earlier reductionist views on signs.
While Vygotsky never met Jean Piaget, he had read a number of his works and agreed on some of his perspectives on learning. At some point Vygotsky came to disagree with Piaget's understanding of learning and development, held a different theoretical position from Piaget on the topic of inner speech. However, in the early 1930s he radically changed his mind on Piaget's theory and praised him for his discovery of the social origin of children's speech and moral judgements. Piaget only read Vygotsky's work after his death. Nearing the end of his life, Vygotsky's work involved adolescent development. However, his most important and known contribution is his theory for the development of "higher psychological functions," which considers human psychological development as emerging through unification of interpersonal connections and actions taken within a given socio-cultural environment. Vygotsky came to dialogue with the mainstream Gestalt line of thought and adopted a more holistic approach to understanding development.
Under the increasing influence of the holistic thinking of the scholars associated with German-American Gestalt psychology movement, Vygotsky adopted their views on "psychological systems" and—inspired by Kurt Lewin's "Topological psychology"—introduced the enigmatic construct of the "zone of proximal development". It was during this period that he identified the play of young children as their "leading activity", which he understood to be the main source of preschoolers' psychological development, which he viewed as an expression of an inseparable unity of emotional and cognitive development. At this time, Vygotsky revealed his long-time interest in the philosophy of Spinoza, who would remain one of his favorite thinkers throughout his life. A fervent Spinozist in many respects, Vygotsky was profoundly influenced by Spinoza's thought in response to Spinoza's examinations concerning human emotion; as his work matured, Spinoza's thought became a more central visitation in Vygotsky's work focused on the issue of human emotion and its role in higher psychological functions and development that he omitted in his earlier work and utterly needed for creating a holistic psychological theory.
As early as in mid-1920s, Vygotsky's ideas were introduced in the West, but he remained unknown until the early 1980s when the popularity among educators of the constructivist developmental psychology and educational theory of Jean Piaget started to decline and, in contrast, Vygotsky's notion of the "zone of proximal development" became a central component of the development of the so-called "social constructivist" turn in developmental and educational psychology and practice. A Review of General Psychology study, published in 2002, ranked Vygotsky as the 83rd top psychol
Meg Elison is an American author and feminist essayist whose writings incorporate the themes of female empowerment, body positivity, gender flexibility. Her debut novel, The Book of the Unnamed Midwife, won the 2014 Philip K. Dick Award, her second novel, The Book of Etta, was nominated for the award in 2017. Elison's work has appeared in several markets, including Fantasy & Science Fiction, Terraform, McSweeney's Internet Tendency and Electric Literature; the Book of the Unnamed Midwife is a feminist post-apocalyptic examination of the plight of women after a global epidemic. Written in a journal format, the book follows one surviving medical worker as she struggles to find civilization and to provide birth control and medical care to the women that she meets; the Book of Etta revisits the community of plague survivors several generations as a female protagonist strikes out against an oppressive male-dominated regime. The third and final book of the series is anticipated for 2019. Philip K. Dick Award Philip K. Dick Award A high school dropout, Elison advanced through the California community college system and graduated from UC Berkeley.
She has written and spoken extensively on the poverty and early queer identity that came to inform much of her work
Camil Baciu was a Romanian journalist and science fiction writer. He was a friend of, among others, Gheorghe Ursu. In 1969 he left Romania. "Not Far From The Princess Castle", București, 1956 "Experience Colombina", CPSF 126-127, Science and Technology Review, 1960 "Brain Revolt", Tineretului Publishing House, București, 1962 "Cubic Planet", Tineretului Publishing House, București, 1964 "The Great Law", 1964 "Met...", Editura Revista Știință și Tehnică, 1964 "The Orange Sun", 1965 "The Destiny Machine", Tineretului Publishing House, București, 1966 "Ienicec", 1967 "The Garden of the Gods", Tineretului Publishing House, București, 1968 "Aragua" Garden Of the Gods scribd.com goodreads.com Machine of Destiny scribd.com goodreads.com Brain Revolt scribd.com The Great Law goodreads.com Met... goodreads.com Nemira publishing house From Social Realism to Science Fiction
The water associated fraction, sometimes termed the water-soluble fraction, is the solution of low molecular mass hydrocarbons released from petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in contact with water. Although regarded as hydrophobic, many petroleum hydrocarbons are soluble in water to a limited extent; this combination also contains less soluble, higher molecular mass components, more soluble products of chemical and biological degradation. Low molecular mass compounds account for much of the toxic nature of hydrocarbon spills. In particular, toluene, ethyl benzene and the xylenes are of great environmental interest due to their availability to organisms; this availability influenced by volatility and reactivity, impacts on biodegradation and bioremediation in water and soil environments, with dissolved components within pore water considered bioavailable. The WAF is found in greatest concentration in close proximity to the bulk phase of hydrocarbons, the progress of, limited by physical containment measures such as booms.
The dissolved components of petroleum mixtures such as crude oil can become subject to the transport mechanisms of the bulk aqueous phase. Source identification of these can therefore become problematic without the visual indications expected with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. However, after short periods of exposure, the chemical profile of the original oils is still intact, allowing chemical analysis to provide identification and discriminate between different petroleum sources. In freshwater aquatic environments, dissolution is the greatest physical weathering process after evaporation. Under the same conditions, the rate of dissolution is between 0.01% and 1% of the rate of evaporation for alkanes and aromatic compounds. Once dissolved, these components are more available to organisms and therefore susceptible to biodegradation processes and experience increased rates of photochemical and chemical degradation; these components represent some of the most toxic oil ingredients because of their increased bioavailability, with reduction in toxicity occurring on emulsification or absorption to colloids which restrict availability to organisms
Sung Hyang-sim is a North Korean footballer from Anju City, South Pyongan Province. She plays for Pyongyang City Sports Club and the North Korea women's national football team as a forward. At the 2017 AFC U-19 Women's Championship, Sung was named the tournament's Most Valuable Player and earned the Golden Ball for most goals scored; the same year, she was nominated for the Asian Player of the Year and Asian Young Footballer of the Year awards by the Asian Football Confederation and won the latter. The previous year, she earned the Silver Ball at the 2016 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup. Sung started playing football at age 12 at a state junior sports school. In 2013, she played for North Korea at the 2013 AFC Under-14 Girls Regional Championship East Region and received an award as the Most Valuable Player at the tournament. After this she played in the 2013 AFC U-16 Women's Championship and the 2014 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup. In 2016, she was a part of North Korea's 2016 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup squad, where she was awarded the Silver Ball for her performance.
That year, she was part of North Korea's 2016 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup team and came on as a substitute in the final against France. Sung chooses to wear the number 2 as her squad number. In 2017, Sung made her senior debut for the North Korea women's national football team against China and scored a goal after coming on as a substitute; the same year, she was nominated by AFC for the Asian Player of the Year and Asian Young Footballer of the Year awards winning the latter one. This came after she scored six goals at the 2017 AFC U-19 Women's Championship, was the top scorer and named Most Valuable Player at the tournament. Sung Hyang-sim – FIFA competition record Sung Hyang-sim at Soccerway
Spirit and the Bride is a Christian hardcore and metalcore band from Cincinnati, Ohio. The band formed in 2010. Spirit and the Bride formed in 2010, with the lineup of Vocalist Josh Simmons, Drummer Adam Simmons, Guitarist Josh Summerville; the band performed their first show as a trio, before adding Devin Scarth into the lineup in 2011. Scarth departed from the band. In 2013, Tucker left the band, his position was filled by Jeremiah Medley. In 2014, the band released With Ears to See and Hear independently. In 2015, the band signed with OnTheAttack Records, a Christian hardcore label from San Francisco, California. OnTheAttack would re-release the album through the label; the band would perform shows all throughout 2016. Dry Bones was released on May 2017, marking the band's debut on the label; the band would go on to play Audiofeed 2017. On February 23, 2019, the band announced. Spirit and the Bride have stated in previous interviews that they have been influenced by bands, such as Advent, Norma Jean, Venia, Sleeping Giant, Comeback Kid, The Red Baron, The Chariot.
However, reviewers have described the band as having an older Christian hardcore and old-school hardcore style, sounding like bands such as Focused, Strongarm, Shai Hulud, Brother's Keeper and post-hardcore bands such as The Blamed. Current Josh Simmons - Vocals Jeremiah Medley - Bass Adam Simmons - Drums Former Josh Summerville - Guitars Devin Scarth - Bass Preston Tucker - Bass Studio albums With Eyes and Ears to See and Hear Dry Bones Singles "Name Above All Names" Compilation appearances The Bearded Dragon's Sampler: Third Times a Charm Metal From The Dragon