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Levanger

Levanger is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is part of the district of Innherred; the administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Levanger. Some of the notable villages in the municipality include Alstadhaug, Hokstad, Momarka, Mule, Okkenhaug, Skogn, Åsen; the town of Levanger lies at the mouth of the Levangselva river along the Trondheimsfjord. One of the main roads through the town is Kirkegata; the 5.74-square-kilometre town has a population of 10,008. The population density is 1,555 inhabitants per square kilometre; the town has held "town status" since 1997. Levanger is a member of the Italian initiative, for slow towns that don't adopt a "fast-lane" approach, so common in most modern towns; the 646-square-kilometre municipality is the 173rd largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Levanger is the 58th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 20,115; the municipality's population density is 33 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 9.6% over the last decade.

The kjøpstad of Levanger was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. In 1856, the kjøpstad of Levanger and the rural areas surrounding the town were separated and the rural area became the rural municipality of Levanger landsogn. On 13 November 1951, a small area of Frol was transferred to the town of Levanger. During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1962, the town of Levanger was merged with the neighboring municipalities of Frol, Åsen, Skogn to form a new, larger municipality called Levanger. On 1 January 1964, the island municipality of Ytterøy was merged with the newly enlarged municipality of Levanger. Prior to the merger, Levanger had 12,281 residents, Ytterøy added 772 to bring the municipality to a population of 13,053. On 1 January 2018, the municipality switched from the old Nord-Trøndelag county to the new Trøndelag county; the municipality is named after the old Levanger farm. The first element is "Lif" old Norse for "lun" and the last element is angr which means "fjord".

The coat of arms was granted on 25 November 1960 as the arms of the town of Levanger. The arms show a gold-colored horse on a red background; the horse is a symbol for the town as a major trading center between Sweden and Norway for many centuries. The arms did not change after the addition of the other municipalities; the Church of Norway has seven parishes within the municipality of Levanger. It is part of the Sør-Innherad prosti in the Diocese of Nidaros. Levanger can be traced back to the Iron Age, with certainty back to the Viking Age. Alvshaugen is a large burial mound located in the middle of the cemetery at Alstadhaug Church; the burial mound has been dated to 300–600 CE. It is about 40 metres in diameter, about 5 to 6 metres tall; the name "Levanger" is listed in Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu. The historic town site was located in a place somewhat different from the current town center in relation to the Halsstein bygdeborg. In the Middle Ages, the area now part of the municipality of Levanger was part of the county of Skeyna in the traditional district of Innherred.

The county was ruled by earls who resided at the manor of Geite, situated on a hill nearby the present town. The county was divided into six parishes: Ekne, Levanger, Ytterøy, Leksvik; the county church was located in Alstadhaug, which contained the fylking, while Levanger was the main port and market town. Not much is known about the earls of Skeyna, as few documents still exist that document their existence; the Reformation and the Danish occupation of Norway in 1537 caused the Norwegian nobility to disintegrate, the last earl was most executed during the Reformation.. The Danish rulers united Skeyna with four other counties in Innherred, creating the county of Steinvikholm; the Levanger area was part of Trondhjems amt, divided in Nordre Trondhjems amt. That was renamed Nord-Trøndelag fylke. On 1 January 2018, the municipality switched from the old Nord-Trøndelag county to the new Trøndelag county; the town of Levanger was founded by King Charles XIV John of Sweden on 18 May 1836, on the site where the village of Levanger existed.

The village had expanded from the traditional winter fair, known as the marsimartnan, dating back to the 13th century. In October 1836, as the town's borders set, Commissioner Mons Lie proposed that "the town shall bear the name of Carlslevanger, so the name of this ancient soil can be united with that of the new town's glorious founder". Despite the suggestion's being refused, the town protocols spoke of Carlslevanger Stad instead of Kjøpstaden Levanger until 1838. In 1838, the formannskapsdistrikt law classified this town as a port town; the inhabitants of Levanger were not prepared for becoming a town, so it took a long time before the town was constituted. In these early days the town was ruled by the Foged. At that time there were established a trade organization, "Levangerpatrisiatet", from 1695, based on the market, but only citizens of Trondheim could be members

Spike (stagecraft)

In stagecraft, a spike is a marking made with a piece of tape, put on or around the stage. This marking is used to show the correct position for set pieces, furniture and other items which move during the course of a performance and are required to stop or be placed in a specific location. Several companies make rolls of thin gaffer's or paper tape marketed as "spike tape" for placing spikes. In a pinch, masking or electrical tape can be used; when used to indicate locations under dark conditions, phosphorescent tape is used for practical and safety reasons. Performer spikes are only used when positioning needs to be precise, either for safety or performance reasons, such as lighting specials. During a theatrical technical rehearsal one of the stage management team will be ready to mark positions as required. To enable spike placement to be done staff may pre-cut small strips of tape either by scoring tape still on the roll or by cutting strips of tape and placing them onto a small piece of wood or clipboard called a spike board.

When spiking a position for a performer, a small cross is used. For furniture pieces and scenery wagons, the marks are two pieces of tape laid in an "L" shape at two points or corners of the item; this will be the up-stage side to minimize the visual impact for the audience. In larger productions the stage manager will use different coloured spikes to differentiate the positions of various items and performers. Depending on the performance, writing will be placed on the spike to indicate what items are being marked, in which Act and Scene the spike is used. In film and television, a generic'X' spike for performers is replaced with a "T" mark, where the actors toes are placed on the horizontal bar and the vertical bar is placed between the feet; this mark is most used to spike "stop points" allowing actors to travel around a set and stop in the correct position and orientation to be in focus for the cameras. The placement of spikes in film and television is the responsibility of a camera assistant or grip.

Spike tape is used to create a stage marking called a spike. Good quality gaffers tape uses a synthetic rubber adhesive that does not leave a residue when removed from the stage. Spike tape's narrow width means that it can be torn by hand, its tight weave of cotton fibers allows for straight tearing without stretching. In addition to creating spike marks in performance areas, spike tape makes a good material for bundling and labeling. Spike tape may be fluorescent so that it can be seen by the running crews moving set pieces during a dark scene change; this is referred to as "glow tape" or "glo-tape". Glow tape is notoriously less sticky than spike tape and may be additionally held down to the stage floor, or "deck", with the aid of staples. Note, that in some situations ordinary spike tape may need to be covered with clear packing tape to keep it from being accidentally pulled up. Sometimes roofing nails can be used to create unobtrusive spike marks. Spike tape "corners" are die-cut 90° L-shaped spike pieces that are helpful for placement of wagons and furniture pieces.

List of adhesive tapes

Stadel bei Niederglatt

Stadel is a municipality in the district of Dielsdorf in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Stadel has an area of 12.9 km2. Of this area, 58.8 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 10.2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. To distinguish between several places having the same name, this one is suffixed by the addition of bei Niederglatt. Besides the village of Stadel the municipality comprises the three hamlets Windlach and Schüpfheim. Stadel has a population of 2,289; as of 2007, 10.5% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 21.8%. Most of the population speaks German, with English being second most French being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the CSP, the SPS and the FDP. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 23.1% of the population, while adults make up 63% and seniors make up 14%.

In Stadel about 80.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Stadel has an unemployment rate of 1.52%. As of 2005, there were 132 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 44 businesses involved in this sector. 80 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 25 businesses in this sector. 253 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 43 businesses in this sector. Official communal web-site of Stadel