Deep frying is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan. A deep fryer or chip pan is used for this. Deep frying may be performed using oil, heated in a pot. Deep frying is classified as hot-fat cooking method. Deep frying foods cook quickly: all sides of a food are cooked as oil has a high rate of heat conduction; the term "deep frying" and many modern deep-fried foods were not invented until the 19th century, but the practice has been around for millennia. Early records and cookbooks suggest that the practice began in certain European countries before other countries adopted the practice. Deep frying is popular worldwide, with deep-fried foods accounting for a large portion of global caloric consumption. Many foods are deep-fried and cultures surrounding deep frying have developed, most notably in the Southern United States, where many events dedicated to deep frying food and non-edible items are held.
The English expression deep-fried is attested from the early 20th century. Frying food in olive oil is attested in Classical Greece from about the 5th century BCE; the late Roman cookbook of Apicius, appears to list the ancient Romans' first use of deep frying to prepare Pullum Frontonianum, a chicken dish. The practice of deep frying spread to other parts of Arabia in the following centuries. Deep-fried foods such as funnel cakes arrived in northern Europe by the 13th century, deep-fried fish recipes have been found in cookbooks in Spain and Portugal at around the same time. Falafel arrived in the Middle East from population migrations from Egypt as soon as the 14th century. Evidence of potato frying can be found as early as the late 17th century in Europe. French fries, invented in the late 18th century, became popular in the early 19th century western Europe. In 1860 Joseph Malin combined deep fried fish with chips to open the first fish and chip shop in London. Modern deep frying in the United States began in the 19th century with the growing popularity of cast iron around the American South which led to the development of many modern deep-fried dishes.
Doughnuts were invented in the mid-19th century, with foods such as onion rings, deep-fried turkey, corn dogs all being invented in the early 20th century. In recent years, the growth of fast food has expanded the reach of deep-fried foods French fries. Deep frying food is defined as a process where food is submerged in hot oil at temperatures between 350 °F and 375 °F. One common method for preparing food for deep frying involves adding multiple layers of batter around the food, such as cornmeal, flour, or tempura. After the food is submerged in oil, the surface of it begins to dehydrate and it undergoes Maillard reactions which break down sugars and proteins, creating the golden brown exterior of the food. Once the surface is dehydrated, it forms a crust; the heat conducts throughout the food causing proteins to denature, starches to undergo starch gelatinization, dietary fiber to soften. While most foods need batter coatings for protection, it is not as necessary for cooked noodles and potatoes because their high starch content enables them to hold more moisture and resist shrinking.
Meats may be cooked before deep frying to ensure. When performed properly, deep frying does not make food excessively greasy, because the moisture in the food repels the oil; the hot oil heats the water within the food. As long as the oil is hot enough and the food is not immersed in the oil for too long, oil penetration will be confined to the outer surface. Foods deep-fried at proper temperatures absorb "no more than a couple of tablespoons per 2 1⁄2 cups of oil" used; this oil absorption rate is around the same as occurs such as in a pan. However, if the food is cooked in the oil for too long, much of the water will be lost and the oil will begin to penetrate the food; the correct frying temperature depends on the thickness and type of food, but in most cases it lies between 350–375 °F. An informal test for a temperature close to this range involves adding a tiny amount of flour into the oil and watching to see if it sizzles without burning. A second test involves adding one piece of food to deep fry and watching it sink somewhat and rise back up.
Sinking without resurfacing indicates that the oil is too cold. It is recommended that deep fryers be cleaned to prevent contamination; the process of cooking with oil can contaminate nearby surfaces as oil may splatter on adjacent areas. Oil vapors can condense on more distant surfaces such as walls and ceilings. Supplies such as dish detergent and baking soda can clean affected surfaces. Deep frying is done with a deep fryer, a pan such as a wok or chip pan, a Dutch oven, or a cast-iron pot. Additional tools include fry baskets, which are used to contain foods in a deep fryer and to strain foods when removed from the oil, cooking thermometers, used to gauge oil temperature. Tongs, slotted spoons, wooden spoons, sieves may be used to remove or separate foods from the hot oil. Japanese deep frying tools include long metal chopsticks.
Awameh, Arabic for “Floater”, is a kind of fried-dough Levantine pastry similar to doughnut holes, made of deep fried dough, soaked in sugar syrup or honey and cinnamon, sometimes sprinkled with sesame. In the Middle East, they are known as ‘zlabieh’.normally Jalebi has a flower shape, different flavors than Awameh. They are associated with Christmas and the "circumcision of Christ", or baptism, called Ghtas, it is referred to as Awwameh. Loukoumades Boortsog-Tuzlu lokma Churro Gulab jamun Jalebi Lokum Puff Puff Tulumba Funnel cake List of doughnut varieties List of fried dough foods Food portal Awameh recipe at Aleppo Food https://web.archive.org/web/20140222100642/http://www.oldestlivingcity.com/damascus/en/syrian-cuisine/awameh
Pastry is a dough of flour and shortening that may be savoury or sweetened. Sweetened pastries are described as bakers' confectionery; the word "pastries" suggests many kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, milk, shortening, baking powder, eggs. Small tarts and other sweet baked products are called pastries. Common pastry dishes include pies, tarts and pasties; the French word pâtisserie is used in English for the same foods. The French word pastisserie referred to anything, such as a meat pie, made in dough and not a luxurious or sweet product.. This meaning still persisted in the nineteenth century, though by the term more referred to the sweet and ornate confections implied today. Pastry can refer to the pastry dough, from which such baked products are made. Pastry dough is used as a base for baked products. Pastry is differentiated from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture. A good pastry is firm enough to support the weight of the filling.
When making a shortcrust pastry, care must be taken to blend the fat and flour before adding any liquid. This ensures that the flour granules are adequately coated with fat and less to develop gluten. On the other hand, overmixing results in long gluten strands that toughen the pastry. In other types of pastry such as Danish pastry and croissants, the characteristic flaky texture is achieved by rolling out a dough similar to that for yeast bread, spreading it with butter, folding it to produce many thin layers. Shortcrust pastry Shortcrust pastry is most common pastry, it is made with flour, butter and water to bind the dough. This is used in tarts, it is the pastry, used most in making a quiche. The process of making pastry includes mixing of the fat and flour, adding water, rolling out the paste; the fat is mixed with the flour first by rubbing with fingers or a pastry blender, which inhibits gluten formation by coating the gluten strands in fat and results in a short, tender pastry. A related type is the sweetened sweetcrust pastry known as pâte sucrée, in which sugar and egg yolks have been added to bind the pastry.
Flaky pastry Flaky pastry is a simple pastry. It bakes into a buttery pastry; the "puff" is obtained by the shard-like layers of fat, most butter or shortening, creating layers which expand in the heat of the oven when baked. Puff pastry Puff pastry has "puff" when baked. Puff pastry is made using flour, butter and water; the pastry rises up due to the water and fats expanding. Puff pastries come out of the oven light and tender. Choux pastry Choux pastry is a light pastry, filled with cream. Unlike other types of pastry, choux is in fact closer to a dough before being cooked which gives it the ability to be piped into various shapes such as the éclair and profiterole, its name originates from the French choux, meaning cabbage, owing to its rough cabbage-like shape after cooking. Choux begins as a mixture of milk or water and butter which are heated together until the butter melts, to which flour is added to form a dough. Eggs are beaten into the dough to further enrich it; this high percentage of water causes the pastry to expand into a hollow pastry.
The water in the dough turns to steam in the oven and causes the pastry to rise. Once the choux dough has expanded, it is taken out of the oven; the pastry is placed back in the oven to dry out and become crisp. The pastry is filled with various flavors of cream and is topped with chocolate. Choux pastries can be filled with ingredients such as cheese, tuna, or chicken to be used as appetizers. Phyllo Phyllo is a paper-thin pastry dough, used in many layers; the phyllo is wrapped around a filling and brushed with butter before baking. These pastries are delicate and flaky. Hot water crust pastry Hot water crust pastry is used for savoury pies, such as pork pies, game pies and, more steak and kidney pies. Hot water crust is traditionally used for making hand-raised pies; the usual ingredients are hot water and flour, the pastry is made by heating water, melting the fat in this, bringing to the boil, mixing with the flour. This can be done by kneading on a pastry board. Either way, the result is a hot and rather sticky paste that can be used for hand-raising: shaping by hand, sometimes using a dish or bowl as an inner mould.
As the crust cools, its shape is retained, it is filled and covered with a crust, ready for baking. Hand-raised hot water crust pastry does not produce a neat and uniform finish, as there will be sagging during the cooking of the filled pie, accepted as the mark of a hand-made pie. Pastry: A type of food used in dishes such as pies or strudel. Pastry bag or piping bag: An cone-shaped bag, used to make an stream of dough, frosting, or flavored substance to form a structure, decorate a baked item, or fill a pastry with a custard, jelly, or other filling. Pastry board: A square or oblong board, preferably marble but wood, on which pastry is rolled out. Pastry brake: Opposed and counter-rotating rollers with a varia
Gaziantep and still informally called Antep, is the capital of Gaziantep Province, in the western part of Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, some 185 kilometres east of Adana and 97 kilometres north of Aleppo, Syria. It is located on the site of ancient Antiochia ad Taurum, is near ancient Zeugma; the city has two urban districts under Şahinbey and Şehitkamil. It is the sixth-most populous city in Turkey and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Gaziantep was called Antep or Aīntāb in Ottoman Turkish, ‘Aīntāb in Arabic. There are several theories for the origin of the name: Aïntap may be derived from khantap, meaning "king's land" in the Hittite language. Aïn, an Arabic and Aramaic word meaning "spring", tab as a word of praise. Antep could be a corruption of the Arabic ‘aīn ṭayyib meaning "good spring". However, the Arabic name for the city is spelled with t, not ṭ. Ayin dab or Ayin debo in Aramaic, meaning "spring of the wolf"The Crusaders called the city and its castle "Hantab", "Hamtab", "Hatab".
In February 1921, the Turkish parliament honored the city as غازى عينتاب Ghazi Aīntāb or "Antep the war hero" to commemorate its resistance to the French Siege of Aintab during the Franco-Turkish War, part of the Turkish War of Independence, that name was adopted in 1928 as Gaziantep. There are traces of settlement going back to the 4th millennium BC; the archaeological site of Tell Tülük, which gives its name to the Neolithic Dulicien culture, is situated a few kilometers to the north of the city center. Gaziantep is the probable site of the Hellenistic city of Antiochia ad Taurum. In the center of the city stands the Gaziantep Fortress and the Ravanda citadel, which were restored by the Byzantines in the 6th century. Following the Muslim conquest of the Levant, the city passed to the Umayyads in 661 AD and the Abbasids in 750, it was ravaged several times during the Arab–Byzantine wars. After the disintegration of the Abbasid dynasty, the city was ruled successively by the Tulunids, the Ikhshidids and the Hamdanids.
In 962, it was recaptured by the Byzantines. The Anatolian Seljuks took Aintab in 1067, they gave way to the Syrian Seljuks in 1086. Tutush I appointed Thoros of Edessa as governor of the region, it was captured by the Crusaders and united to the Maras Seigneurship in the County of Edessa in 1098. It reverted to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1150, was controlled by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia between 1155–1157 and 1204–1206 and captured by the Zengids in 1172 and the Ayyubids in 1181, it was retaken by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in 1218. It was ruled by the Ilkhanate between 1260–1261, 1271–1272, 1280–1281 and 1299–1317 and by the Mamluks between 1261–1271, 1272–1280, 1281–1299, 1317–1341, 1353–1378, 1381–1389 and 1395–1516, it was governed by the Dulkadirids, a Turkish vassal state of the Mamluks. The Ottoman Empire captured Gaziantep after the Battle of Marj Dabiq in 1516, under the reign of Sultan Selim I. In the Ottoman period, Aintab was a sanjak centered in the Dulkadir Eyalet, in the Aleppo vilayet.
It was a kaza in the Aleppo vilayet. The city established itself as a centre for commerce due to its location straddling trade routes; the 17th century Turkish traveler Evliya Celebi noted that there were two bedesten. By the end of the 19th century, Aintab had a population of about 45,000, two thirds of, Muslim—largely Turkish, but Arabs and Kurdish. Of the Christians, there was a large Armenian community. In the 19th century, there was considerable American Protestant Christian missionary activity in Aintab. In particular, Central Turkey College was founded in 1874 by the American Mission Board and served the Armenian community; the Armenians were systemically slaughtered during the Hamidian massacres in 1895 and the Armenian Genocide in 1915. The Central Turkey College was transferred to Aleppo in 1916. Gaziantep is traditionally said to reflect in advance the rising political trends in Turkey, according preference to ANAP in 1984, DYP in 1989, Necmettin Erbakan's Welfare Party in 1994, AKP in 2004 local elections.
One exception was in 1999 when, boosted by the successful image of Gaziantep city mayor Celal Doğan, CHP came first with 17.02% of the votes for the Provincial General Assembly, the rightist MHP's rise at that time still being reflected by its second position after CHP for the province. DEHAP, campaigning on Kurdish-identity consciousness arguments, after having touched a modest 5% ceiling in 1999, seems to have ebbed down, its score under SHP's cover in 2004 local elections remaining at a still more modest 1.81%. In any case, in 2004, AKP obtained 55.11% and CHP 21.57%, all other parties below 6% at the Provincial General Assembly elections. Prime Minister Erdoğan is known to have deemed the local elections in Gaziantep as important and to have mobilized considerable governmental weight beforehand; the current Mayor of Gaziantep is Fatma Şahin, who had served as the Minister of Family and Social Policies in the third cabinet of Erdoğan. Gaziantep is famous for its regional specialities: Copperware and "Yemeni" sandals, specific to the region, are two examples.
The city is an economic center for Eastern Turkey. The number of large industrial businesses established in Gaziantep comprise four percent of Turkish industry in general
Bamia or bamia bi-lahm, is a Middle Eastern stew prepared using lamb and tomatoes as primary ingredients. Additional ingredients used include tomato sauce, garlic, vegetable oil, cardamom and pepper. In Egypt, sinew of lamb are used, which can endure long cooking times. Ta'aleya, an Egyptian garlic sauce, is used as an ingredient to add flavor to Bamia; the word "bamia" itself is the Arabic word for okra. In Turkey, bamia is an Anatolian stew that has a sour flavor, it is prepared using okra, lemon juice, olive oil, sugar and pepper. Turkish bamia is sometimes served as a palate cleanser between food courses at ceremonial feasts
Lebanon known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent; the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established; as the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their identity.
However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome; the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon; the French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, Consociationalism-type of political system with a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.
Foreign troops withdrew from Lebanon on 31 December 1946, although the country was subjected to military occupations by Syria that lasted nearly thirty years before being withdrawn in April 2005 as well as the Israeli military in Southern Lebanon for fifteen years. Despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been influential in the Arab world, powered by its large diaspora. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture and banking; because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was referred to as the "Switzerland of the East" during the 1960s, its capital, attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East". At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure. In spite of these troubles, Lebanon has the 7th highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world after the oil-rich economies of the Persian Gulf.
Lebanon has been a member of the United Nations since its founding in 1945 as well as of the Arab League, the Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning "white" from its snow-capped peaks. Occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh; the name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. The name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. Lebanon as the name of an administrative unit was introduced with the Ottoman reforms of 1861, as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate, continued in the name of the State of Greater Lebanon in 1920, in the name of the sovereign Republic of Lebanon upon its independence in 1943; the borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920. Its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states.
As part of the Levant, it was part of numerous succeeding empires throughout ancient history, including the Egyptian, Babylonian, Achaemenid Persian, Hellenistic and Sasanid Persian empires. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk and Fatimid empires; the crusader state of the County of Tripoli, founded by Raymond IV of Toulouse in 1102, encompassed most of present-day Lebanon, falling to the Mamluk Sultanate in 1289 and to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. With the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943. Lebanon's history since independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and prosperity based on Beirut's position as a regional center for finance and trade, interspersed with political turmoil and
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately