The Rosewood massacre was a racially motivated massacre of black people and destruction of a black town that took place during the first week of January 1923 in rural Levy County, Florida. At least six black people and two white people were killed, though eyewitness accounts suggested a death toll as high as 150; the town of Rosewood was destroyed, in. Racial disturbances were common during the early 20th century in the United States, reflecting the nation's rapid social changes. Florida had an high number of lynchings of black males in the years before the massacre, including a well-publicized incident in December 1922. Before the massacre, the town of Rosewood had been a quiet black, self-sufficient whistle stop on the Seaboard Air Line Railway. Trouble began when white men from several nearby towns lynched a black Rosewood resident because of unsupported accusations that a white woman in nearby Sumner had been beaten and raped by a black drifter; when the town's black citizens rallied together to defend themselves against further attacks, a mob of several hundred whites combed the countryside hunting for black people, burned every structure in Rosewood.
Survivors from the town hid for several days in nearby swamps until they were evacuated by train and car to larger towns. No arrests were made for; the town was abandoned by its former white residents. Although the rioting was reported around the United States at the time, few official records documented the event. Survivors, their descendants, the perpetrators remained silent about Rosewood for decades. Sixty years after the rioting, the story of Rosewood was revived in major media when several journalists covered it in the early 1980s. Survivors and their descendants organized to sue the state for having failed to protect Rosewood's black community. In 1993, the Florida Legislature commissioned a report on the incident; as a result of the findings, Florida became the first U. S. state to compensate survivors and their descendants for damages incurred because of racial violence. The incident was the subject of a 1997 feature film directed by John Singleton. In 2004, the state designated the site of Rosewood as a Florida Heritage Landmark.
The recorded death toll of the first week of January 1923 was eight. Historians disagree about this number; some survivors' stories claim there may have been up to 27 black residents killed, assert that newspapers did not report the total number of white deaths. Minnie Lee Langley, in the Carrier house siege, recalls that she stepped over many white bodies on the porch when she left the house. A newspaper article in 1984 stated. Several eyewitnesses claim to have seen a mass grave filled with black people. However, by the time authorities investigated these claims, most of the witnesses were dead or too elderly and infirm to lead them to a site to confirm the stories. Rosewood was settled in 1845, nine miles east of Cedar Key, near the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the local economy drew on the timber industry. Two pencil mills were founded nearby in Cedar Key; the hamlet grew enough to warrant the construction of a post office and train depot on the Florida Railroad in 1870, but it was never incorporated as a town.
Rosewood had both black and white settlers. When most of the cedar trees in the area had been cut by 1890, the pencil mills closed, many white residents moved to Sumner. By 1900, the population in Rosewood had become predominantly black; the village of Sumner was predominantly white, relations between the two communities were amicable. Two black families in Rosewood named Carrier were the most powerful; the Goins family brought the turpentine industry to the area, in the years preceding the attacks were the second largest landowners in Levy County. To avoid lawsuits from white competitors, the Goins brothers moved to Gainesville, the population of Rosewood decreased slightly; the Carriers were a large family working at logging in the region. By the 1920s everyone in the close-knit community was distantly related to each other; the population of Rosewood peaked in 1915 at 355 people. Florida had disenfranchised black voters since the start of the 20th century by high requirements for voter registration.
S. Census. In 1920, the combined population of both towns was 638; as was common in the late 19th century South, Florida had imposed legal racial segregation under Jim Crow laws requiring separate black and white public facilities and transportation. Black and white residents created their own community centers: by 1920, the residents of Rosewood were self-sufficient, they had three churches, a school, a large Masonic Hall, a turpentine mill, a sugarcane mill, a baseball team named the Rosewood Stars, two general stores, one of, white-owned. The village had about a dozen two-story wooden plank homes, other small two-room houses, several small unoccupied plank farm and storage structures; some families owned pianos, o
The Seminole Wars known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between the Seminole, a Native American tribe that formed in Florida in the early 18th century, the United States Army. Both in human and monetary terms, the Seminole Wars were the longest and most expensive of the Indian Wars in United States history; the First Seminole War began with General Andrew Jackson's excursions into West Florida and Spanish Florida against the Seminoles after the conclusion of the War of 1812. The governments of Great Britain and Spain both expressed outrage over the "invasion". However, Spain was unable to defend or control the territory, as several local uprisings and rebellions made clear; the Spanish Crown agreed to cede Florida to the United States per the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, the transfer took place in 1821. According to the Treaty of Moultrie Creek of 1823, the Seminoles were required to leave northern Florida and were confined to a large reservation in the center of the Florida peninsula.
The U. S. government enforced the treaty by building a series of forts and trading posts in the territory along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. The Second Seminole War was the result of the United States government attempting to force the Seminoles to leave Florida altogether and move to Indian Territory per the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Fighting began with the Dade Massacre in December 1835, raids, a handful of larger battles raged throughout the Florida peninsula over the next few years. At first, the outgunned and outnumbered Seminoles used guerrilla warfare to frustrate the more numerous American military forces. In October 1836, General Thomas Sidney Jesup was sent to Florida to take command of the campaign. After futilely chasing bands of Seminole warriors through the wilderness, Jesup changed tactics and began seeking out and destroying Seminole farms and villages, a strategy which changed the course of the war. Jesup authorized the controversial captures of Seminole leaders Osceola and Micanopy under signs of truce.
By the early 1840s, most of the Seminole population in Florida had been killed in battle, ravaged by starvation and disease, or relocated to Indian Territory. Several hundred Seminoles were allowed to remain in an unofficial reservation in southwest Florida; the Third Seminole War was again the result of Seminoles responding to settlers and U. S. Army scouting parties encroaching on their lands deliberately to provoke a violent response that would result in the removal of the last of the Seminoles from Florida. After an army surveying crew found and destroyed a Seminole plantation west of the Everglades in December 1855, Chief Billy Bowlegs led a raid near Fort Myers, setting off a conflict which consisted of raids and reprisals, with no large battles fought. American forces again strove to destroy the Seminoles' food supply, by 1858, most of the remaining Seminoles, weary of war and facing starvation, agreed to be shipped to Oklahoma in exchange for promises of safe passage and cash payments.
An estimated 500 Seminoles still refused to leave and retreated deep into the Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp to live on land, unwanted by white settlers. The original indigenous peoples of Florida declined in number after the arrival of European explorers in the early 1500s because the Native Americans had little resistance to diseases newly introduced from Europe. Spanish suppression of native revolts further reduced the population in northern Florida until the early 1600s, at which time the establishment of a series of Spanish missions improved relations and stabilized the population. Raids from the newly-established English Province of Carolina beginning in the mid-1600s began another steep decline in the indigenous population. By 1707, English soldiers and their Yamasee Indian allies had killed, carried off, or driven away most of the remaining native inhabitants during a series of raids across the Florida panhandle and down the full length of the peninsula. In the first decade of the 18th century.
10,000–12,000 Indians were taken as slaves according to the governor of La Florida and by 1710, observers noted that north Florida was depopulated. The Spanish missions all closed; the few remaining natives fled west to Pensacola and beyond or east to the vicinity of St. Augustine; when Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the majority of surviving Florida Indians took passage with the Spanish to Cuba or New Spain. During the mid-1700s, small bands from various Native American tribes from the southeastern United States began moving into the unoccupied lands of Florida. In 1715, the Yamasee moved into Florida as allies of the Spanish, after conflicts with the English colonies. Creek people, at first the Lower Creek but including Upper Creek started moving into Florida from the area of Georgia; the Mikasuki, Hitchiti-speakers, settled around. Another group of Hitchiti speakers, led by Cowkeeper, settled in what is now Alachua County, an area where the Spanish had maintained cattle ranches in the 17th century.
Because one of the best-known ranches was called El Rancho de la Chúa, the region became known as the "Alachua Prairie". The Spanish in Saint Augustine began calling the Alachua Creek Cimarrones, which meant "wild ones" or "runaways"; this was the probable origin of the term "Seminole". This name was applied to the other groups in Florida, although the Indians still regarded themselves as members of different tribes. Other Native Am
Alachua County, Florida
Alachua County is a county in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 247,336; the county seat is Gainesville, the home of the University of Florida since 1906, when the campus opened with 106 students. Alachua County is included in FL Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is known for its diverse culture, local music, artisans. Much of its economy revolves around the university, which had nearly 55,000 students in fall 2016; the first people known to have entered the area of Alachua County were Paleo-Indians, who left artifacts in the Santa Fe River basin prior to 8000 BCE. Artifacts from the Archaic period have been found at several sites in Alachua County. Permanent settlements appeared in what is now Alachua County around 100 CE, as people of the wide-ranging Deptford culture developed the local Cades Pond culture; the Cades Pond culture gave way to the Alachua culture around 600 CE. The Timucua-speaking Potano tribe lived in the Alachua culture area in the 16th century, when the Spanish entered Florida.
The Potano were incorporated by the colonists in the Spanish mission system, but new infectious diseases and raids by tribes backed by the English led to severe population declines. What is now Alachua County had lost much of its indigenous population by the early 18th century. In the 17th century Francisco Menéndez Márquez, Royal Treasurer for Spanish Florida, established the La Chua ranch on the northern side of what is now known as Payne's Prairie, on a bluff overlooking the Alachua Sink. Chua may have been the Timucua language word for sinkhole. Lieutenant Diego Peña reported in 1716 that he passed by springs named Aquilachua, Usichua and Afanochua while traveling through what is now Suwannee County. In the twentieth-century, anthropologist J. Clarence Simpson assumed that the named springs were in fact sinkholes; the Spanish called the interior of Florida west of the St. Johns River Tierras de la Chua, which became "Alachua Country" in English. Around 1740 a band of Oconee people led by Ahaya, called "Cowkeeper" by the English, settled on what is now Payne's Prairie.
Ahaya's band became known as the Alachua Seminole. In 1774 botanist William Bartram visited Ahaya's town, near what Bartram called the Alachua Savanna. King Payne, who succeeded Ahaya as chief of the Alachua Seminole, established a new town known as Payne's Town. In 1812, during the Patriot War of East Florida, an attempt by American adventurers to seize Spanish Florida, a force of more than 100 volunteers from Georgia led by Colonel Daniel Newnan ran into a band of Alachua Seminole led by King Payne near Newnans Lake. After several days of intermittent fighting, Colonel Newnan's force withdrew. King Payne died two months later; the Alachua Seminole left Payne's Town and moved further west and south, but other bands of Seminole moved in. A second American expedition in 1813 of U. S. Army troops and militia from Tennessee, led by Lt. Colonel Thomas Adams Smith, found some Seminoles, killing about 20, burned every Seminole village they could find in the area. In 1814 a group of more than 100 American settlers moved to a point believed to be near the abandoned Payne's Town and declared the establishment of the District of Elotchaway of the Republic of East Florida.
The settlement collapsed a few months after its leader, Colonel Buckner Harris, was killed by Seminole. In 1817 F. M. Arredondo received the 20-mile square Arredondo Grant in the southern part of what is Alachua County. By the time Florida was formally transferred from Spain to the United States, people from the United States and from Europe were settling in the area. Wanton's Store, near the site of the abandoned King Payne's Town, attracted settlers from Europe, who founded Micanopy; the 1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek required the Seminole to move a reservation south of what is now Ocala, the flow of settlers into the area increased. Many occupied former Seminole towns, such as Hogtown. Alachua County was created by the Florida territorial legislature in 1824; the new county stretched from the border with Georgia south to Charlotte Harbor. The original county seat was Wanton's. In 1828 the county seat was moved to Newnansville, located near the current site of the city of Alachua; as population increased in the area, Alachua County was soon reduced in size to organize new counties.
In 1832 the county's northern part, including Newnansville was separated to create Columbia County, forcing the county seat to be moved to various temporary locations. In 1834 Hillsborough County was created, which included the area around Tampa Bay down to Charlotte Harbor. In 1839 that part of Columbia County south of the Santa Fe River was returned to Alachua County, Newnansville was restored as the county seat. Hernando County was created in 1843 from that part of Alachua County south of the Withlacoochee River, it would be another 80 years. In 1854, the new railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Key bypassed Newnansville, Gainesville, a new town on the railroad, began to draw business and residents away from Newnansville. Gainesville was designated that year as the new county seat. During the post-Reconstruction period, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature and worked to restore white supremacy. Violence against blacks, including lynchings, rose in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as whites imposed Jim Crow and discriminatory laws, disenfranchising most blacks, which forced them
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge
The Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge is part of the United States National Wildlife Refuge System. It is located in southeastern Dixie and northwestern Levy counties on the western coast of Florida fifty miles southwest of the city of Gainesville; the 53,000-acre wildlife refuge was established in 1979 to protect one of the largest undeveloped river delta systems in the United States. It includes twenty miles of coastline; the constant influx of nutrients from the Suwannee River combined with numerous off-shore islands and tidal creeks create excellent wildlife habitat which supports kites, bald eagles, sturgeon and turkeys, to name but a few of the species which take refuge there. For tourists, the refuge offers bird and wildlife observation, wildlife photography, canoeing and interpretive walks; as of 2005, a wildlife driving tour is under construction and several boardwalks and observation towers offer views of refuge wildlife and habitat. The Suwannee River and nearby bottomland hardwood swamps, pine forests, cypress domes, tidal creeks, vast salt marshes provide habitat for thousands of creatures every year.
Many species including white-tailed deer, wild turkey, bats, alligator and river otter are present throughout the year — feeding, nesting and roaming the forests and swamps. Gulf sturgeon, Florida salt marsh vole, eastern indigo snake, gopher tortoise, wood stork are examples of threatened or endangered species that find suitable habitat within the Refuge. Numerous birds, including the striking swallow-tailed kite, bald eagle, prothonotary warbler, dozens of species of shorebirds use the refuge seasonally migrate farther south during winter months. More than 250 species of birds have been identified on the refuge, with at least 90 of those species nesting there; the Refuge’s undisturbed coastal salt marshes, tidal creeks, tidal flats are some of the most productive ecosystems in the world. These areas provide important foraging habitat for thousands of shorebirds, such as sandpipers, American oystercatcher, ruddy turnstone, plovers, as well as diving ducks. Wading birds appear in the summer, including American white ibis, great egret, snowy egret, cattle egret, great blue heron, little blue heron, green heron, tricolored heron, as well as the limpkin and wood stork.
These refuges serve as a valuable nursery for fish, shrimp and juvenile sea turtles. Freshwater fish, including largemouth bass, Suwannee bass, redear sunfish and channel catfish are found in the river and its creeks; the West Indian Manatee and bottlenose dolphin can be seen in the Suwannee River and just offshore where the river meets the Gulf of Mexico. Wildlife surveys and censuses provide useful information regarding various Refuge species including Bald Eagles, Swallow-tailed Kites, breeding birds, amphibians. Under special-use permits, the University of Florida and the United States Geological Survey are involved in on-going research activities on the Refuge for various species including salt marsh voles and mosquitoes. A 9-meter prehistoric midden known as the Shell Mound, which may be as much as 3,000 years old, is enclosed within the Refuge, along with other evidence of ancient human habitation. Before the Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge was established, much of the area was under commercial timber management, first by Putnam Lumber Company in the early 1900s by a succession of other timber and paper companies, notably Georgia-Pacific and Packaging Corporation of America.
In the late 20th century, efforts were initiated to restore many of these areas to a more natural, pre-exploitation condition. Acres of loblolly pines were cruised and selectively thinned — and in some cases clear-cut — to move toward reforestation to a native sandhill community of longleaf pine and wiregrass. Scrubland habitat is being restored and improved on high, dry sandy ridge areas where it was found. In 2001, a conservation easement on the nearby California Swamp was acquired by the Suwannee River Water Management District, improving habitat preservation throughout the area. Wildfires from lightning strikes have always occurred throughout much of the United States and is a critical component of many Florida ecosystems: many species of wildlife such as the Florida scrub jay depend on fire to sustain their habitat. Today, many of those fires cannot be left to burn unmanaged due to development; the United States Fish and Wildlife Service is one of many agencies that use prescribed fire to mimic natural fires in a controlled manner.
Fire lines are established with heavy equipment, trained personnel operate under a specific plan, fires are intentionally set to help reduce hazardous fuels in the wildland/urban interface, replenish nutrients into the soil, control vegetation by reducing undesirable species or vegetation heights. The goal is to burn areas that need fire every two to five years to maintain optimum habitat conditions. At times, the refuge water management activities create additional seasonal habitat for wading birds. Due to tidal influence, this activity is not needed. Lower Suwannee entry at the NWS Fish and Wildlife Service Forest Systems acquires habitat This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
David Levy Yulee
David Levy Yulee was an American politician and attorney. Born in St. Thomas under British control, he was of Sephardi Jewish ancestry: his father was from Morocco and his mother from Europe; the family moved to Florida when he was a child, he grew up there on their extensive lands. He served as Florida's territorial delegate to Congress. Yulee was the first person of Jewish ancestry to serve as a United States Senator, he founded the Florida Railroad Company and served as president of several other companies, earning the nickname of "Father of Florida Railroads." In 2000 he was recognized as that year's "Great Floridian" by the state. Levy added Yulee, the name of one of his Moroccan ancestors, to his name soon after his 1846 marriage to Nancy Christian Wickliffe, daughter of ex-Governor Charles A. Wickliffe of Kentucky. Though Yulee converted to Christianity and raised their children as Christian, he encountered antisemitism throughout his career. Yulee was in the secession of Florida. After the Civil War, he was imprisoned at Fort Pulaski for nine months for having aided the escape of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
After being pardoned by President Andrew Johnson, he returned to his Florida railroad interests and other business ventures. He was born David Levy in Charlotte Amalie, on the island of St. Thomas, his father was Moses Elias Levy, a Sephardi Jewish businessman from Morocco who made a fortune in lumber in the British colony. His mother was Sephardi; some migrated to the Caribbean as English colonists during the British occupation of the Danish West Indies. Moses Levy was a first cousin and business partner of Phillip Benjamin, the father of Judah P. Benjamin, the future Secretary of State of the Confederate States of America. After the family immigrated to the United States in the early 1820s, Moses Levy bought 50,000 acres of land near present-day Jacksonville, Florida Territory, he wanted to establish a "New Jerusalem" for Jewish settlers. The parents sent their son to a boy's college in Norfolk, Virginia. David Levy studied law with Robert R. Reid in St. Augustine, was admitted to the bar in 1832, started a practice in St. Augustine.
Levy served in his 20s including during the Second Seminole War. In 1834 he was present at a conference including Osceola. In 1836 he was elected to the Florida Territory's Legislative Council, serving from 1837 to 1839, he was delegate to the territory's constitutional convention in 1838, served as clerk of the legislature in 1841. In 1851 Yulee founded a 5,000-acre sugar cane plantation and maintained by enslaved African Americans, along the Homosassa River; the remains of his plantation, destroyed during the Civil War, are now the Yulee Sugar Mill Ruins State Historic Site. Yulee was business partners with John William Pearson at Orange Springs, but he abandoned his idea of building a railroad in the area as tensions rose and war seemed imminent. While living in Fernandina, Yulee began to develop a railroad across Florida, he had planned since 1837 to build a state-owned system. He became the first Southerner to use state grants under the Florida Internal Improvement Act of 1855, passed to encourage the development of such infrastructure.
He made extensive use of the act to secure federal and state land grants "as a basis of credit" to acquire land and build railroad networks, which were built with slave and Irish immigrant labor through the Florida wilderness. Issuing public stock, Yulee chartered the Florida Railroad in 1853, he planned its eastern and western terminals at deep-water ports, Fernandina on Amelia Island on the Atlantic side, Cedar Key on the Gulf of Mexico, to provide for connection to ocean-going shipping. His company began construction in 1855. On March 1, 1861, the first train arrived from the east in Cedar Key, just weeks before the beginning of the Civil War. Levy was elected in 1841 as the delegate from the Florida Territory to the US House of Representatives and served four years, he was seated after his election, but his position was disputed, as opponents argued that he was not a citizen. Levy agreed to suspend his legislative activities pending resolution of this issue in the next Congressional session.
By late March 1842 the associated investigations, committee votes, attempts to bring the issue to a vote in the full House, which included a defense by Levy and testimony from witnesses favorable to him, had not produced a definitive opinion of the House. Levy was allowed to take his seat, no further attempts were made to contest his seat. Once seated in the House, Levy worked to gain statehood for the territory and to protect the expansion of slavery in other newly admitted states. In 1845, after Florida was admitted as a state, the legislature elected Levy as a Democrat to the United States Senate, the first Jew in the United States to win a seat in the Senate, he served until 1851. During his first Senate term, he served as chairman of the Committee on Private Land Claims and the Committee on Naval Affairs. In 1855 Yulee was again elected by the Florida legislature to the Senate, he served until resigning in 1861 in order to support the Confederacy at the start of the American Civil War. Yulee's inflammatory pro-slavery rhetoric in the Senate earned him the nickname "Florida Fire-Eater".
Although he denied that he favored secession and his colleague, Se
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820