Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of children's fiction, notably Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass. He was noted for his facility at word play and fantasy; the poems Jabberwocky and The Hunting of the Snark are classified in the genre of literary nonsense. He was a mathematician and Anglican deacon. Carroll came from a family of high-church Anglicans, developed a long relationship with Christ Church, where he lived for most of his life as a scholar and teacher. Alice Liddell, daughter of the Dean of Christ Church, Henry Liddell, is identified as the original for Alice in Wonderland, though Carroll always denied this. Born in All Saints' Vicarage, Cheshire in 1832, Carroll is commemorated at All Saints' Church, Daresbury in its stained glass windows depicting characters from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. In 1982, a memorial stone to Carroll was unveiled in Westminster Abbey. Dodgson's family was predominantly northern English and high-church Anglican.
Most of Dodgson's male ancestors were Church of England clergy. His great-grandfather, Charles Dodgson, had risen through the ranks of the church to become the Bishop of Elphin, his paternal grandfather, another Charles, had been an army captain, killed in action in Ireland in 1803 when his two sons were hardly more than babies. The older of these sons – yet another Charles Dodgson – was Carroll's father, he went to Westminster School and to Christ Church, Oxford. He took holy orders, he was mathematically gifted and won a double first degree, which could have been the prelude to a brilliant academic career. Instead, he became a country parson. Dodgson was born in the small parsonage at Daresbury in Cheshire near the town of Warrington, the eldest boy and the third child. Eight more children followed; when Charles was 11, his father was given the living of Croft-on-Tees in the North Riding of Yorkshire, the whole family moved to the spacious rectory. This remained their home for the next 25 years.
Charles's father was an active and conservative cleric of the Church of England who became the Archdeacon of Richmond and involved himself, sometimes influentially, in the intense religious disputes that were dividing the church. He was high church, inclining toward Anglo-Catholicism, an admirer of John Henry Newman and the Tractarian movement, did his best to instil such views in his children. Young Charles was to develop an ambivalent relationship with his father's values and with the Church of England as a whole. During his early youth, Dodgson was educated at home, his "reading lists" preserved in the family archives testify to a precocious intellect: at the age of seven, he was reading books such as The Pilgrim's Progress. He suffered from a stammer – a condition shared by most of his siblings – that inhibited his social life throughout his years. At the age of twelve he was sent to Richmond Grammar School in Richmond, North Yorkshire. In 1846, Dodgson entered Rugby School where he was evidently unhappy, as he wrote some years after leaving: I cannot say... that any earthly considerations would induce me to go through my three years again...
I can say that if I could have been... secure from annoyance at night, the hardships of the daily life would have been comparative trifles to bear. Dodgson did not claim he suffered from bullying but cited little boys as the main targets of older bullies at Rugby. Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, Dodgson's nephew, wrote that "even though it is hard for those who have only known him as the gentle and retiring don to believe it, it is true that long after he left school, his name was remembered as that of a boy who knew well how to use his fists in defence of a righteous cause", the protection of the smaller boys. Scholastically, though, he excelled with apparent ease. "I have not had a more promising boy at his age since I came to Rugby", observed mathematics master R. B. Mayor. Francis Walkingame's The Tutor's Assistant; some pages included annotations such as the one found in p. 129, where he wrote "Not a fair question in decimals" next to a question. He left Rugby at the end of 1849 and matriculated at the University of Oxford in May 1850 as a member of his father's old college, Christ Church.
After waiting for rooms in college to become available, he went into residence in January 1851. He had been at Oxford only two days, his mother had died of "inflammation of the brain" – meningitis or a stroke – at the age of 47. His early academic career veered between irresistible distraction, he did not always work hard but was exceptionally gifted and achievement came to him. In 1852, he obtained first-class honours in Mathematics Moderations and was shortly thereafter nominated to a Studentship by his father's old friend Canon Edward Pusey. In 1854, he obtained first-class honours in the Final Honours School of Mathematics, standing first on the list, graduating Bachelor of Arts, he remained at Christ Church studying and teaching, but the next year he failed an important scholarship through his self-confessed inability to apply himself to study. So, his talent as a mathematician won him the Christ Church Mathematical Lectureship in 1855, which
Rudolph Bond was an American actor, active from 1947 until his death. His work spanned Hollywood and US television. Bond was born in Philadelphia, the second youngest of five children, he was raised in urban Philadelphia by his mother. He was educated in Philadelphia schools, received a BA degree from Central High, the only school in the nation certificated to grant such degrees. Bond was introduced to the world of acting at the age of 16, he was playing basketball with a group of friends when Julie Sutton, the director of a city amateur acting group approached the group and asked if anybody wanted to be in an upcoming play. He volunteered, acted in several plays before leaving Philadelphia to join the United States Army, he spent four years in the army, was wounded while serving in World War II, returned to Philadelphia upon his discharge. He continued acting in the Neighborhood Players until 1945, when he won second prize in the John Golden Award for Actors, which allowed him to enroll in Elia Kazan's Actor's Studio in New York City.
Kazan got him a substantial role in two stage productions. After his success in the second, he was invited to Hollywood to recreate his stage role in the movie version. In 1951 he appeared in "Romeo and Juliet" at the Broadhurst Theatre in New York and in 1960 he toured in "Fiorello", he spent the next thirty years bouncing between California and New York, between movie and television work. Bond met Alma Halbert, he was 25, she was 15. They were married in 1948, they had three children: fraternal twins Jonathan and Janet, Zane. Alma went on to have a successful career on her own, as author, she published sixteen books, numerous articles both about psychiatry and about her Hollywood experiences. Bond died of a heart attack in Denver, outside the box office of a theater where the next day he was scheduled to begin appearing in a production of What the Babe Said. Bond wrote an autobiography but it was not completed before he died. Alma completed it, added an introduction, had it published in 2000. Bond appeared in over 100 TV shows.
Episodes in which he is credited include: 1947: O'Daniel A Streetcar Named Desire 1950: The Bird Cage 1951: Romeo and Juliet Glad Tidings 1952: Golden Boy Fiorello! After the Fall 1967: Illya Darling 1968: A Mother's Kisses 1972: Night Watch Rudy Bond on IMDb Rudy Bond at the Internet Broadway Database Rudy Bond at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
Daza is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Daza people inhabiting northern Chad. The Daza are known as the Gouran in Chad. Dazaga is spoken by around 380,000 people in the Djurab Desert region and the Borkou region, locally called Haya or Faya-Largeau northern-central Chad, the capital of the Dazaga people. Dazaga is spoken in the Tibesti Mountains of Chad, in the eastern Niger near N'guigmi and to the north, it is spoken to a smaller extent in Libya and in Sudan, where there is a community of 3,000 speakers in the city of Omdurman. There's a small diaspora community working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; the two primary dialects of the Dazaga language are Daza and Kara, but there are several other mutually intelligible dialects, including Kaga, Kanobo and Azza. It is related to the Tedaga language, spoken by the Teda, the other out of the two Toubou people groups, who reside in the Tibesti Mountains of northern Chad and in southern Libya near the city of Sabha. Dazaga is a Nilo-Saharan language and a member of the Western Saharan branch of the Saharan subgroup which contains the Kanuri language, Kanembu language and Tebu languages.
Tebu is further divided into Dazaga. The Eastern Saharan branch includes the Zaghawa language and Berti language; the dialects spoken in Chad and Niger have some French influence whereas the dialects spoken in Libya and Sudan have more of an Arabic influence. The Dazaga language has a limited vocabulary, it adjusts to this by borrowing from other languages such as French. For example, the word for "thank you" did not exist in Dazaga so the Arabic word shokran was incorporated into the language and is followed by the suffix -num which acknowledges the second person; the majority of Dazaga speakers are bilingual in their native tongue along with either Arabic, Zaghawa, Zarma, Kanuri or Tuareg. The following tables contain words from the Daza dialect spoken in Sudan; this romanisation is not standard. Relative Clauses in Dazaga