Quincy, known as Illinois's "Gem City," is a city in and the county seat of Adams County, United States, located on the Mississippi River. The 2010 census counted a population of 40,633 in the city itself, up from 40,366 in 2000; as of July 1, 2015, the Quincy Micro Area had an estimated population of 77,220. During the 19th century, Quincy was a thriving transportation center as riverboats and rail service linked the city to many destinations west and along the river, it was Illinois' second-largest city, surpassing Peoria in 1870. The city has several historic districts, including the Downtown Quincy Historic District and the South Side German Historic District, which display the architecture of Quincy's many German immigrants from the late 19th century. Quincy's location along the Mississippi River has attracted settlers for centuries; the first known inhabitants to the region were of the Illiniwek tribe. Years following numerous incursions, the Sauk and Kickapoo called the site home; the French became the first European presence to colonize the region, after Louis Jolliet, Jacques Marquette and the La Salle Expeditions explored the Upper Mississippi River Valley.
Fur goods became a valuable commodity of the region, European explorers and merchants alike were attracted to the prospects of the growing fur trade of the North American frontier. The Mississippi River, acting as a superhighway for transporting goods downstream, became the area's most vital transportation asset. Following the events of the Seven Years' War, which ended in 1763, Great Britain took control of New France, including that of the Illinois Territory; the Illinois Territory changed hands again a few decades during the American Revolutionary War. After the British failed to regain their former colonies in the War of 1812, the American government granted military tracts to veterans as a means to help populate the West. Peter Flinn, having acquired the land from veteran Mark McGowan for his military service in 1819, ended up selling 160 acres of land acquisitions to Moravia, New York native John Wood for $60. John Wood founded Quincy, which at the time was coined Bluffs, Illinois. In 1825, Bluffs renamed their community Quincy and became the seat of government for Adams County, both named after newly elected President John Quincy Adams.
In addition, they named the town square John Square until changing it to Washington Square. Quincy incorporated as a city in 1840. In 1838, following the signing of Missouri Executive Order 44, many members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints fled persecution in Missouri and found shelter in Quincy. Despite being vastly outnumbered by Mormon refugees, residents provided food and lodging for the displaced people. Joseph Smith led members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 40 miles upstream to Nauvoo, Illinois, in hopes of finding a permanent home. In 1838, Quincy sheltered the Pottawatomie tribe as they were forcibly relocated from Indiana to Kansas; the 1850s and 1860s brought increased prosperity to Quincy. Steamboats and railroads began linking Quincy to places west, making the city a frequent destination for migrants; the founding of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad in 1855, the construction of the Quincy Rail Bridge, were major drivers for creating a transportation hub in the region to further commerce.
It is during this time that the city's population grew enormously, from just under 7,000 residents in 1850 to 24,000 by 1870, helping Quincy surpass Peoria in becoming the second-largest city in the state. One famous former resident of Quincy is George E. Pickett; the future Confederate general as a young man came to Quincy to live, learn the law, from his uncle Alexander Johnson in the 1840s. Johnson was acquainted with Abraham Lincoln, Pickett and Lincoln may have met each other in Quincy. In 1860, Quincy founder and Lieutenant Governor John Wood inherited the governorship after William H. Bissell died while in office. At the time, he was overseeing the construction of his mansion; the Illinois legislature allowed him to stay in Quincy during his tenure making Quincy a "second" capitol for the state. His absence from the official Governor's office in Springfield provided Abraham Lincoln a space for planning his Presidential run; the matter of slavery was a major social issue in Quincy's early years.
The Illinois city's location, separated only by the Mississippi River from the slave state of Missouri, a hotbed of political controversy on the issue, made Quincy itself a hotbed of political controversy on slavery. Dr. Richard Eells, a staunch abolitionist, built his home in Quincy in 1835 and sheltered runaway slaves on their way to Chicago, his home became a major stop on the Underground Railroad. The divide over slavery climaxed in 1858, when Quincy hosted the sixth Senatorial debate by U. S. Senator Stephen A. Douglas and his challenger, Abraham Lincoln. With an estimated crowd of 12,000 in attendance, Quincy was the largest community at which Lincoln and Douglas debated. Lincoln and Douglas again confronted each other in the 1860 Presidential election and the resulting campaign again divided Quincy and the surrounding region. Lincoln enthusiasts and Quincy's chapter of the Republican Party's para-military organization Wide Awakes, while en route to a political rally in Plainville, marched upon nearby Payson, a community predominantly filled with Douglas supporters.
Although a confrontation was avoided while en route to Plainville, Douglas supporters shot upon the Wide Awakes on their journey back to Quincy, resulting in a skirmish known as the Stone Prairie Riots. The Civil War brought increasing prosperity to Quincy. Although the b
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Meriwether Lewis was an American explorer, soldier and public administrator, best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition known as the Corps of Discovery, with William Clark. Their mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase, establish trade with, sovereignty over the natives near the Missouri River, claim the Pacific Northwest and Oregon Country for the United States before European nations, they collected scientific data, information on indigenous nations. President Thomas Jefferson appointed him Governor of Upper Louisiana in 1806, he died of gunshot wounds in what was either a murder or suicide, in 1809. Meriwether Lewis was born in Albemarle County, Colony of Virginia, in the present-day community of Ivy, he was the son of William Lewis, of Welsh ancestry, Lucy Meriwether, of English ancestry. After his father died of pneumonia in November 1779, he moved with his mother and stepfather Captain John Marks to Georgia, they settled along the Broad River in the Goosepond Community within the Broad River Valley in Wilkes County.
Lewis had no formal education until he was 13 years of age, but during his time in Georgia he enhanced his skills as a hunter and outdoorsman. He would venture out in the middle of the night in the dead of winter with only his dog to go hunting. At an early age, he was interested in natural history, which would develop into a lifelong passion, his mother taught him. In the Broad River Valley, Lewis first dealt with American Indians; this was the traditional territory of the Cherokee. Lewis seems to have been a champion for them among his own people. While in Georgia, he met Eric Parker. At age 13, Lewis was sent back to Virginia for education by private tutors, his father's older brother. One of his tutors was an uncle of Matthew Fontaine Maury. In 1793, Lewis graduated from Liberty Hall; that year he joined the Virginia militia, in 1794 he was sent as part of a detachment involved in putting down the Whiskey Rebellion. In 1795, Lewis joined the United States Army, commissioned as an ensign—an army rank, abolished and was equivalent to a modern-day second lieutenant.
By 1800 he rose to captain, ended his service there in 1801. Among his commanding officers was William Clark, who would become his companion in the Corps of Discovery. On April 1, 1801, Lewis was appointed as Secretary to the President by President Thomas Jefferson, whom he knew through Virginia society in Albemarle County. Lewis resided in the presidential mansion, conversed with various prominent figures in politics, the arts and other circles, he compiled information on the personnel and politics of the United States Army, which had seen an influx of Federalist officers as a result of "midnight appointments" made by outgoing president John Adams in 1801. When Jefferson began to plan for an expedition across the continent, he chose Lewis to lead the expedition. Meriwether Lewis recruited Clark aged 33, to share command of the expedition. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, Thomas Jefferson wanted to get an accurate sense of the new land and its resources; the President hoped to find a "direct and practicable water communication across this continent, for the purposes of commerce with Asia."
In addition, Jefferson placed special importance on declaring U. S. sovereignty over the Native Americans along the Missouri River. The two-year exploration by Lewis and Clark was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the United States; when they left Fort Mandan in April 1805 they were accompanied by the 16-year-old Shoshone Indian woman, the wife of the French-Canadian fur trader, Toussaint Charbonneau. The Corps of Discovery made contact with many Native Americans in the trans-Mississippi West and found them accustomed to dealing with European traders and connected to global markets. After crossing the Rocky Mountains, the expedition reached the Oregon Country and the Pacific Ocean in November 1805, they returned in 1806, bringing with them an immense amount of information about the region as well as numerous plant and animal specimens. They demonstrated the possibility of overland travel to the Pacific coast; the success of their journey helped to strengthen the American concept of "Manifest destiny" - the idea that the United States was destined to reach all the way across North America from Atlantic to Pacific.
After returning from the expedition, Lewis received a reward of 1,600 acres of land. He initially made arrangements to publish the Corps of Discovery journals, but had difficulty completing his writing. In 1807, Jefferson appointed him governor of the Louisiana Territory. Lewis' record as an administrator is mixed, he published the first laws in the Upper-Louisiana Territory, established roads and furthered Jefferson's mission as a strong proponent of the fur trade. He negotiated peace among several quarreling Indian tribes, his duty to enforce Indian treaties was to protect the western Indian lands from encroachment, opposed by the rush of settlers looking to open new lands for settlements. But due to his quarreling with local political leaders, controversy over his approvals of trading licenses, land grant politics, Indian depredations, some historians have argued that Lewis was a poor administrator; that view has be
Clark County, Missouri
Clark County is a county located in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 7,139, its county seat is Kahoka. The county was organized December 16, 1836 and named for William Clark, leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and Governor of Missouri Territory. Clark County is part of the Fort Madison -- IA-IL-MO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Missouri folklorist Margot Ford McMillen wrote that early settlers were attracted by Clark County's good and inexpensive agricultural land. One section was called "Bit Nation" because land was sold there for just twelve and one-half cents an acre. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 512 square miles, of which 505 square miles is land and 7.1 square miles is water. Van Buren County, Iowa Lee County, Iowa Hancock County, Illinois Lewis County Knox County Scotland County U. S. Route 61 U. S. Route 136 Route 27 Route 81 Great River National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2010, there were 7,139 people, 2,966 households, 2,079 families residing in the county.
The population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 3,483 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.83% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. 0.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,966 households out of which 30.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 7.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years.
For every 100 females, there were 97.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,457, the median income for a family was $36,270. Males had a median income of $27,279 versus $19,917 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,988. About 10.80% of families and 14.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.70% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. Clark County R-I School District – Kahoka Running Fox Elementary School Black Hawk Elementary School Clark County Middle School Clark County High School Luray School District No. 33 – Luray Luray Elementary School Shiloh Christian School – Kahoka – Nondenominational Christianity Northeast Missouri Library Service The Republican Party controls politics at the local level in Clark County. As of 2018, Republicans hold nine of fourteen of the elected positions in the county. All of Clark County is included in Missouri’s 4th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Craig Redmon.
All of Clark County is a part of Missouri’s 18th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Brian Munzlinger. All of Clark County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U. S. House of Representatives. Former U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton received more votes, a total of 554, than any other candidate from either party in Clark County during the 2008 presidential primary. Alexandria Kahoka Wayland Wyaconda Luray Revere St. Francisville Athens St. Patrick Waterloo Clay Des Moines Folker Grant Jackson Jefferson Lincoln Madison Sweet Home Union Vernon Washington Wyaconda National Register of Historic Places listings in Clark County, Missouri "Guide to Clark County Missouri" records Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Clark County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books
Hancock County, Illinois
Hancock County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 19,104, its county seat is Carthage, its largest city is Hamilton. The county is made up of rural towns with many farmers. Hancock County is part of IA-IL-MO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Hancock County was part of the "Military Tract" set aside by Congress to reward veterans of the War of 1812. Actual settlement of the interior of the county was delayed by concerns about hostile American Indians. After their defeat in the Blackhawk War in 1832, settlement proceeded quickly. Hancock County was formed, on January 1825, out of Pike County, it was named in honor of John Hancock. For a brief period in the 1840s Hancock had one of Illinois' most populous cities: Nauvoo, headquarters for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; the movement's founder Joseph Smith was killed in the county seat of Carthage in 1844. Most Mormons left Hancock County in the 1840s. Today, Latter Day Saints come in increasing numbers to important Latter Day Saint sites in Hancock County for vacation and for religious pilgrimage.
The original courthouse was at Montebello. Montebello no longer was between Nauvoo and Hamilton. In 1833 the state commissioned the formation of the county seat at Carthage, centrally located but not well developed. A log cabin was built to serve as the courthouse and served that purpose until 1839 when the second Carthage Courthouse was built; the original log cabin continued to serve as a school and other purposes until 1945 when it was removed. The second courthouse cost $3,700 to build and served from 1839 until 1906, it served as a location for Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln to speak to residents as they were running against each other for the US Senate. In 1906 it was removed to make room for the current courthouse; the current courthouse was dedicated October 21, 1908. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 814 square miles, of which 794 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carthage have ranged from a low of 13 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −30 °F was recorded in February 1905 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in August 1934.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.47 inches in January to 4.58 inches in May. U. S. Highway 136 Illinois Route 9 Illinois Route 61 Illinois Route 94 Illinois Route 96 Illinois Route 336 Henderson County - northeast McDonough County - east Schuyler County - southeast Adams County - south Lewis County, Missouri - southwest Clark County, Missouri - west Lee County, Iowa - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,104 people, 8,040 households, 5,427 families residing in the county; the population density was 24.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,274 housing units at an average density of 11.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.0% white, 0.3% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.3% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 34.7% were German, 13.8% were English, 13.2% were American, 12.1% were Irish.
Of the 8,040 households, 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families, 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age was 44.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,857 and the median income for a family was $55,162. Males had a median income of $41,609 versus $27,648 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,885. About 8.9% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.8% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Hancock County is in Illinois's 18th Congressional District and is represented by Republican Davin LaHood. For the Illinois House of Representatives, the county is in the 94th district and is represented by Republican Randy Frese; the county is in the 47th district of the Illinois Senate, is represented by Republican Jil Tracy.
In presidential elections, Hancock County favors Republican candidates, having voted for Democratic presidential candidates only four times during the period of 1940 to 2016. Carthage Dallas City Hamilton La Harpe Nauvoo Warsaw Bentley Hancock County is divided into twenty-four townships: National Register of Historic Places listings in Hancock County, Illinois Center for Hancock County History Hancock County, Illinois, USA