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Lex Luthor

Alexander Joseph Luthor is a fictional supervillain appearing in publications by the publisher DC Comics. The character was created by Joe Shuster. Lex Luthor appeared in Action Comics No. 23.1 He has since endured as an archenemy of Superman. Introduced as a mad scientist whose schemes Superman would foil, Lex's portrayal has evolved over the years and his characterisation has deepened. In contemporary stories, Lex is portrayed as a wealthy, power-mad American business magnate, ingenious engineer, philanthropist to the city of Metropolis, one of the most intelligent people in the world. A well-known public figure, he is the owner of a conglomerate called LexCorp, he is intent on ridding the world of the alien Superman, whom Lex Luthor views as an obstacle to his plans and as a threat to the existence of humanity. Given his high status as a supervillain, however, he has come into conflict with Batman and other superheroes in the DC Universe; the character has traditionally lacked superpowers or a dual identity and appears with a bald head.

He periodically wears his Warsuit, a high-tech battle suit giving him enhanced strength, advanced weaponry, other capabilities. The character was introduced as a diabolical recluse, but during the Modern Age, he was reimagined by writers as a devious, high-profile industrialist, who has crafted his public persona to avoid suspicion and arrest, he is well known for his philanthropy, donating vast sums of money to Metropolis over the years, funding parks and charities. The character was ranked 4th on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time and as the 8th Greatest Villain by Wizard on its 100 Greatest Villains of All Time list. Luthor is one of a few genre-crossing villains whose adventures take place "in a world in which the ordinary laws of nature are suspended". Scott James Wells, Sherman Howard, John Shea, Michael Rosenbaum, Jon Cryer have portrayed the character in television series, while Lyle Talbot, Gene Hackman, Kevin Spacey, Jesse Eisenberg have portrayed the character in films.

Jackson Beck, Ray Owens, G. Stanley Jones, Michael Bell, Brian Dobson, Clancy Brown, J. S. Gilbert, Kevin Spacey, Powers Boothe, James Marsters, Chris Noth, Anthony LaPaglia, Steve Blum, Fred Tatasciore, Jason Isaacs, Kevin Michael Richardson, Mark Rolston, John DiMaggio, Keith Silverstein, James Woods, Rainn Wilson, Ike Barinholtz, Giancarlo Esposito and others have provided the character's voice in animated adaptations. In his first story appearance, Action Comics No. 23, Luthor is referred to only by his surname. He resides in a flying city suspended by a dirigible and plots to provoke a war between two European nations. Lois Lane and Clark Kent investigate. Luthor battles Superman with a green ray but Luthor is defeated by Superman, Lois is rescued. Superman destroys Luthor's dirigible with him still on it, implying Luthor may have died, although stories ending with Luthor's apparent death are common in his earliest appearances. Luthor returns in Superman No. 4 and steals a weapon from the U.

S. Army, capable of causing earthquakes. Superman battles and defeats Luthor, the earthquake device is destroyed by Superman; the scientist who made the device commits suicide to prevent its reinvention. In a story in the same issue, Luthor is shown to have created a city on the sunken Lost continent of Pacifo and to have recreated prehistoric monsters, which he plans to unleash upon the world. Superman thwarts his plans, Luthor appears to have been killed by the dinosaurs he created. Luthor returns in Superman No. 5 with a plan to place hypnotic gas in the offices of influential people. He intends to throw the nation into a depression with the help of corrupt financier Moseley, but the story ends with Superman defeating him. In these early stories, Luthor's schemes are centered around financial gain or megalomaniacal ambitions. Luthor's obsessive hatred of Superman came in the character's development. In Luthor's earliest appearances, he is shown as a middle-aged man with a full head of red hair.

Less than a year however, an artistic mistake resulted in Luthor being depicted as bald in a newspaper strip. The original error is attributed to Leo Nowak, a studio artist who illustrated for the Superman dailies during this period. One hypothesis is that Nowak mistook Luthor for the Ultra-Humanite, a frequent foe of Superman who, in his Golden Age incarnation, resembled a balding, elderly man. Other evidence suggests Luthor's design was confused with that of a stockier, bald henchman in Superman No. 4. 10, in which Nowak depicted him as heavier, with visible jowls. The character's abrupt hair loss has been made reference to several times over the course of his history; when the concept of the DC Multiverse began to take hold, Luthor's red-haired incarnation was rewritten as Alexei Luthor, Lex's counterpart from the Earth-Two parallel universe. In 1960, writer Jerry Siegel altered Luthor's backstory to incorporate his hair loss into his origin. In 1944 Lex Luthor was the first character in a comic book to use an atomic bomb.

The United States Department of War asked this story line be delayed from publication, which it was until 1946, to protect the secrecy of the Manhattan Project. The War Department asked for dailies of the Superman comic strip to be pulled in April 1945 which depi

Greater Caucasus

Greater Caucasus is the major mountain range of the Caucasus Mountains. The range stretches for about 1,200 kilometres from west-northwest to east-southeast, between the Taman Peninsula of the Black Sea to the Absheron Peninsula of the Caspian Sea: from the Western Caucasus in the vicinity of Sochi on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea and reaching nearly to Baku on the Caspian; the range is traditionally separated into three parts: Central Caucasus, from Mount Elbrus to Mount Kazbek Eastern Caucasus, from Mount Kazbek to the Caspian Sea Western Caucasus, from the Black Sea to Mount ElbrusIn the wetter Western Caucasus, the mountains are forested. In the drier Eastern Caucasus, the mountains are treeless; the watershed of the Caucasus by some is considered the boundary between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. The European part north of the watershed is known as Ciscaucasia; the border of Russia with Georgia and Azerbaijan runs along most of the Caucasus' length. The Georgian Military Road and Trans-Caucasus Highway traverse this mountain range at altitudes of up to 3,000 metres.

The watershed of the Caucasus was the border between the Caucasia province of the Russian Empire in the north and the Ottoman Empire and Persia in the south in 1801, until the Russian victory in 1813 and the Treaty of Gulistan which moved the border of the Russian Empire well within Transcaucasia. The border between Russia and Georgia still follows the watershed exactly, while Azerbaijan in its northeastern corner has five districts north of the watershed. Mount Elbrus, 5,642 m, 43°21′18″N 42°26′21″E is the highest mountain in Europe. Dykh-Tau, 5,205 m, 43°3′N 43°8′E Shkhara, 5,201 m, 43.01°N 43.17°E / 43.01.

Jean Dausset

Jean-Baptiste-Gabriel-Joachim Dausset was a French immunologist born in Toulouse, France. Dausset received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1980 along with Baruj Benacerraf and George Davis Snell for their discovery and characterisation of the genes making the major histocompatibility complex. Using the money from his Nobel Prize and a grant from the French Television, Dausset founded the Human Polymorphism Study Center in 1984, renamed the Foundation Jean Dausset-CEPH in his honour, he married Rose Mayoral in 1963, with whom he had Henri and Irène. Jean Dausset died on June 6, 2009 in Majorca, Spain, at the age of 92. Jean-Baptiste-Gabriel-Joachim Dausset was born on 19 October 1916, in France, he was the youngest of four children of Elisabeth Dausset. His father was from the Pyrénées, was a doctor by profession, his mother was a housewife from Lorraine. Following the end of World War I the Dausset family moved to Biarritz where Jean spent most of his childhood, his father was head doctor at the Bayonne Hospital, a position that would make a great impression on Jean.

Dausset was home schooled by his mother, as well as by a tutor, who would periodically come to the house. At the age of 11, Dausset and his family moved to Paris, he began his formal schooling at the Lycée Michelet, at age 15. After earning his Baccalauréat in mathematics, Dausset was convinced by his father to study medicine at the University of Paris. Both of Dausset's parents died just after he became an extern at the Paris Hospitals, at the age of 19. Dausset failed to pass an internship entrance exam at the Paris Hospitals, was preparing for a second attempt when World War II broke out. Dausset was enlisted in the French army, sent off to Northern Italy for a year. Upon his return to Paris in 1940, Dausset passed his medical internship exam. Soon after passing his exams, Dausset joined the Free French Forces in North Africa as an ambulance worker, he was stationed in Morocco, but was sent to the more active Tunisia. Dausset got his first taste of hematology when he had to perform numerous blood transfusions on wounded soldiers.

As the war was winding down in 1944, Dausset returned to Paris where he worked in the Regional Blood Transfusion Center at the Saint-Antoine Hospital. After the war, Dausset worked as an intern at the Paris Hospitals, which were in a state of disrepair and badly needed structural reform. Dausset formed a group of radical doctors. Due to his activist role in this group, Dausset was appointed as the Advisor to the Cabinet of the National Ministry of Education; the physician Robert Debré worked with Dausset, pushed the government into forming a committee for the reform of medical education. Hospitals were joined with universities for the first time in France, doctors were required to instruct classes to medical students. With the newly introduced system of university research hospitals, research began within the hospitals themselves, as opposed to in the universities alone, full-time work for doctors was established. After World War II Dausset worked with Professor Marcel Bessis who had developed a new transfusion technique called exchange transfusion.

He worked as an immunohematologist and was interested in anaemic patients who required blood transfusions, he found that these patients lacked both red and white blood cells. In 1948, Dausset went to work as an intern in the Children's Hospital in Boston, he worked there in a hematology lab for about four years. He returned to France in 1952 and once again took up the position of an intern with Marcel Bessis, it was during this time. With Bessis, Dausset discovered the first antigen-presenting leucocyte, but it was only described in 1958. Between the years 1952 and 1957 he collaborated with many researchers such as Gilbert Malinvaud and Jacques and Monique Colombani. From 1952 to 1957, majority of Dausset's time went into developing techniques and developing further ways of confirming the presence of certain antibodies, he was made the head of research at Professor Georges Marchal’s immunohematology laboratory in the Broussais Hospital. During this time, Dausset performed blood transfusions between a voluntary donor and patients in order to further his research in the field of immune responses in the body.

He was testing the ability of the antigen-presenting leucocytes in the recipient’s body, which came from the donor’s blood. In 1958, Dausset discovered an antibody called MAC, a leuco-aggluntinate. From 1960 to 1965 Dausset worked on improving organ transplantation techniques and the mechanisms involved in enhancing the body’s ability to accept the new tissue. To do this, Dausset again used the blood of voluntary donors and patients to see what differences lay in the blood of the two individuals and how to minimize these differences. 1965 was a crucial year for research. There was an intense competition amongst the researchers of the immunohematology field as everyone was on the brink of making a major discovery in the genetic and transplantation research. During this time, Dausset worked with Paul Ivany in Prague and they used leuco-agglutination and lymphocyte toxicity techniques to make some significant discoveries, they discovered the H-2 antigen. In 1963 Jean Dausset became the head of the immunology at the Hôpital Saint-Louis in 1963.

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Gauradaha

Gauradaha is a municipality in Jhapa District in the Mechi Zone of eastern Nepal. After the government announcement the municipality was established on 19 September 2015 by merging the existing Maharanijhoda, Juropani and Gauradaha village development committees; the center of the municipality is establish in the mid of Gauradaha, Dhobiniya chowk. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census after merging the four VDCs population it had a total population of 47,393 persons. After the government decision the number of municipalities has reached 217 in Nepal.पुर्वि नेपाल झापा जिल्लाको पूर्व पश्चिम राजमार्ग वाट १० कि.मि. दक्षिण भागमा अवस्थित गौरादह नगरपालिका प्रशस्त सम्भावना वोकेको नगर मध्ये एक हो। झापाको क्षेत्र नम्बर ५, दमक नगरपालिका र गौरीगञ्जको मध्यभागमा अवस्थित यो नगरपालिकाको कुल क्षेत्रफल १४९.८६ वर्ग कि.मि. रहेको छ। तत्कालिन स्थानीय विकास मन्त्रालयले २०७२ आस्विन १ गते थप २६ वटा नयाँ नगरपालिका थप्दा झापा जिल्लामा महारानीझोडा, जुरोपानी, कोहवरा र साबिकको गौरादह गरी यी ४ गाउँ विकास समितिहरूलाई समेटेर गौरादह नगरपालिका घोषणा गरिएकोमा नेपाल सरकारको राजपत्रमा मिति २०७३ फागुन २७ गतेको निर्णय अनुसार साबिक बैगुनधुरा गा.बि.स लाई समेत समेटी बृहत नगरपालिका घोषणा भएको हो। यस नगरपालिकामा ९ वटा वडामा बिभजित भएको छ। यस गौरादह नगरपालिकाले जनतालाई सार्वजनिक सेवामा पँहुचको बिकास र विस्तार, सिहंदरबार आफ्नै घरआगनमा आएको अनुभूति दिलाउन,चुस्त, दुरुस्त, पारदर्शी, जवाफदेहि, जनताप्रति उत्तरदायि बनाउन र सुशासनको प्रत्याभुती दिने आफ्नो निति अनुरुप मुख्य कार्यालय र ९ वटा वडा कार्यालय स्थापना गरी सेवा प्रवाह गरिरहेको छ।

Deloss Barnum

Deloss Barnum was a photographer in New York and Boston, Massachusetts in the mid-19th century. Around 1857 he kept a daguerreotype studio on Winter Street in Boston. In 1856-1860 he lived in Roxbury, he participated in the 1860 exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. He died October 1873 in Cortland, New York. During his career he was referred to by several variant names: D. Barnum. Library of Congress. Sunnyside, home of Washington Irving, NY. New York Public Library has many stereoscope images by D. Barnum. Ron Polito. "Boston Photographers Cited in 19th Century American Photographic Journals: A Bibliographic Database" – via Photographic Historical Society of New England. Photographs by Deloss Barnum

Carrhotus xanthogramma

Carrhotus xanthogramma is a species of'jumping spiders' belonging to the family Salticidae. Its distribution is palearctic, including a portion of Europe, in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Russia, Mongolia, South Korea and Japan; these thermophilic spiders prefer warm environments. They can be encountered on bushes, on tree trunks and shrubbery; the adult males of these jumping spiders reach 5.1–7.1 millimetres of length, while females can reach a body length of about 7.1–9.0 millimetres. These spiders are covered with dense hair; the sexual dimorphism of this species is pronounced. The males are smaller than females, they have a black bright cephalothorax and an hairy and tapered, reddish-orange abdomen. The separation between cephalothorax and abdomen is well marked, their black legs may have orange rings. Palps are black haired; the female's body, according to the mimicry strategy, is brownish, with dark brown markings. There is a yellowish area on a blackish front head, that includes an arcuate bandage extending from one side-eye to the other, encircling the entire back of the fore-body.

The abdomen is oval and tapered. It is predominantly yellowish, with spots. Legs are light-dark annulated. Palps are light brown with long white hairs, they have eight eyes with large anterior median eyes. Adults can be found from April to July, they pursue their preys, jumping on them. Their eyesight is excellent and useful in their way of hunting. Forster, L. M. - Vision and prey-catching strategies in jumping spiders - American Scientist 70: 165-175. Fang WY, Wang ZL, Li C, Yang XQ, Yu XP - The complete mitogenome of a jumping spider Carrhotus xanthogramma and comparative analysis in four salticid mitogenomes. Heiko Bellmann: Der Kosmos Spinnenführer. Über 400 Arten Europas. Kosmos, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-440-10114-8, S. 294. Latreille, P. A. Articles sur les araignées. N. Dict. hist. nat. Paris. Ed. II, Paris, 22. Maekawa, T. & Ikeda, H.. Sexual behavior of a gynandromorphic spider of Carrhotus xanthogramma. Acta Arachnologica 41: 103-108 Biolib Carrhotus xanthogramma