Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Abdullah Yusuf Ali, CBE, MA, LL. M, FRSA, FRSL was a British-Indian barrister and scholar who wrote a number of books about Islam and whose translation of the Qur'an into English is one of the most known and used in the English-speaking world. A supporter of the British war effort during World War I, Ali received the CBE in 1917 for his services to that cause, he died in London in 1953. Ali was born in Bombay, British India, the son of Yusuf Ali Allahbuksh known as Khan Bahadur Yusuf Ali, a Shi'i in the Dawoodi Bohra tradition, who turned his back on the traditional business-based occupation of his community and instead became a Government Inspector of Police. On his retirement he gained the title Khan Bahadur for public service; as a child Abdullah Yusuf Ali attended the Anjuman Himayat-ul-Islam school and studied at the missionary school Wilson College, both in Bombay. He received a religious education and could recite the entire Qur'an from memory, he spoke both English fluently. He concentrated his efforts on the Qur'an and studied the Qur'anic commentaries beginning with those written in the early days of Islamic history.
Ali took a first class Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature at the University of Bombay in January 1891 aged 19 and was awarded a Presidency of Bombay Scholarship to study at the University of Cambridge in England. Ali first went to Britain in 1891 to study Law at St John's College and after graduating BA and LL. B in 1895 he returned to India in the same year with a post in the Indian Civil Service being called to the Bar in Lincoln's Inn in 1896 in absentia, he received his MA and LL. M in 1901, he married Teresa Mary Shalders at St Peter's Church in Bournemouth in 1900, with her he had three sons and a daughter: Edris Yusuf Ali, Asghar Bloy Yusuf Ali, Alban Hyder Yusuf Ali, Leila Teresa Ali. His wife and children settled variously in Tunbridge Wells, St Albans and Norwich while Ali returned to his post in India, he returned to Britain in 1905 on a two-year leave from the ICS and during this period he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and the Royal Society of Literature.
Ali first came to public attention in Britain after he gave a lecture at the Royal Society of Arts in London in 1906, organised by his mentor Sir George Birdwood. Another mentor was Lord James Meston Lieutenant Governor of the United Provinces, when he was made Finance Member of the Government of India appointed Ali to positions in various districts in India which involved two short periods as acting Under Secretary and Deputy Secretary in the Finance Department of the Government of India. Khizar Humayun Ansari, his biographer on the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, wrote of Ali: "Yusuf Ali belonged to the group of Indian Muslims from professional families who were concerned with rank and status. In pursuit of his aspiration for influence, deference, if not outright obsequiousness, became a central feature of his relationship with the British. During the formative phase of his life he mingled in upper-class circles, assiduously cultivating relations with members of the English élite.
He was impressed by the genteel behaviour and cordiality of those with whom he associated, and, as a result, became an incorrigible Anglophile. His marriage to Teresa Shalders according to the rites of the Church of England, his hosting of receptions for the good and the great, his taste for Hellenic artefacts and culture and fascination for its heroes, his admiration for freemasonry in India as a way of bridging the racial and social divide, his advocacy of the dissemination of rationalist and modernist thought through secular education were all genuine attempts to assimilate into British society." His constant travelling between India and Britain took its toll on his marriage and his wife Teresa Mary Shalders was unfaithful to him and gave birth to an illegitimate child in 1910, causing him to divorce her in 1912 and gaining custody of their four children, whom he left with a governess in England. However, his children rejected him and on future visits to London during the 1920s and 1930s he stayed at the National Liberal Club.
In 1914 Ali resigned from the ICS and settled in Britain where he became a Trustee of the Shah Jehan Mosque in Woking and in 1921 became a Trustee of the fund to build the East London Mosque. With the outbreak of World War I, unlike many Muslims in Britain who felt uncomfortable with supporting the British war effort against fellow Muslims of the Ottoman Empire, Ali was an enthusiastic supporter of the Indian contribution to the war effort, to that end writing articles, giving public speeches and undertaking a lecture tour of Scandinavia and was awarded a CBE in 1917 for his services to that cause. In the same year he joined the staff of the School of Oriental Studies as a lecturer in Hindustani, he married Gertrude Anne Mawbey in 1920, she having taken the Muslim name'Masuma' returned with him to India to escape the harassment the couple suffered from Ali's children from his first marriage, who resented him and his new wife. In his will Ali mentioned his second son Asghar Bloy Yusuf Ali who "has gone so far as to abuse, insult and persecute me from time to time."With Mawbey he had a son, but this marriage too ended in failure.
He was a respected intellectual in India and Sir Muhammad Iqbal recruited him to be the Principal of Islamia College in Lahore, serving from 1925 to 1927 and again from 1935 to 1937. He was a Fellow and syndic of the University of the Punjab and a member of the Punjab University
A manuscript was, any document, written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way. More the term has come to be understood to further include any written, typed, or word-processed copy of an author's work, as distinguished from its rendition as a printed version of the same. Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in codex format. Illuminated manuscripts are enriched with pictures, border decorations, elaborately embossed initial letters or full-page illustrations. A document should be at least 75 years old to be considered a manuscript; the traditional abbreviations are MS for manuscript and MSS for manuscripts, while the forms MS. ms or ms. for singular, MSS. mss or mss. for plural are accepted.
The second s is not the plural. Before the invention of woodblock printing in China or by moveable type in a printing press in Europe, all written documents had to be both produced and reproduced by hand. Manuscripts were produced in form of scrolls or books. Manuscripts were produced on vellum and other parchment, on papyrus, on paper. In Russia birch bark documents as old as from the 11th century have survived. In India, the palm leaf manuscript, with a distinctive long rectangular shape, was used from ancient times until the 19th century. Paper spread from China via the Islamic world to Europe by the 14th century, by the late 15th century had replaced parchment for many purposes; when Greek or Latin works were published, numerous professional copies were made by scribes in a scriptorium, each making a single copy from an original, declaimed aloud. The oldest written manuscripts have been preserved by the perfect dryness of their Middle Eastern resting places, whether placed within sarcophagi in Egyptian tombs, or reused as mummy-wrappings, discarded in the middens of Oxyrhynchus or secreted for safe-keeping in jars and buried or stored in dry caves.
Manuscripts in Tocharian languages, written on palm leaves, survived in desert burials in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. Volcanic ash preserved some of the Roman library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum; the manuscripts that were being most preserved in the libraries of antiquity are all lost. Papyrus has a life of at most a century or two in moist Italian or Greek conditions. All books were in manuscript form. In China, other parts of East Asia, woodblock printing was used for books from about the 7th century; the earliest dated example is the Diamond Sutra of 868. In the Islamic world and the West, all books were in manuscript until the introduction of movable type printing in about 1450. Manuscript copying of books continued for a least a century. Private or government documents remained hand-written until the invention of the typewriter in the late 19th century; because of the likelihood of errors being introduced each time a manuscript was copied, the filiation of different versions of the same text is a fundamental part of the study and criticism of all texts that have been transmitted in manuscript.
In Southeast Asia, in the first millennium, documents of sufficiently great importance were inscribed on soft metallic sheets such as copperplate, softened by refiner's fire and inscribed with a metal stylus. In the Philippines, for example, as early as 900AD, specimen documents were not inscribed by stylus, but were punched much like the style of today's dot-matrix printers; this type of document was rare compared to the usual leaves and bamboo staves. However, neither the leaves nor paper were as durable as the metal document in the hot, humid climate. In Burma, the kammavaca, Buddhist manuscripts, were inscribed on brass, copper or ivory sheets, on discarded monk robes folded and lacquered. In Italy some important Etruscan texts were inscribed on thin gold plates: similar sheets have been discovered in Bulgaria. Technically, these are all inscriptions rather than manuscripts; the study of the writing, or "hand" in surviving manuscripts is termed palaeography. In the Western world, from the classical period through the early centuries of the Christian era, manuscripts were written without spaces between the words, which makes them hard for the untrained to read.
Extant copies of these early manuscripts written in Greek or Latin and dating from the 4th century to the 8th century, are classified according to their use of either all upper case or all lower case letters. Hebrew manuscripts, such as the Dead Sea scrolls make no such differentiation. Manuscripts using all upper case letters are called majuscule, those using all lower case are called minuscule; the majuscule scripts such as uncial are written with much more care. The scribe lifted his pen between each stroke, producing an unmistakable effect of regularity and formality. On the other hand, while minuscule scripts can be written with pen-lift, they may be cursive, that is, use little or no pen-lift
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Al Fātiḥah is the first chapter of the Quran. Its six or seven verses are a prayer for the guidance and mercy of God; this chapter has an essential role in Islamic prayer. The primary literal meaning of the expression "al-Fātiḥah" is "The Opener," which could refer to this Surah being "the opener of the Book", to it's being the first Surah recited in full in every prayer cycle, or to the manner in which it serves as an opening for many functions in everyday Islamic life; some Muslims interpret it as a reference to an implied ability of the Surah to open a person to faith in God. The name al-Fātiḥah is due to the subject-matter of the surah. Fātiḥah is that which opens a book or any other thing. In other words, a sort of preface; the word الفاتحة came from the root word فتح which means to open, disclose, keys of treasure etc. That means; that is why we recite another sura along with Fatiha in our prayers. That is, surah Al-Fatiha is paired with the rest of the whole Quran, it is called Umm Al-Kitab and Umm Al-Quran.
When the servant says,'All praise is due to God', the Lord of existence, God says,'My servant has praised Me'.". The former view is more accepted, although some believe that it was revealed in both Mekka and Medina. In the Quran, the first revelations to Muhammad were only the first few verses of Surahs Alaq, Muzzammil, Al-Muddathir, etc. Most narrators recorded. Al-Fātiḥah is believed to be a synthesis of the Quran, it in itself is a prayer at the beginning of the Quran, which acts as a preface of the Quran and implies that the book is for a person, a seeker of truth—a reader, asking a deity, the only one worthy of all praise to guide him to a straight path. It can be said to "encapsulate all of the metaphysical and eschatological realities of which human beings must remain conscious." There are differing interpretations for verses 6 and 7. The phrase "the Path journeyed by those upon whom You showered blessings" is seen as referring to Muslims; the phrase "those who made themselves liable to criminal cognizance/arrest" is seen as referring to the Jews and the phrase "those who are the neglectful wanderers" is seen as referring to the Christians.
The Quran: An Encyclopedia, authored by 43 Muslim and non-Muslim academics says, "The Prophet interpreted those who incurred God’s wrath as the Jews and the misguided as the Christians". Australian pastor and scholar in linguistics and theology Mark Durie says, To be genuine and effective, reconciliation between Muslims and those they refer to as'People of the Book', requires that Al-Fatihah and its meaning be discussed openly; that devout Muslims are daily declaring before Allah that Christians have gone astray and Jews are objects of divine wrath, must be considered a matter of central importance for interfaith relations. This is all the more so because the interpretation of verse 7 which relates it to Christians and Jews is soundly based upon the words of Muhammad himself; as Al-Fatihah is the daily worship of Muslims, represents the essence of Islam itself, the meaning of these words cannot be ignored or glossed over. Most commentators agree the verse refers to Christians and Jews, however other commentators suggest that these verses do not refer to any particular religious community.
One hadith narrates a story of a companion of Muhammad who recited al-Fātiḥah as a remedy for a tribal chief, poisoned. According to the hadith, Muhammad asked the companion, "How did you know that it is a Ruqqayah?" Muhammad al-Bukhari recorded in his collection: Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:While we were on one of our journeys, we dismounted at a place where a slave girl came and said, "The chief of this tribe has been stung by a scorpion and our men are not present. One of our men went along with her though we did not think that he knew any such treatment, but he treated the chief by reciting something, the sick man recovered whereupon he gave him thirty sheep and gave us milk to drink. When he returned, we asked our friend, "Did you know how to treat with the recitation of something?" He said, "No, but I treated him only with the recitation of the Mother of the Book." We "Do not say anything till we reach or ask the Prophet. So when we reached Medina, we mentioned that to the Prophet; the Prophet said, "How did he come to know that it could be used for treatment?
Distribute your reward and assign for me one share thereof as well." Similar versions are found in: Al-Bukhari: 007.071.645—medicine.
Peter the Venerable
Peter the Venerable known as Peter of Montboissier, abbot of the Benedictine abbey of Cluny, was born to Blessed Raingarde in Auvergne, France. He has never been formally canonized; the Catholic Church's Martyrologium Romanum, issued by the Holy See in 2004 regards him as a Blessed. Peter was "Dedicated to God" at birth and given to the monastery at Sauxillanges of the Congregation of Cluny, he took his vows there at age seventeen, swiftly rising in esteem and becoming professor and prior of the monastery of Vézelay at only twenty years of age. He went to the monastery at Domène, he was so successful in the fulfillment of his duties at Vézelay and Domène that, by the age of thirty, he was elected general of the order. Peter was a tireless advocate of reform within his order, in dire need of reconstruction after the deposing of the previous abbot, Pontius, by the pope; the Congregation of Cluny was under attack by other orders and prominent monks and theologians, including St. Bernard of Clairvaux, a Cistercian monk.
Defending his order against these attacks and reforming it, Peter earned the appellation of "venerable". Peter became a popular international figure and an associate of many national and religious leaders of his day, he attended many of the important religious councils of his generation, including the Council of Pisa in 1134, where he helped to avert a potential schism in the Church by supporting the cause of Pope Innocent II, the Council of Reims in 1147. In addition, he defended French theologian Peter Abelard after the latter’s rationalistic Trinitarian interpretation had been condemned by the Council of Sens, he granted Abelard hospitality at Cluny and worked to mitigate the sentence of the council reconciling Abelard with his principal condemner, St. Bernard of Clairvaux. After Abelard's death, Peter granted him absolution from his sins, at the personal request of Heloise. Peter is well known for collecting sources on and writing about Islam and as the author of vast amounts of correspondence, reflecting his encyclopedic knowledge of theological questions.
His writings are counted as some of the most important documents of the 12th century. He took a long sabbatical journey to Spain to study with Islamic scholars of all ranks and published the first Latin edition of the Koran, his Talmudic contributions are tenuous and still under scrutiny. Peter's true brilliance came to light between 1138-1142 after his translation of the Koran became required reading to the entire Benedictine world and for all preachers of the crusades. Peter corresponded with Bishop Henry of Blois of Winchester and Glastonbury who became one of his closest friends and confidants. Peter was well known for his ability to win debates; the internecine truce between Peter and Bernard of Clairvaux must be seen as superficial in light of recent scholarship detailing the repressivness of Bernard's Cistercians toward the Cluniacs. Peter the Venerable died at Cluny on 25 December 1156, his works are edited in Patrologia Latina vol. 189. Despite his active life and important role in European history, Peter's greatest achievement is his contribution to the reappraisal of the Church’s relations with the religion of Islam.
A proponent of studying Islam based upon its own sources, he commissioned a comprehensive translation of Islamic source material, in 1142 he traveled to Spain where he met his translators. One scholar has described this as a “momentous event in the intellectual history of Europe.”The Arabic manuscripts which Peter had translated may have been obtained in Toledo, an important centre for translation from the Arabic. However, Peter appears to have met his team of translators further north in La Rioja, where he is known to have visited the Cluniac monastery of Santa María la Real of Nájera; the project translated a number of texts relating to Islam. They include the Apology of al-Kindi. Peter of Toledo is credited for planning and annotating the collection, Peter of Poitiers helped to polish the final Latin version; the team included Robert of Ketton's friend Herman of Carinthia and a Muslim called Mohammed. The translation was completed in either June or July 1143, in what has been described as “a landmark in Islamic Studies.
With this translation, the West had for the first time an instrument for the serious study of Islam.”Peter used the newly translated material in his own writings on Islam, of which the most important are the Summa totius heresis Saracenorum and the Liber contra sectam sive heresim Saracenorum. In these works Peter portrays Islam as a Christian heresy that approaches paganism, he explains to St. Bernard that his goal is "ut morem illum patrum sequerer, quo nullam unquam suorum temporum vel levissimam haeresim silendo praeterirent, quin ei totis fidei viribus resisterent et scriptis ac disputationibus esse detestandam ac damnabilem demonstrarent." That is, "that I may follow the custom of those Fathers, who passed over no heresy in silence even the lightest, but rather resisted it with all the strength of their faith, showed it, through writings and arguments, to be detestable and damnable." While his interpretation of Islam was negative, it did manage in “setting out a more reasoned approach to Islam…through using its own sources rather than those produced by the
The Western world known as the West, refers to various nations depending on the context, most including at least part of Europe and the Americas, with the status of Latin America in dispute. There are many accepted definitions, all interrelated; the Western world is known as the Occident, in contrast to the Orient, or Eastern world. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome are considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization: the former due to its impact on philosophy, democracy and art, building designs and proportions, architecture. Western civilization is founded upon Christianity, in turn shaped by Hellenistic philosophy and Roman culture; the ancient Hellenes had been affected by ancient Near East civilizations, including Judaism and Early Christianity. In the modern era, Western culture has been influenced by the Renaissance, the Ages of Discovery and Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolutions. Through extensive imperialism and Christianization by Western powers in the 15th to 20th centuries, much of the rest of the world has been influenced by Western culture.
The concept of the Western part of the earth has its roots in the theological and emphatical division between the Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches. West was literal, opposing Catholic Europe with the cultures and civilizations of Orthodox Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the remote Far East, which early-modern Europeans saw as the East. By the mid-20th century. Worldwide export of Western culture went through the new mass media: film and television and recorded music, while the development and growth of international transport and telecommunication played a decisive role in modern globalization. In modern usage, Western world sometimes refers to Europe and to areas whose populations originate from Europe, through the Age of Discovery. Western culture was influenced by many older great civilizations of the ancient Near East, such as Phoenicia, Ancient Israel, Minoan Crete, Sumer and Ancient Egypt, it originated in its vicinity.
Over time, their associated empires grew first to the east and west to include the rest of Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal areas and absorbing. They expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western and Southeastern Europe. Christianization of Ireland, Christianization of Bulgaria, Christianization of Kievan Rus', Christianization of Scandinavia and Christianization of Lithuania brought the rest of present-day European territory into Western civilization. Historians, such as Carroll Quigley in "The Evolution of Civilizations", contend that Western civilization was born around AD 500, after the total collapse of the Western Roman Empire, leaving a vacuum for new ideas to flourish that were impossible in Classical societies. In either view, between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Renaissance, the West experienced a period of first, considerable decline, readaptation and considerable renewed material and political development; this whole period of a millennium is known as the Middle Ages, its early part forming the "Dark Ages", designations that were created during the Renaissance and reflect the perspective on history, the self-image, of the latter period.
The knowledge of the ancient Western world was preserved during this period due to the survival of the Eastern Roman Empire and the introduction of the Catholic Church. Since the Renaissance, the West evolved beyond the influence of the ancient Greeks and Romans and the Islamic world, due to the successful Second Agricultural, Commercial and Industrial revolutions peaked with the 18th century's Age of enlightenment, through the Age of exploration's expansion of peoples of Western and Central European empires the globe-spanning colonial empires of 18th and 19th centuries. Numerous times, this expansion was accompanied by Catholic missionaries, who attempted to proselytize Christianity. There is debate among some as to. Whether Russia should be categorized as "East" or "West" has been "an ongoing discussion" for centuries; the term "Western culture" is used broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, specific artifacts and technologies.
Western culture may imply: a Biblical Christian cultural influence in spiritual thinking and either ethic or moral traditions, around the Post-Classical Era and after. European cultural influences concerning artistic, folkloric and oral traditions, whose themes have been further developed by Romanticism. A Graeco-Roman Classical and Renaissance cultural influence, concerning artistic, philosophic and legal themes and traditions, the cultural social effec
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others. Thus "religious conversion" would describe the abandoning of adherence to one denomination and affiliating with another; this might be from one to another denomination within the same religion, for example, from Baptist to Catholic Christianity or from Shi’a to Sunni Islam. In some cases, religious conversion "marks a transformation of religious identity and is symbolized by special rituals". People convert to a different religion for various reasons, including active conversion by free choice due to a change in beliefs, secondary conversion, deathbed conversion, conversion for convenience, marital conversion, forced conversion. Conversion or reaffiliation for convenience is an insincere act, sometimes for trivial reasons such as a parent converting to enable a child to be admitted to a good school associated with a religion, or a person adopting a religion more in keeping with the social class they aspire to.
When people marry, one spouse may convert to the religion of the other. Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion under duress; the convert may secretly retain the previous beliefs and continue, with the practices of the original religion, while outwardly maintaining the forms of the new religion. Over generations a family forced against their will to convert may wholeheartedly adopt the new religion. Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert by persuasion another individual from a different religion or belief system.. Apostate is a term used by members of a religion or denomination to refer to someone who has left that religion or denomination. In sharing their faith with others, Bahá'ís are cautioned to "obtain a hearing" – meaning to make sure the person they are proposing to teach is open to hearing what they have to say. "Bahá'í pioneers", rather than attempting to supplant the cultural underpinnings of the people in their adopted communities, are encouraged to integrate into the society and apply Bahá'í principles in living and working with their neighbors.
Bahá'ís recognize the divine origins of all revealed religion, believe that these religions occurred sequentially as part of a divine plan, with each new revelation superseding and fulfilling that of its predecessors. Bahá'ís regard their own faith as the most recent, believe its teachings – which are centered around the principle of the oneness of humanity – are most suited to meeting the needs of a global community. In most countries conversion is a simple matter of filling out a card stating a declaration of belief; this includes acknowledgement of Bahá'u'llah – the Founder of the Faith – as the Messenger of God for this age and acceptance of his teachings, intention to be obedient to the institutions and laws he established. Conversion to the Bahá'í Faith carries with it an explicit belief in the common foundation of all revealed religion, a commitment to the unity of mankind, active service to the community at large in areas that will foster unity and concord. Since the Bahá'í Faith has no clergy, converts are encouraged to be active in all aspects of community life.
A recent convert may be elected to serve on a local Spiritual Assembly – the guiding Bahá'í institution at the community level. Within Christianity conversion refers variously to three different phenomena: a person becoming Christian, not Christian. Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a non-Christian person to some form of Christianity; some Christian sects require full conversion for new members regardless of any history in other Christian sects, or from certain other sects. The exact requirements vary between different denominations. Baptism is traditionally seen as a sacrament of admission to Christianity. Christian baptism has some parallels with Jewish immersion by mikvah. In the New Testament, Jesus commanded his disciples in the Great Commission to "go and make disciples of all nations". Evangelization—sharing the Gospel message or "Good News" in deed and word, is an expectation of Christians; this table summarizes three Protestant beliefs. Much of the theology of Latter Day Saint baptism was established during the early Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith.
According to this theology, baptism must be by immersion, for the remission of sins, occurs after one has shown faith and repentance. Mormon baptism does not purport to remit any sins other than personal ones, as adherents do not believe in original sin. Latter Day Saints baptisms occur only after an "age of accountability", defined as the age of eight years; the theology thus rejects infant baptism. In addition, Latter Day Saint theology requires that baptism may only be performed with one, called and ordained by God with priesthood authority; because the churches of the Latter Day Saint movement operate under a lay priesthood, children raised in a Mormon family are baptized by a father or close male friend or family member who has achieved the office of priest, conferred upon worthy male members at least 16 years old in the LDS Church. Baptism is seen as symbolic both of Jesus' death and resurrection and is symbolic of the baptized individual putting off of the natural or sinful man and becoming spiritually reborn as a disciple of Jesus.
Membership into a Latter Day Saint church is granted only by baptism whether or