Lyrics are words that make up a song consisting of verses and choruses. The writer of lyrics is a lyricist; the words to an extended musical composition such as an opera are, however known as a "libretto" and their writer, as a "librettist". The meaning of lyrics can either be implicit; some lyrics are abstract unintelligible, and, in such cases, their explication emphasizes form, articulation and symmetry of expression. Rappers can create lyrics that are meant to be spoken rhythmically rather than sung. "Lyric" derives via Latin lyricus from the adjectival form of lyre. It first appeared in English in the mid-16th century in reference, to the Earl of Surrey's translations of Petrarch and to his own sonnets. Greek lyric poetry had been defined by the manner in which it was sung accompanied by the lyre or cithara, as opposed to the chanted formal epics or the more passionate elegies accompanied by the flute; the personal nature of many of the verses of the Nine Lyric Poets led to the present sense of "lyric poetry" but the original Greek sense—words set to music—eventually led to its use as "lyrics", first attested in Stainer and Barrett's 1876 Dictionary of Musical Terms.
Stainer and Barrett used the word as a singular substantive: "Lyric, poetry or blank verse intended to be set to music and sung". By the 1930s, the present use of the plurale tantum "lyrics" had begun; the singular form "lyric" is still used to mean the complete words to a song by authorities such as Alec Wilder, Robert Gottlieb, Stephen Sondheim. However, the singular form is commonly used to refer to a specific line within a song's lyrics; the differences between poem and song may become less meaningful where verse is set to music, to the point that any distinction becomes untenable. This is recognised in the way popular songs have lyrics. However, the verse may pre-date its tune, or the tune may be lost over time but the words survive, matched by a number of different tunes. Possible classifications proliferate. Nursery rhymes may be songs, or doggerel: the term doesn't imply a distinction; the ghazal is a sung form, considered poetic. See rapping, roots of hip hop music. Analogously, verse drama might be judged as poetry, but not consisting of poems.
In Baroque music and their lyrics were prose. Rather than paired lines they consist of rhetorical sentences or paragraphs consisting of an opening gesture, an amplification, a close. For example: When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child. - 1 Corinthians 13:11 In the lyrics of popular music a "shifter" is a word a pronoun, "where reference varies according to, speaking and where", such as "I", "you", "my", "our". For example, the "my" of "My Generation"? See RoyaltiesCurrently, there are many websites featuring song lyrics; this offering, however, is controversial, since some sites include copyrighted lyrics offered without the holder's permission. The U. S. Music Publishers' Association, which represents sheet music companies, launched a legal campaign against such websites in December 2005; the MPA's president, Lauren Keiser, said the free lyrics web sites are "completely illegal" and wanted some website operators jailed. Lyrics licenses could be obtained worldwide through one of the two aggregators: LyricFind and Musixmatch.
The first company to provide licensed lyrics was Yahoo! followed by MetroLyrics and Lyrics.com. More and more lyric websites are beginning to provide licensed lyrics, such as SongMeanings and LyricWiki. Many competing lyrics web sites are still offering unlicensed content, causing challenges around the legality and accuracy of lyrics. In the latest attempt to crack down unlicensed lyrics web sites a federal court has ordered LiveUniverse, a network of websites run by MySpace co-founder Brad Greenspan, to cease operating four sites offering unlicensed song lyrics. Lyrics can be studied from an academic perspective. For example, some lyrics can be considered a form of social commentary. Lyrics contain political and economic themes—as well as aesthetic elements—and so can communicate culturally significant messages; these messages implied through metaphor or symbolism. Lyrics can be analyzed with respect to the sense of unity it has with its supporting music. Analysis based on tonality and contrast are particular examples.
Former Oxford Professor of Poetry Christopher Ricks famously published Dylan's Visions of Sin, an in-depth and characteristically Ricksian analysis of the lyrics of Bob Dylan. A 2009 report published by McAfee found that, in terms of potential exposure to malware, lyrics-related searches and searches containing the word "free" are the most to have risky results from search engines, both in terms of average risk of all results, maximum risk o
A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, other sounds. They range in size from a small in-home project studio large enough to record a single singer-guitarist, to a large building with space for a full orchestra of 100 or more musicians. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties. Recording studios may be used to record singers, instrumental musicians, voice-over artists for advertisements or dialogue replacement in film, television, or animation, foley, or to record their accompanying musical soundtracks; the typical recording studio consists of a room called the "studio" or "live room" equipped with microphones and mic stands, where instrumentalists and vocalists perform. The engineers and producers listen to the live music and the recorded "tracks" on high-quality monitor speakers or headphones.
There will be smaller rooms called "isolation booths" to accommodate loud instruments such as drums or electric guitar amplifiers and speakers, to keep these sounds from being audible to the microphones that are capturing the sounds from other instruments or voices, or to provide "drier" rooms for recording vocals or quieter acoustic instruments such as an acoustic guitar a or fiddle. Major recording studios have a range of large and hard-to-transport instruments and music equipment in the studio, such as a grand piano, Hammond organ, electric piano. Recording studios consist of three or more rooms: The "live room" of the studio where the vocalists sing and instrumentalists play their instruments, with their singing and playing picked up by microphones and, for electric and electronic instruments, by connecting the instruments' outputs or DI unit outputs to the mixing board. Isolation booths are small sound-insulated rooms with doors, designed for instrumentalists. Vocal booths are designed rooms for singers.
In both types of rooms, there are windows so the performers can see other band members and the audio engineer/record producer, as singers and musicians give or receive visual cues. This equipment may make noise. Recording studios are designed around the principles of room acoustics to create a set of spaces with the acoustical properties required for recording sound with precision and accuracy; this will consist of both room treatment and soundproofing to prevent sound from leaving the property. A recording studio has to be soundproofed on its outer shell as well, to prevent noises from the surrounding streets and roads from being picked up by microphones. A recording studio may include additional rooms, such as a vocal booth—a small room designed for voice recording, as well as one or more extra isolation booths for loud guitar stacks and extra control rooms. Though sound isolation is a key goal, the musicians, audio engineers and record producers still need to be able to see each other, to see cue gestures and conducting by a bandleader.
As such, the "live room", isolation booths, vocal booths and control room have windows. Equipment found in a recording studio includes: A large professional-grade mixing console Additional small mixing consoles with 4, 8 or 16 channels, for adding more channels A large number of preamplifiers for microphones, such as the Neve 1272 and Neve 3104 Multitrack recorder Computers A wide selection of microphones. Studios have Neuman Tube mics, AKG tube mics, RCA ribbon mics, a number of Shure SM 57 and SM 58 mics. A large number of DI unit boxes Two or more record players Syncs A wide variety of microphone stands (boom stands, straigh
D. J. Bonebrake
Donald J. Bonebrake is an American musician from California who first emerged as the drummer of the punk rock band the Eyes, he is best known as an original member of and drummer for punk band X, of which he is still an active member. Bonebrake is the only founding member of X from California, having grown up in the San Fernando Valley. Bonebrake performed with two of the band's side projects: the country/folk music/punk band the Knitters, Auntie Christ. While a member of X, Bonebrake guested as the drummer for the Germs, during 1981, he and Doe served as members of the Flesh Eaters, performing on that band's second album, A Minute to Pray, a Second to Die. In 2010, Bonebrake joined. In 2013, Bonebrake joined; the band released an album, Love Songs for eX's, toured with the Meat Puppets. Although most of his work has been within the punk genre, Bonebrake heads two jazz ensembles: the Bonebrake Syncopators, who play classical jazz, the Afro-Cuban and Latin-inspired Orchestra Superstring. Bonebrake has performed as timpanist with the Palisades Symphony.
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939, he was involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler was raised near Linz, he moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda, he denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France, his first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe, his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, shortly after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, Hitler declared war on the United States, bringing it directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen or undesirable.
Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history. Hitler's father Alois; the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father. Alois assumed the surname "Hitler" spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler; the name is based on "one who lives in a hut". Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.
No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire, he was christened as "Adolphus Hitler". He was the fourth of six children born to his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Three of Hitler's siblings—Gustav and Otto—died in infancy. Living in the household were Alois's children from his second marriage: Alois Jr. and Angela. When Hitler was three, the family moved to Germany. There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech throughout his life; the family returned to Austria and settled in Leonding in 1894, in June 1895 Alois retired to Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-owned primary schoo
Yes are an English progressive rock band formed in London in 1968 by singer Jon Anderson, bassist Chris Squire, guitarist Peter Banks, keyboardist Tony Kaye, drummer Bill Bruford. The band has undergone numerous formations throughout its history. Since June 2015, it has consisted of guitarist Steve Howe, drummer Alan White, keyboardist Geoff Downes, singer Jon Davison, bassist Billy Sherwood, with no remaining founding members. Yes have explored several musical styles over the years, are most notably regarded as progressive rock pioneers. Yes began in 1968, performing original songs and rearranged covers of rock, pop and jazz songs, as evident on their first two albums. A change of direction in 1970 led to a series of successful progressive rock albums until their disbanding in 1981, their most successful being The Yes Album and Close to the Edge. Yes toured as a major rock act that earned the band a reputation for their elaborate stage sets, light displays, album covers designed by Roger Dean.
The success of "Roundabout", the single from Fragile, cemented their popularity across the decade and beyond. In 1983, Yes reformed with a new line-up that included Trevor Rabin and a more commercial and pop-oriented musical direction; the result was 90125, their highest-selling album, which contained the U. S. number-one single, "Owner of a Lonely Heart". From 1990 to 1992, Yes were an eight-member formation after they merged with Anderson Bruford Wakeman Howe for Union and its tour. Since 1994, Yes have released albums with varied levels of success and completed tours from 1994 to 2004. After a four-year hiatus, they continue to release albums. In 2016, a new group of former Yes members began touring and named themselves Yes Featuring Jon Anderson, Trevor Rabin, Rick Wakeman. Yes are one of the most successful and longest-lasting progressive rock bands, they have sold 13.5 million RIAA-certified albums in the US. In 1985, they won a Grammy Award for Best Rock Instrumental Performance with "Cinema", received five Grammy nominations between 1985 and 1992.
They were ranked No. 94 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. Yes have headlined annual progressive rock-themed cruises since 2013 named Cruise to the Edge, their discography spans 21 studio albums. In April 2017, Yes were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, which chose to bestow the honour upon current and former members Anderson, Bruford, Howe, Rick Wakeman and Rabin. In 1967, bassist Chris Squire formed the rock band Mabel Greer's Toyshop, with singer and guitarist Clive Bayley, drummer Bob Hagger, guitarist Peter Banks, they played at the Marquee Club in Soho, London where Jack Barrie, owner of the nearby La Chasse club, saw them perform. "There was nothing outstanding about them", he recalled, "the musicianship was good but it was obvious they weren't going anywhere". Barrie introduced Squire to singer Jon Anderson, a worker at the bar in La Chasse, who found they shared interests in Simon & Garfunkel and harmony singing; that evening at Squire's house they wrote "Sweetness,", included on the first Yes album.
Meanwhile, Banks had left Mabel Greer's Toyshop to join Neat Change, but he was dismissed by this group on 7 April 1968. In June 1968, Hagger was replaced in the nascent Yes by Bill Bruford, who had placed an advertisement in Melody Maker, Banks was recalled by Squire, replacing Bayley as guitarist; the classically trained organist and pianist Tony Kaye, of Johnny Taylor's Star Combo and the Federals, became the keyboardist and the fifth member. The newborn band rehearsed in the basement of The Lucky Horseshoe cafe on Shaftesbury Avenue between 10 June and 9 July 1968. Anderson suggested. Squire suggested. Banks responded "yes", and, how the band were named; the first gig under the new brand followed at a youth camp in East Mersea, Essex on 4 August 1968. Early sets were formed of cover songs from artists such as the Beatles, the 5th Dimension and Traffic. On 16 September, Yes performed at Blaise's club in London as a substitute for Sly and the Family Stone, who failed to turn up, they were well received by the audience, including the host Roy Flynn, who became the band's manager that night.
That month, Bruford decided to quit performing to study at the University of Leeds. His replacement, Tony O'Reilly of the Koobas, struggled to perform with the rest of the group on-stage. After Bruford was refused a year's sabbatical leave from Leeds and Squire convinced him to return for Yes's supporting slot for Cream's farewell concert at the Royal Albert Hall on 26 November. After seeing an early King Crimson gig in 1969, Yes realised that there was stiff competition on the London gigging circuit, they needed to be much more technically proficient, starting regular rehearsals, they subsequently signed a deal with Atlantic Records, that August, released their debut album Yes. Compiled of original material, the record includes renditions of "Every Little Thing" by the Beatles and "I See You" by the Byrds. Although the album failed to break into the UK album charts, Rolling Stone critic Lester Bangs complimented the album's "sense of style and subtlety". Melody Maker columnist Tony Wilson chose Yes and Led Zeppelin as the two bands "most to succeed".
Following a tour of Scandinavia with the Small Faces, Yes performed a solo concert at the Queen Elizabeth Hall on 21 March 1970. The second half consisted of excerpts from their second album Time and a Word, accompanied by a 20-piece youth orchestra. Banks left the group in May, two months before the a